appendix in a paper example

Easy Guide on How to Write an Appendix in 2023

appendix in a paper example

Understanding What Is an Appendix

Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.

Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in comprehending the information presented. It is important to note that different professors may have varying guidelines on how to write an appendix. To learn more about how to write an appendix for a research paper according to APA, Chicago, and MLA styles, check out the following paragraphs prepared by our PRO nursing essay writing service !

Meanwhile, note that an appendix comprises all the information utilized in a paper, including references and statistics from several authors and sources (the number varies according to the type of academic paper). The purpose of the appendix is to prevent vague or irrelevant information and improve the reader's understanding of the paper.

The Purpose of an Appendix

To understand what an appendix tries to accomplish and how to write an appendix example, after all, we must first answer the key question, 'What is the purpose of an appendix?'. In short, an appendix is crucial for further explaining complex information that may be difficult to fully convey within the main text of an essay. It is intended to offer readers additional information about the topic addressed in the paper.

The material presented in an appendix has the potential to bolster the argument and sway the reader's opinion. Nonetheless, you should try to incorporate supporting material and examples toward the end of the paper to avoid disrupting the flow of the main text. Furthermore, the likelihood of including an appendix increases as a paper becomes more advanced. The use of an appendix is especially prevalent in the academic writing of a research document and journal-style scientific paper, in which extra information is usually needed to support a main point of view.

How to Structure an Appendix

While there are variations between formats, each one follows a basic structure. Thus, understanding the general structure is an essential first step in learning about this topic. No matter if you're tasked with 'how to write an appendix MLA or APA style?' - remember that both adhere to this structure, despite their differences:

How to Structure an Appendix

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Every Appendix Should Contain:

  • A clear title: The title of the appendix should be concise and descriptive, clearly indicating what information is contained within it. For example, 'Appendix A: Data Tables for Study Results or 'Appendix B: Images of Experimental Setup.'
  • A list of contents: Including a table of contents in the appendix can be helpful for readers to navigate the information provided. For example:

Table of Contents:

A. Data Tables for Study Results

B. Images of Experimental Setup

C. Survey Questions and Responses

D. Sample Interview Transcripts

  • Page numbers: The appendix should be a separate page, independently numbered from the main body of the paper, and specified uniformly (e.g., 'Appendix A,' 'Appendix B,' etc.). For example:

Page 1 of 5

  • Relevant information: The appendix should contain all the relevant information supporting the main arguments of the document, including tables of data, raw statistical data, charts, or other documents. For example:

Figure 1: Experimental Results

[insert graph or chart here]

  • Proper formatting: The appendix should be formatted in accordance with the specific requirements of the chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). For example:

Appendix B: Survey Questions and Responses

[insert survey questions and responses here, formatted following APA style guidelines]

  • Clear labeling: Each element should have a clear appendix label so readers can easily understand its relevance to the paper. For example:

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Survey Respondents

  • Concise explanation: It is important to provide short detailed descriptions of each element in the Appendix so that readers can understand its importance. For example:

Appendix C: Sample Interview Transcripts

Transcripts of the three interviews with the study participants shall be included for reference. These interviews provide further insights into the experiences of participants and their views on the subject addressed in this document.

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General Appendix Format

To ensure proper formatting, it is important to understand the basics of how to structure an appendix. Although it may seem overwhelming, the basic format is relatively easy to comprehend and serves as a foundation for understanding the APA and MLA formats. Additionally, mastering the basic format can be helpful when writing an appendix for a book or dissertation.

General Appendix Format

  • Heading “Appendix #” . Contains a number or letter, that could be 1 or A.
  • Reference List.
  • Index Table followed a list of appendices.
  • Page Number.

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How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles

There are two distinct styles for creating an appendix, and it's important to familiarize yourself with both since a professor may request one or the other. Our expert writers have compiled guidelines and rules for both formats - the Appendix APA format and the Appendix MLA format. Although they share some similarities, they also have unique features and regulations that must be strictly followed.

Appendix APA

Many professors require students to write an appendix in a paper of this format. To master how to write an appendix APA format and get the structure correct, it's a good idea to follow these guidelines and rules:

The guidelines for Appendix APA:

  • The appendix begins with the heading 'Appendix' followed by ABC.
  • It should also be written on top of the appendix title.
  • Every appendix follows the order of the stated information in the paper.
  • Include the appendix after the reference list.
  • Include page numbers for each appendix.
  • Appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Include Footnotes.

The general rules for Appendix APA are to be followed when writing. This is what professors look for when a paper is required when apprentices are to be written in this format. Learn the general rules to master how to write an appendix APA style and get you onto the right path to success. You may find it useful to memorize this information or keep a note of it.

Rules for APA:

  • All appendices should include their own point.
  • Include a title for each appendix.
  • For multiple appendices, use ABC for tilting them.
  • For reference within the body, include (see appendix a) after the text.
  • The title should be centered.
  • All appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Paragraph One should be written without indents.
  • The rest of the paragraphs should have the intended formatting.
  • Include double spacing.

Whether you're tackling how to write an interview paper in APA appendix or any other type of academic work, the following example can serve as a valuable blueprint to guide you through the process.

Appendix Chicago Style

Writing an appendix Chicago style is rather similar to APA. Though, there are some minor differences. Take a look at these guidelines for this form of an appendix.

