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Past Exam Essay Questions with Sample Candidate Answers
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Bar Exam Essay Questions With Answers
Passing the bar exam requires more than just knowing the law. Passing the bar exam also requires the ability to properly analyze a bar exam question, organize the issues, and write an effective answer. To demonstrate essay exam proficiency and how to apply the essential test-taking skills, consider the following bar exam sample question below, which will be used as an example to demonstrate how to approach an essay from start to finish, step-by-step, in order to produce a passing written answer.
February 2020 CA Bar Exam Question - Contracts
Barn Exports ("Barn") hired Sam, an up-and-coming artist whose work was recently covered in Modern Buildings Magazine, to paint a one-of-a-kind artistic design along the border of the ceiling in its newly renovated lobby. After discussing the work, Ed, the president of Barn, and Sam signed a mutually drafted handwritten contract, which states in its entirety:
Sam shall paint a unique design along the entire ceiling border of all public areas of the first-floor lobby. Barn shall pay $75,000 upon completion of the work.
When Sam began work, he was surprised that the new plaster ceiling in the lobby had not been sanded and sealed. Sam complained, but was told by Ed that preparation was part of his responsibilities. Although Sam disagreed, he spent four days sanding and sealing the ceiling. When Sam finished painting, he submitted a bill for $78,000, having added $3,000 for labor and supplies used in preparing the ceiling. In response, Barn sent a letter to Sam stating that, because he had not painted the borders in the two public restrooms in the lobby, no payment was yet due. Barn's letter also stated that it had recently spoken to several artists who perform similar work and learned that "surface preparation" was typically the responsibility of the artist.
According to Sam, before the contract was signed, he told Ed that the restrooms could not be included because his paints were not suitable for the high humidity in those locations.
Sam sued Barn for breach of contract in the amount of $78,000.
Barn countersued for specific performance to have the borders in the bathrooms painted.
- Is Sam likely to prevail in his breach of contract lawsuit against Barn and if so, what damages will he likely recover? Discuss.
- Is Barn likely to prevail in its lawsuit seeking specific performance against Sam? Discuss.
Step 1 – Call Of The Question
First, always start with the Call of the Question, which is usually located at the end of the exam, because the Call reveals what the Examiners want to know so the facts, yet to be read, can be put in that context. To interpret the Call, use the acronym SPOIL, which stands for the subject matter ( S ), parties ( P ), organizational structure ( O ), issues ( I ), and applicable law ( L ).
Like most Calls, the ones in the Contracts bar exam sample question reveal a wide variety of information, including:
(S) Subjects being tested - Contracts/Remedies:
- Call 1 specifies a "breach of contract lawsuit" and asks about "damages", which is a remedy in contracts.
- Call 2 specifies a "lawsuit seeking specific performance." Specific performance is also a remedy in contracts.
(P) Parties: Sam and Barn
- Call 1 asks about "Sam…in his…lawsuit against Barn."
- Call 2 asks about "Barn…in its lawsuit…against Sam."
(O) Organization structure to be considered - Sam vs. Barn, followed by Barn vs. Sam
- Call 1 asks about the "Sam…lawsuit against Barn."
- Call 2 asks about the Barn…lawsuit…against Sam."
Issues – Breach of contract, damages, and specific performance.
- Call 1 asks about "breach" and "damages." The second to last line provides "Sam sued Barn" for "$78,000."The facts, yet to be read in their entirety, can be put in the context of whether there was a "breach" by Barn that supports Sam's "$78,000 damages" claim.
- Call 2 asks about "specific performance." The last line provides "…specific performance to have the borders in the bathrooms painted." The facts, yet to be read in their entirety, can be put in the context of whether the court will find that Sam promised to paint the bathroom borders, and order such performance to Barn.
(L) There is no reference to the applicable law
Contracts test both common law or the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) The sample exam does not state which body of law to use. Thus, based on the facts, the examinee must make this determination after reading the fact pattern.
2 – Read The Facts To Understand The Story
Second, read the hypothetical facts once for content only. Focus on the story. Pay attention to the names of the parties, dates, quoted language, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, etc. If there is any confusion, read the hypothetical again for clarity.
In reading the exam facts, pay attention to the names of the parties ("Sam" and "Barn") mentioned in the Call.
"Ed" is not a named party in the Call, but Ed is identified in the first paragraph as "the president of Barn." This reveals that based on Ed's conduct as an agent of Barn, Sam will likely impute arguments against Barn and vice versa.
There is not much in the way of dates, but "surface preparation" is quoted language from Barn's letter. This is the Examiners' way of flagging that "surface preparation" is going to raise one or more issues and/or arguments. Further, the indentation of the contract terms is equivalent to quoted language, because the Examiners are drawing your attention to that text.
Finally, pay attention to verbs, adverbs, and/or adjectives, which are discussed below in Step 3. If there is any confusion about the content of the Sam v. Barn lawsuit and Barn v. Sam countersuit, read the exam facts again for a full understanding of the story.
Step 3 – Issue Spot
Third, once understanding the story, begin issue spotting. Start at the beginning of the exam. Go paragraph-by-paragraph, sentence-by-sentence. As each issue is identified, jot it down in the margin of the exam next to the facts that raised it. By starting at the beginning of the fact pattern to issue spot, the first paragraph leads into Ed and Sam signing a contract, which states the terms that are intended for emphasis.