Guidelines for an Appendix Chicago Style

  • More than one appendix is described as appendices.
  • The font required for the appendix Chicago style is Times New Roman.
  • The text size should be 12 points.
  • The page numbers should be displayed on the top right of each page.
  • The page numbers should also be labeled as 'Page 1,2,3'.
  • Avoid including a page number on the front cover.
  • The bibliography should be the final new page. It should not share a page with any other content.
  • It is possible to include footnotes in the bibliography.

To better comprehend how to write an appendix in Chicago style, glance through the example below:

Appendix MLA Format

The guidelines and regulations for creating an appendix in MLA format are largely similar to those in APA format. However, there are some differences between the two, the most notable being that the MLA appendix is placed before the reference list.

The guidelines for MLA Format:

  • The appendix is included before the list of references.

It may be useful to follow the example of an appendix to better understand how to write an appendix in MLA style. Doing so can increase the chances of getting a grasp of the MLA rules to fulfill the requirements of your professor on your academic paper.

Rules for MLA

  • The title is to be centered.
  • The list should be double-spaced.
  • The first line should include each reference in the left margin. Every subsequent line is to be formatted so it's invented. This can be referred to as 'hanging indent' to make things easier.
  • The reference list must be in alphabetical order. This can be done with the first letter of the title of the reference. Though, this is usually done if the writer is unknown. If the writer is known, you can also use the first letter of the surname.
  • If you include the name of the known writer, use this order. SURNAME, FIRST NAME, YEAR.
  • Italic fonts are required for the titles of complete writings, internet sites, books, and recordings.
  • It is important not to use an italic font on reference titles that only refer to the part of a source. This includes poetry, short papers, tabloids, sections of a PDF, and scholarly entries.

Before we conclude, let's dive deeper into the world of appendix writing by exploring an example of how to write an appendix MLA style.

Let's wrap this up! It's safe to say that following the APA, Chicago, and MLA formats is crucial when crafting an appendix. As we've seen, starting with an APA appendix example can help ease you in mastering how to write an appendix of paper. Once you have a handle on the precise formats and guidelines, creating an appendix becomes a piece of cake. Also, memorizing the format can help you whip up accurate appendices for any type of paper, whether an essay or a dissertation. Trust us, mastering this topic is a must if you want to excel in knowing how to write an appendix in a report or any other academic work.

Moreover, if you ever find yourself in need of additional academic assistance, be sure to check out our resources on how to write an article review . Or, better yet, why not let us handle your most challenging tasks with ease by simply sending us a ' write my paper request? We are here to support you every step of the way.

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Footnotes & Appendices 

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APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document. Should additional clarification be necessary, it is always recommended that writers reach out to the individual overseeing their work (i.e., instructor, editor, etc.). For your convenience, a student sample paper is included below; please note the document is filled with  Lorem Ipsum  placeholder text and references to footnotes and appendices are highighlighted. Additional marginal notes also further explain specific portions of the example. 


Footnotes are supplementary details printed at the bottom of the page pertaining to a paper’s content or copyright information. This supporting text can be utilized in any type of APA paper to support the body paragraphs.

Content-Based Footnotes

Utilizing footnotes to provide supplementary detail can enrich the body text and reinforce the main argument of the paper. Footnotes may also direct readers to an alternate source for more detail on a topic. Though content footnotes can be useful in providing additional context, it is detrimental to include tangential or convoluted information. Footnotes should detail a focused subject; lengthier sections of text are better suited for the body paragraphs.

Acknowledging Copyright

When citing long quotations, images, tables, data, or commercially published questionnaires in-text, it is important to credit the copyright information in a footnote. Functioning much like an in-text citation, a footnote copyright attribution provides credit to the original source and must also be included in a reference list. A copyright citation is needed for both direct reprinting as well as adaptations of content, and these may require express permission from the copyright owner.

Formatting Footnotes

Each footnote and its corresponding in-text callout should be formatted in numerical order of appearance utilizing superscript. As demonstrated in the example below, the superscripted numerals should follow all punctuation with the exception of dashes and parentheses.

For example: 

Footnote callouts should not be placed in headings and do not require a space between the callout and superscripted number. When reintroducing a footnote that has previously been called out, refrain from replicating the callout or footnote itself; rather, format such reference as “see Footnote 4”, for example. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page on which the corresponding callout is referenced. Alternatively, a footnotes page could be created to follow the reference page. When formatting footnotes in the latter manner, center and bold the label “Footnotes” then record each footnote as a double-spaced and indented paragraph. Place the corresponding superscripted number in front of each footnote and separate the numeral from the following text with a single space.

Formatting Copyright Information

To provide credit for images, tables, or figures pulled from an outside source, include the accreditation statement at the end of the note for the visual. Copyright acknowledgements for long quotations or questionnaires should simply be placed in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

When formatting a copyright accreditation, utilize the following format:

  • Establish if the content was reprinted or adapted by using language such as “from” for directly copied material or “adapted from” for material that has been modified
  • Include the content’s title, author, year of publication, and source
  • Cite the copyright holder and year of copyright or indicate that the source is public domain or licensed under Creative Commons
  • If express permission was required to reprint the material, include a statement indicating that permission was acquired


When introducing supplementary content that may not fit within the body of a paper, an appendix can be included to help readers better understand the material without distracting from the text itself. Primarily used to introduce research materials, specific details of a study, or participant demographics, appendices are generally concise and only incorporate relevant content. Much like with footnotes, appendices may require an acknowledgement of copyright and, if data is cited, an adherence to the privacy policies that protect participant identities.

Formatting Appendices

An appendix should be created on its own individual page labelled “Appendix” and followed by a title on the next line that describes the subject of the appendix. These headings should be centered and bolded at the top of the page and written in title case. If there are multiple appendices, each should be labelled with a capital letter and referenced in-text by its specific title (for example, “see Appendix B”). All appendices should follow references, footnotes, and any tables or figures included at the end of the document.

Text Appendices 

Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears. For example, a table labelled “Table B1” would be the first table in Appendix B. If there is only one appendix in the document, the visuals should still be labelled with the letter A and a number to differentiate them from those contained in the paper itself (for example, “Figure A3” is the third figure in the singular appendix, which is not labelled with a letter in the heading). 

Table or Figure Appendices 

When an appendix solely contains a table or figure, the title of the figure or table should be substituted with the title of the appendix. For example, if Appendix B only includes a figure, the figure should be labelled “Appendix B” rather than “Figure B1”, as it would be named if there were multiple figures included.

If an appendix does not contain text but includes numerous figures or table, the appendix should be formatted like a text appendix. The appendix would receive a name and label, and each figure or table would be given a corresponding letter and number. For example, if Appendix C contains two tables and one figure, these visuals would be labelled “Table C1”, “Table C2”, and “Figure C1” respectively.

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How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples

Published on October 16, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 9, 2022.

An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn’t fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is “appendices.”

In an APA Style paper, appendices are placed at the very end, after the reference list .

Location of appendices

Table of contents

Do i need an appendix, appendix format example, organizing and labeling your appendices, frequently asked questions.

You don’t always need to include any appendices. An appendix should present information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to the argument of your paper . Essential information is included in the main text.

For example, you might include some of the following in an appendix:

  • Full transcripts of interviews you conducted (which you can quote from in the main text)
  • Documents used in your research, such as questionnaires , instructions, tests, or scales
  • Detailed statistical data (often presented in tables or figures )
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment used

You should refer to each appendix at least once in the main text. If you don’t refer to any information from an appendix, it should not be included.

When you discuss information that can be found in an appendix, state this the first time you refer to it:

Note that, if you refer to the same interviews again, it’s not necessary to mention the appendix each time.

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The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered.

The text is presented in general APA format : left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.

The example image below shows how to format an APA Style appendix.

Example of an appendix in APA format

If you include just one appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in-text:

When more than one appendix is included, they are labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

Present and label your appendices in the order they are referred to in the main text.

Labeling tables and figures in appendices

An appendix may include (or consist entirely of) tables and/or figures . Present these according to the same formatting rules as in the main text.

Tables and figures included in appendices are labeled differently, however. Use the appendix’s letter in addition to a number. Tables and figures are still numbered separately and according to the order they’re referred to in the appendix.

For example, in Appendix A, your tables are Table A1, Table A2, etc; your figures are Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.

The numbering restarts with each appendix: For example, the first table in Appendix B is Table B1; the first figure in Appendix C is Figure C1; and so on. If you only have one appendix, use A1, A2, etc.

If you want to refer specifically to a table or figure from an appendix in the main text, use the table or figure’s label (e.g. “see Table A3”).

If an appendix consists entirely of a single table or figure, simply use the appendix label to refer to the table or figure. For example, if Appendix C is just a table, refer to the table as “Appendix C,” and don’t add an additional label or title for the table itself.

An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:

  • Interview transcripts
  • Questionnaires
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment

Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.

Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.

When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.

Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.

Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.

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How to Write an Appendix: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

how to write an appendix

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While composing your work, you may stumble upon a question on how to write an appendix.

An appendix is a supplemental section of a research paper that provides additional information, data, or materials to support the main content. The appendix is usually placed at the end of the document and is numbered with letters or numbers, such as "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. The purpose of an appendix is to provide readers with supplementary details that are not included in the main text but are relevant to the topic.

Once you decide on writing appendices, you should collect additional information and format your text as required. Here, we will talk about how you can work with appendices. We will also show some nuances of their preparation process using a real example. Is the deadline around the corner? Consider using professional research paper help from expert scholars.

What Is an Appendix: Definition

Experienced researchers know what an appendix in a paper is. But aspiring authors often have problems with this section of the work. First of all, you should understand that appendices are an additional section of a dissertation or any other scientific paper that includes additional information. Main points are not placed in an appendix meanwhile at the end of your work it can expand on some context or clarify author’s position on a particular issue. Also, an appendix is ​​often placed after the citation page of a work. It is indicated with the help of references in a main text.

What Is the Purpose of an Appendix

Quite often, authors don’t understand the purpose of an appendix. This usually looks like a table and is not included in a main text. Remember that content of your dissertation should be concise and clear. It is also undesirable if you deviate from your theme so as not to confuse readers. Therefore, you can provide a reference, which will lead a reader to an appendix of a thesis. Typically, the purpose of an appendix is to extra information that is usually not included in the text's body. It expresses author's point of view, and provides additional information. It may not address the immediate topic of your dissertation or expand on current research. As a reminder, your work should be clear even without studying an appendix. So make sure you don't put important details there.

What Can You Include in an Appendix

An appendix in a paper is a supplement to a main text, not a replacement. You can put different elements there. It is better if you separate appendices, highlighting one element in each of them. Don’t forget about separate references in your text. Otherwise it will be difficult for a reader to understand your information better. Thus, the following information can be added:

  • diagrams with illustrative figures;
  • abbreviations ;
  • interviews;
  • statistics, and much more.

There are no restrictions on content added to your dissertation's appendices. Theoretically, you can attach absolutely any information that is relevant to your topic. Thus, possibilities for evidence base are almost unlimited. All you need to do is add tables or any other information.

How to Write an Appendix: Full Guide

If you already have experience working on dissertations and other scientific texts, you will not wonder how to make an appendix. However, it is still important that you get some advice on how to properly structure an appendices section. This will help add information that may be redundant in the main part of your paper. We offer 4 simple steps to create an informative and readable appendix block.

Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data

When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text. Or maybe, you can add some statistics that clearly demonstrate your research paper conclusion . You can also include facts from other scientific sources that support your position. One thing is important — information should complement your text but not contradict it.

Step 2. Include Visual Supporting Documents in an Appendix 

When you are writing an appendix, you can’t avoid visual additions that clearly demonstrate an information and save an author from lengthy descriptions in the text. Should you need to support your conclusions drawn in the scientific text, these can be used:

Don’t forget: you should quote and indicate the authorship of graphics used in your work. If you took it from any third-party sources, of course. Thus, a reader will be able to find additional data that explains the content of your text. It is good if you personally put results of your research in a graphic form. To do this, you can use Office programs, graphic editors and other programs available to PC users.

Step 3. Describe the Instruments of Your Research in Your Appendices

It is good if your appendix in the research paper has a section for indicating tools that were used during the preparation of your dissertation writing . This way, your reader will understand how you collected information and do it themselves. For example, it could be a dictaphone or tape recorder on which an interview with your expert was recorded. Or you might have used a video camera for recording facts and interviews. In such case, it is advisable to indicate these instruments in your appendix. Specialized equipment for measuring, calculating and making graphics should also be added at the beginning of the appendix. This way, you will demonstrate your skills and knowledge. Research units don’t require extra tools, so make sure they are listed. You can do it even in a short format.

Step 4. Include an Interview and Transcripts in an Appendix

When conducting interviews and surveys for collecting information, make an appendix with photocopies of handwritten materials or electronic copies of digital surveys. Their order is not important. The main thing is that your research text contains references. This will allow you to quickly study the sources. You should not only show that the source contains important data but also explain it. So, even additional content, including questions and answers, needs to be listed. But if you originally had a readable format, you don’t need to do this. In addition to interviews, also add screenshots or photos of correspondences used for surveys. For example, you can refer to a significant researcher with whom you exchanged letters. Or maybe you studied subject, together with this researcher, and they gave some comments on a particular issue. Do not know how to write a discussion section of a research paper ? Do not worry, we have the whole article dedicated to this topic.

Formatting an Appendix: Main Rules

Formatting of appendices is required in any case. First of all, provide correct citations. APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most commonly used standards. Although, you should clarify what formatting requirements your institution has. Correct formatting includes:

  • Appendix title. Write it at the top of the content page, indicate its title, using letters or numbers for ordering.
  • Sorted by mention. Don’t add appendices randomly, it is better to do it in chronological order. That is, as information from it is given in main text.
  • Location after bibliography. This is a general requirement that cannot always be met. For example, if your professor wants the appendices to be put before the bibliography, this will have to be done.
  • Page numbers. All dissertation pages should be numbered, even if they are blank. This will make the appendix block the part of main text.

Also, review your appendix before approval. Make sure that its content is clear, error-free, and correctly quoted.

Appendix Example

To do the job successfully, it is recommended to have an example of an appendix at hand. Without it, there are usually problems with a choice of font and mentions that appear in main text. We will show you what the appendix itself looks like at the end of the dissertation using a short interview as an example.

Appendix example

We have one more blog in case you wonder what is an abstract in a paper  or need some examples and writing tips.

How to Make an Appendix: Final Thoughts

Thus, we talked about how to write an appendix. It allows you to include additional details, while avoiding writing them in the body of your text. To do this, one can use graphics, transcriptions of conversations, tables and statistics — anything that complements your research. Be sure to clarify formatting requirements of your university. Arrange appendices in an order in which they appear in your text. Try to use your own materials and not take other people's work. In case of unique findings, they can be used in your work.


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Frequently Asked Questions About Appendix Writing

1. how do you add an appendix to an essay.

The inclusion of appendix to an essay is the same as to any other paper. You need to provide references in your text of an essay itself, as well as submit attachments after a bibliography. Don't forget to specify name of an appendix for easy navigation.

2. Do I add references to the appendix?

Yes, this is not only recommended but must be done. In this case the appendix will allow your reader to check the reliability of sources you used. Moreover, if you took any information from third-party sources, this protect you from plagiarism charges.

4. How do you create an appendix in Word?

It is not difficult to prepare an appendix in Word, because this Office program contains all the necessary tools. To get started, choose the same font, font size and indentation that were used in the main text, so as not to visually break away from it. We also recommend that you apply title formatting with built-in Word tools. Place the appendix titles at the top in the center of a page. In this case it will be much easier to navigate the paper.

3. What is an appendix in a report example?

You can include a wide range of information into an appendix in a report. It is better to opt for descriptive formats, though. For example, it can be graphical or mathematical research results, statistics of a certain phenomenon, and questionnaires filled in by other people.


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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE :   Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

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How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper

Adela Belin

Table of contents

As a new college student, you still have a lot to learn and many things to experience both academically and socially.

When it comes to academics, there may be many things that you have to do for the first time in your life, such as writing an appendix for a research paper that you have to submit.

While some college students may have done this before, there are many new college students who do not know how to write an appendix paper. This is a critical part of any research paper and always needs to be included in your final submission.

In this article, we are going to discuss how to write an appendix for a research paper, as well as why an appendix is needed when completing a research paper.

What is an Appendix

Firstly, let us establish what an appendix is. An appendix is the part of a research paper that contains materials and references that may be very detailed and too big to include in the actual report.

These materials can be but are not limited to, calculations, technical drawings, graphs, or raw data. The content in the appendix needs to be summarized and then referred to from the main part of the research paper.

General rules when it comes to creating an appendix for a research paper

  • every appendix has to be labeled with a letter, title, or number;
  • these numbers and titles need to be listed on the contents page of the research paper;
  • each appendix has to be referred to by a number or a letter at the appropriate point in the text of the research paper.

How to Write an Appendix for Your Research Paper

The best way to create an appendix for a research paper is to collect the content that you want to include in your appendix and then make it easily accessible and of relevance to the person who is going to be reading the paper.

Step 1: Collecting Content for the Appendix

Gather raw data.

Raw data is absolutely necessary and should always be included in the appendix of a research paper. It is important to make sure that the raw data is cited correctly from the sources that it has been taken from.

An example of raw data could include calculations that have been referred to in the body of the research paper.

The appendix can even include supplementary information that further expands on the subject of the paper and supports any findings that have been spoken about in the body of the paper.

Add images, charts, and graphs

An appendix will usually include other supporting information such as charts, maps, photographs, and drawings or other visual additions that the reader would be interested in.

Always make sure to properly cite the visuals or other information that does not belong to you to avoid unintentionally plagiarizing .

Here’s a video by Hodges University Library on how to add images, graphs, and charts to the appendix of a research paper.

Make a note of the instruments used

Keeping the reader up to date with the instruments used to conduct your research paper is very important.

These instruments can include cameras, cell phone recordings, or any other instrument that was used to conduct the research for the paper.

In most cases, the reader will be interested to know what devices were used to conduct the research for the paper.

Add additional, relevant information

In addition to graphs, instruments, and raw materials used to conduct research, the appendix should also include an array of interviews , surveys, or transcripts that may have transpired during the research that was done for the paper.

  • the transcripts should cover the entire interview and include both questions and answers;
  • include copies of surveys that were done online or even completed by hand;
  • add in any other correspondence that may have been talked about in the body of the research paper (e.g. emails, recordings, etc.).

Step Two: Formatting the Appendix

Add an appropriate title.

An appendix is always shown at the top of the page using capital letters or sentence cases. It can be the same size as the headings that were used for the chapters in the body of the research paper.

In some cases, there may need to be more than one appendix in a research paper. If this is the case then it is important to put them in order by either numbers or letters, for example, in Appendix 1 and Appendix 2.

Each appendix needs to start on a new page so as to not confuse the person who is reading the paper.

Organize the content in order

The best way in which to order the content of an appendix is based on when and where the information appears in the body of a research paper.

An appendix has to be extremely user-friendly and easy to access. For example, if a research paper mentions an interview at the end of the paper then the link to the interview needs to be shown at the end of the appendix.

Include the appendix after the reference list

An appendix to a research paper should always be put in after the reference list. This, of course, is all dependent on how the subject professor prefers it to be.

It is important always to make sure that an appendix follows the requirements of the professor who has set out how they want the research paper to be put together.

Insert page numbers

The numbers that appear in the appendix of a research paper need to be either at the center of the page or in the bottom right-hand corner of the page.

The same format should be followed throughout the research paper so as to ensure that the reader is able to navigate through the paper with ease.

Step 3: Polishing the Appendix

Proofread the appendix.

There is often no standard word count for an appendix, but it is best practice to make it as short as possible so as to exclude any unnecessary and long-winded content.

After the appendix has been done it is important to read through it again and make sure that all the information that is shown in the appendix is relevant to the text in the body of the research paper.

Once this has been done, any other information shown in the appendix that does not directly relate to the body of the paper should be removed and cleaned up as this could clutter up and confuse the entire objective of the paper.

Professionalism is very important. Try getting another person to read through the appendix of a research essay to iron out anything that they may not understand being a reader.

If they feel that the appendix is relevant to the body of the paper and is in the correct order, then this should be enough to ensure that the professor reading the research paper will also be able to navigate the paper easily when referring to the appendix.

Check for grammar and spelling errors

There should be no spelling, punctuation, or grammar errors in both the research paper or the appendix. Use spell checks to make sure that the research paper is of a professional standard.

Another way to check for any grammatical or spelling errors can be to read through the appendix backward. This may take time, but at the end of the day will yield the results of a professionally written appendix.

A research paper needs to be engaging and, at the same time, easy to understand and navigate through. This is why a properly set-out appendix is critical when it comes to writing a research essay.

When you reach out to us at Writers Per Hour to do your research paper , our writers not only deliver a top-notch research paper but also write out a detailed and well-formatted appendix that adds value and lends to a more holistic paper.

Last edit at Jul 27 2023

Adela Belin

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Rasmussen University: FAQS banner

How do I do an APPENDIX in APA style?

How do I create an APPENDIX in APA style?

What is an appendix?

  • A section at the end of a paper that includes information that is too detailed for the text of the paper itself and would "burden the reader" or be "distracting," or "inappropriate" (APA, 2019, p. 41-42).
  • lengthy lists (short lists belong in the paper itself)
  • detailed descriptions (essential details should be in the paper itself)
  • instructions to participants; tests, scales, inventories
  • demographic details for subpopulations studied by the paper

Where does the Appendix appear in the paper?

  • text of paper
  • references list
  • tables 

How to format an appendix:

  • You may have more than one appendix (aka appendices)
  • Each appendix should deal with a separate topic
  • In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college students (see Appendix B for demographic information).
  • The first appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix A
  • The second appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix B
  • If you have more than 26 appendices, start the alphabet over with AA, BB, CC, and so on.
  • If there is only one appendix, it is just called Appendix
  • Each appendix must also have a title
  • Begin each appendix on a separate page with page number
  • Place the label and title of each appendix at the top of the page, centered, bold, using normal capitalization. Label first, title second.
  • The first paragraph is flush left and not indented.
  • The second and following paragraphs are indented as "normal" paragraphs are.
  • All paragraphs are double spaced.
  • Exception to the tables/figures numbering rule: add the letter of the appendix (A, B, C, etc.) to the figure or table number (e.g., Table B3 would be the third table in Appendix B).
  • If your appendices use information from an outside source, cite it parenthetically within the text of the appendix and include the reference in the main references list for the paper (do not create a separate references list).

A sample appendix is below.

  • Abstracts & Appendices
  • Last Updated Jul 06, 2020
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  • Answered By Kerry Louvier

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Comments (40)

  • Not only did this answer my question, it answered several questions I hadn't even considered yet. Excellent resource! by Magnus on Nov 23, 2016
  • Great resource to use, very helpful info. Thank you for the visual example. by Anonymous on Dec 15, 2016
  • Extraordinarily helpful by Ashna on Feb 27, 2017
  • This information was very helpful! The instructions and example provided clarity. by Student on Mar 06, 2017
  • What about page numbering? Is it continuous or does it restart at the beginning of the appendix section or does each appendix have its own page numbering (e.g. A1, A2, B1, B2...)? Sara, Librarian Answer: Page numbering is continuous, it does not restart at the appendix section. by Brent on Apr 21, 2017
  • Does APA style require a whole section page for appendices? As in, a page with APPENDIX (or APPENDICES) written in the middle of the page before the actual appendices themselves? Sara, Librarian Answer: No. A page like that is unnecessary. by Sara on Apr 28, 2017
  • When I have an assignment limiting to a particular number of pages (lets say 6 pages), do the appendix pages count as one of those six pages? Sara, Librarian Answer: Typically the appendix pages do not count as part of the paper. However, we suggest that you check with your instructor to make sure that's their expectation. by Katie on May 03, 2017
  • Hello If I add tables or/and figures to my appendix. Do I have to make a new page for every new table/figure or am I allowed to just leave a line and then begin with the new table/figure? Sara, Librarian Answer: You can have as many figures and/or tables in one single appendix as makes sense. Each figure/table should still be formatted in APA and include a caption. by Kerstin on May 09, 2017
  • If I have multiple pages to a report that I'd like to include in one appendix (they are all part of the same report), do I continue to title each page Appendix A? Sara, Librarian Reply: No. You only need to title the first page of each different appendix. by Allison on Jun 06, 2017
  • Thank you for this exceedingly abundantly helpful resource. Janie Richter by Jane Richter on Jun 23, 2017
  • How are appendices displayed in the ToC? Since the title is on a separate line my template is only showing "Appendix" but I'm wondering if it should show "Appendix - Title." Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Brad, different colleges and universities, departments and individual instructors have their own preferences for the format of the title page, table of contents, and other items that are particular to academic papers, so the APA manual doesn’t cover these formats. Since your instructor is responsible for the curriculum and grading rubrics, check with them to find out how they would like your appendix titles to appear in the table of contents. by Brad on Jul 29, 2017
  • I'm required to transcript an interview and add it to my paper. My first question is, do I add this interview as an appendix? If so, how do I do this considering the parameters of the APA style? Thank you in advance! Sara, Librarian Reply: You can add an interview transcript as an appendix. We highly recommend you talk to your instructor about how they want the transcript formatted and added to your paper. If your instructor doesn't have any specific parameters for formatting in the appendix, we recommend sticking to standard APA formatting style: 12pt, Times New Roman font, double spaced, and 1 inch margins. by dcrada on Aug 01, 2017
  • Hi, I was just wondering what you name your appendix if you have more than 26 and have run out of alphabet letters? Sara, Librarian Reply: If you run through the alphabet and still have additionally appendices, then we recommend you start over again with Appendix AA, BB, CC, and so on. by F on Aug 31, 2017
  • This is great! Much easier and quicker to read and grasp than the APA style guide. by Lily on Sep 03, 2017
  • How do I provide in text reference to a table which appears in my appendix? I know I have to refer to the table by table number but how do I say which page it is on in the appendices? Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Robin, you would do an in-text reference like you would for any other source: (Appendix B, Figure 1). See the APA Style Blog for more information about citing parts of a work: by Robin on Oct 30, 2017
  • How would you reference a figure from an appendix in-text? (see Fig. 4) or (see Appendix B, Fig.4 for more information). Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi TJ, we recommend that you include which appendix you are referencing in-text. So the example you would use is (Appendix B, Figure 4). Please see the APA Style Blog if you need any additional clarification by Me on Oct 31, 2017
  • Do I need to reference an appendix each time it comes up in the document or just the first time it is referenced? Sara, Librarian Reply: Just as you would with an in-text citation, every time you mention an appendix make sure you reference it. by Linda G on Nov 05, 2017
  • If the appendix is a survey or other pre-formatted document, what are the requirements for spacing of the body? Does it still need to be double spaced? Sara, Librarian Reply: Different colleges and universities, departments and individual instructors have their own preferences for the formatting of documents added as appendices. We highly recommend that you talk with your instructor/advisor about if they want your document reformatted to be double spaced. by Deborah on Dec 21, 2017
  • Nice work helped me alot by Leo Rice on Mar 04, 2018
  • How would I go about citing information that I used to create a figure within my appendix? Do I need to cite in the appendix where I obtained the information that I used in the graphs/tables? Sara, Librarian Reply: Do an in-text citation in your appendix (just like you would in the body of your paper) for the information you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing. Then add the full reference/citation information to the main references list for your paper. by Nikki on Mar 13, 2018
  • Hi, can you clarify how I refer to tables in an appendix in APA 6th? Do I need to write (see Table 1 in Appendix A) or is it (see Table A1) or is there another way? thank you. Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Bill, to refer to the Appendix within your text, write (see Appendix A) at the end of the sentence in parentheses. If you are referring to a table, you would then write (see Appendix A, Table 1). I hope that helps clarify things for you! by Bill on Mar 14, 2018
  • I adapted a figure from an image I found in the 2nd page of a paper Appendix. In the caption of figure, should I write ,Appendices, instead of the page number which is not available? Thank you in advance. Sara, Librarian Reply: Yes, in the caption you should write which appendix you got the figure from. by Souha on Mar 14, 2018
  • Excellent and detailed explanation. Very helpful... by Murox Tobby on Mar 20, 2018
  • Thank you this was so helpful by angie on Mar 25, 2018
  • My paper includes a long part with a lot of different events and dates. Therefore, I want to summarize each event and attach it as a table in the Appendix. Do I have to add citations in this table, although I already included all citations in the text and the table does solely contain information from my main text? Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Jake. Yes, if your appendix includes tables or figures, treat them as they would be treated in the main text and add the citations. by Jake on Apr 26, 2018
  • If a text in my paper refers to the Appendix more than once in my text, should I reference the Appendix each time? Sara, Librarian Reply: Yes. As with citing, so with referencing your appendices: always cite/reference your source. by Adrian on Apr 30, 2018
  • Hello :) If I have a few pages from a manual I used for my dissertation, and I want to place them in the appendix, how do I do so? Because if I insert them normally, the plagiarism detection software will detect them as copied, I presume. Thanks! Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Martina, is there a reason you want to put them in an appendix instead of just citing the section of the source in your dissertation? Do the pages themselves add something to your paper that justifies the duplication? If you still want to add those pages to your appendix, then add them normally. You should also ask your faculty advisor for their opinion or reference your institution's formatting guide. by Martina on May 01, 2018
  • Thank you so much for this! The visual representation was very helpful, particularly because the APA Guide was very hard to interpret in respect to the Appendices. I would've put the label and name down incorrectly in my thesis if it wasn't for this! by Maddy on Oct 27, 2018
  • Great work! Your presentation helps me a lot, including the questions and answers portion! by Belen,php on Nov 23, 2018
  • Does the appendix include a page number and a header? Sara, Librarian reply: Yes. The appendix should include a page number and a header. by Alyssa on Feb 03, 2019
  • I am trying to cite the appendix of my e-book for my paper. How do I do that? by Shashi on Mar 21, 2019
  • Very helpful. Well detailed and on point. Thank you so much by Peter Wanyangi on Apr 02, 2019
  • Thank you for this reference. The example helped solidify my questions about how to effectively use and appendix. Great! by A on May 07, 2019
  • A very useful and highly relevant information. Thank you all. by Dr Sam V Daniel on Sep 23, 2019
  • Excellent, nicely presented and comprehensive. Loved going through it. by Anoop Tiwari on Oct 28, 2019
  • Excellent explanation, love it, fully helped and thanks a lot. by Godwine Okoth on Jan 22, 2020
  • This was exceedingly helpful,thanks a lot by Favour Anne on Mar 18, 2020
  • This resource is so incredibly helpful - thank you by Jennifer on Jun 06, 2021
  • This is a very useful explanation. It has answered more than one question.Highly relevant information. by Carol Nelson on Nov 14, 2022
  • This is a great reference. thank you! by Carlos on Apr 28, 2023

Everything You Need to Know About Appendices in Writing

Matt Ellis

Appendices, the plural of appendix, are sections of academic writing with supplemental information about the topic that doesn’t fit in the main text. Appendices can include anything helpful to the reader but unnecessary to the topic’s progression; these may be charts, graphs, maps, videos, or even detailed explanations too lengthy for the body of the paper.

Appendices are used mostly in academic writing, so students may have to write them for papers at some point. This guide will answer all your questions, including “What are appendices used for?” and “Do appendices go after references?” But let’s start with a detailed analysis. What is an appendix?

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What are appendices in a paper?

Appendices are sections at the end of academic writing with nonessential information on the topic that still might be helpful for the reader. The key word there is nonessential —any information that is essential to the topic should be included in the main body of the paper. In other words, your paper should make sense without the appendices.

For example, let’s say your paper talks about the Mongol Empire. Your appendices might include things like a map of the Mongol Empire at its peak, or an image of what historians think Genghis Khan actually looked like. More relevant details, such as a discussion of how and why the Mongol Empire rose to power, would be included in the main text, not the appendices.

A paper can have as many appendices as are useful. These can be different types, so your first appendix could be a spreadsheet, and your second appendix could be a scanned letter.

What are appendices used for?

The purpose of appendices is to provide supplemental information in a way that doesn’t distract the reader or derail the flow of the paper. It would be difficult for readers if, right in the middle of making your main points, you interrupted your paper to show pages of lists or charts that are slightly off topic.

The content in appendices can support your argument or influence the reader’s opinion—in fact, it should be relevant in some way. However, it’s best to put supporting and illustrative material at the end so it doesn’t disrupt the structure of your paper.

The more advanced a paper is, the more likely it is to contain appendices. They’re quite common in thesis papers and research papers , as well as published scientific works. If you’re writing a complex paper for an assignment, it might be a good idea to plan ahead and leave room for appendices in the research paper outline .

What content should be included in appendices?

There are no hard requirements for what can or cannot be an appendix. The deciding factor is whether information is necessary to the paper; if it is not necessary, but still useful, then it can go in the appendices.

That said, some types of content appear in appendices more than others. Here’s a list of what’s commonly included in an appendix:

  • tables and charts
  • figures and graphs
  • audio or video clips
  • detailed textual descriptions
  • spreadsheets
  • lists too long for the main text
  • interview transcripts
  • interview questions from the interviewer’s notes
  • technical specifications of research equipment
  • other testing documentation, such as surveys or the job posting for test recipients
  • scanned documents (including Institutional Review Board approval letters)
  • raw statistical data
  • original math and calculations

How should appendices be structured?

MLA , APA , and Chicago formats all can use appendices. While MLA and Chicago are fairly open ended about how appendices should be structured, APA has more precise rules. So below, we explain the appendix format in APA terms, which can be used in MLA or Chicago as well.

How do you title appendices?

If you have only one appendix, you can call it simply Appendix and refer to it as such in text, e.g., (see Appendix) . If you have more than one appendix, label each appendix with a letter, as in Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. The label of each appendix should be mentioned at least once in the main text of the paper.

Each appendix also gets a distinct title that describes its content, which is separate from its label. So, for example, an appendix label might be Appendix C and its title, Interview Transcript .

How do you format an appendix page?

Each new appendix begins on a separate page. Place the label centered and in bold at the top of the page. On a separate line, write the appendix’s title in title/headline case ( Capitalize the First Letter of Each Major Word ), also centered and in bold. If the paper uses a running head, continue to use it in the appendices.

If the appendix contains text, continue using indented paragraphs and follow the same format as in the rest of the paper. Otherwise, present the content in the same order it was mentioned in the body text. For multiple tables, figures, equations, etc., label them by number after the letter of the appendix, e.g., Table B2 .

Where do appendices go?

According to the APA Publication Manual (Seventh Edition), appendices come after the reference list or bibliography. They should be the last sections of a paper. Some people contest this, especially when citations are used in appendices, so ask your teacher or supervisor if you’re uncertain.

Appendices vs. footnotes/endnotes

You may have noticed that appendices sound a lot like footnotes and endnotes . Appendices and notes both contain supplemental information that doesn’t belong in the main text, and both are situated in a place where they don’t distract the reader. Sources usually have to be cited in notes (if they’re not cited in the text itself); beyond that, amplifying information can go in notes or appendices.

The main difference between appendices and footnotes/endnotes is length. Appendices generally discuss complicated or detailed topics, including charts, graphs, and numerical data, whereas footnotes and endnotes are much more succinct, often just a sentence or two. Think of it like this: If there’s too much information to fit comfortably in a footnote or endnote, put it in an appendix.

Appendices FAQs

Appendices are sections at the end of academic writing with nonessential information on the topic that still might be helpful for the reader. They typically contain charts, graphs, maps, images, or raw statistical data.

Appendices are used to present helpful supplemental information in a way that doesn’t distract from the flow of the main text. That’s why they typically come at the end of a paper, set apart but still easy to find.

Appendices can include virtually any content that’s relevant to the paper’s topic without being necessary. Usually, this consists of charts, graphs, maps, images, videos, lists, and documentation on the research testing process (like interview transcripts).

Each appendix should start on a separate page at the end of a paper, after the bibliography. If you have more than one appendix in your paper, label each by letter, as in Appendix A, Appendix B , etc. Appendices should also have a separate title that describes their content, such as “Map of the Mongol Empire,” which is written on a separate line.

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