Here, the contract states, "Sam shall paint…" The verb "paint" may raise a goods contract if the contract requires Sam to deliver paint, or a services contract if the contract simply requires Sam to paint an existing area or object.
Further facts that state Sam shall paint "…a unique design along the entire ceiling border…" identify the applicable law as common law because "to paint along a border" is a service.
Continue the issue spotting process as described in the last paragraph of the exam question.
Step 4 – Utilize Mental Checklists And Approaches
Fourth, if during the study process , mental checklists and approaches for issue spotting have been developed, use them to pick up extra issues that could be overlooked without them. Mental checklists and approaches are recommended issue spots tools that every law student should develop during the study process, because they assist issue spotting and the more issues spotted and analyzed in the answer, the higher the grade will be.
In the Contracts bar exam sample question, the fact that Ed and Sam signed the mutually drafted $75,000 contract to paint the design makes offer, acceptance, and consideration fairly straightforward issues that may be picked up without a checklist.
However, defenses are commonly overlooked, which makes a Contracts defense checklist essential to trigger issues that could be missed without one.
The following is an example of the Fleming's Fundamentals Contracts defense approach that illustrates a mnemonic memory device: S o U nless A l I s M istaken, I M issed A erobics F itness D uring P hysical E ducation. Each capital letter represents a contract defense that may be raised by the facts:
S – Statute of Frauds
U - Unconscionability
A – Adhesion Contract
I - Incapacity
M – Mistake
I – Illegality
M – Misrepresentation
A – Ambiguity
PE – Parol Evidence
In the Contracts sample question, the fact that "According to Sam, before the contract was signed, he told Ed that the restrooms could not be included…" raises the parol evidence rule, which bars oral statements (such as what Sam "told" Ed) made prior to the signed writing. This is critical evidence that Sam needs to introduce and that Barn needs to exclude, because the facts and the Call make Sam's obligation to related to the restrooms an important issue analysis.
Furthermore, one exception to the parol evidence rule is an ambiguity, i.e., allowing extrinsic evidence to resolve whether or not "all public areas of the first-floor lobby" in the contract include or exclude the bathrooms as Barn and Sam assert, respectively.
Step 5 – Reread The Call
Fifth, reread the Call of the Question to confirm a thorough understanding of what the Examiners want in the answer.
- Call 1, if Sam will likely prevail in Sam v. Barn for breach of contract and if so, what damages will he likely recover.
- Call 2, if Barn will likely prevail in Barn v. Sam seeking specific performance.
Step 6 – Organize Issues On An Outline Sheet
Sixth, transfer the issues to a formal outline sheet, making sure they are properly organized. Jot down the formation issues of offer, acceptance and consideration, making sure they are properly organized first under Sam v. Barn (the first lawsuit as Call 1 dictates). Follow with defense issues of parol evidence rule and ambiguity. Continue through the damages issues as requested in the Call.
Repeat the outlining process with its particular issues for Call 2.
Step 7 – Reread Hypothetical One More Time
Seventh, go back and skim the hypothetical one last time to pick up any additional issues that may have been overlooked in steps #3 and #4. Add those issues to the outline.
Step 8 – Double Check Work - Reread The Call One More Time
Eighth, reread the Call of the Question one last time, making sure the issues on the outline are properly organized under the appropriate call if there is more than one.
Step 9 – Write The Final Answer
Finally, write the answer, using the proper presentation for each issue, which is usually referred to as IRAC (issue, rule, analysis, conclusion) or IREAC (issue, rule, explanation, analysis, conclusion).
To check your answer, enter your email address below to download the answer sheet for the above sample bar exam questions. The answer sheet shows you how to use the proper IRAC presentation as demonstrated for each issue above. The answer sheet is a teaching tool to demonstrate the culmination of the above series of sequential steps to follow to properly analyze, organize, and write a passing bar exam essay answer.
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Many state bar associations post former bar exam essay questions and sample answers on their websites. These model answers are useful for studying for the bar and final exams.
Search online for state bar exam questions and answers, or use the list provided at the bottom of this page. Access is free.
- Try writing a response to a practice question, then comparing your response to the model answer.
- Some bar exam questions require the application of state law (e.g., California civil procedure), and may not be helpful if you are studying federal law. Read the question carefully.
- Subject coverage will vary by exam and by state.
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Sample Exam Questions & Answers By State
- UBE (Many of the states on this list administer the UBE, but the states offer more recent model essay answers than the UBE)
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Bar Exam Essay Template – How to Structure your Bar Exam Essays
Bar exam essay template:.
It can be helpful to have a bar exam essay template when you begin to write bar exam essays. A good bar exam essay template can help you ensure: (a) that you connect every dot and do not miss a step (that is, you will state the rule, apply it, and conclude); and (b) it can help you approach the bar exam with confidence knowing that you know how to design your essays to get the maximum amount of points. The general format is that for each issue, you want to use a “RAC” format. That is, state the rule , analysis , and conclusion. You can think of this as an “IRAC” format similar to what you may have used in law school. However, there are a few things to keep in mind when using the IRAC format because it differs from the format that law school essays follow.
A few things to note about this bar exam essay template:
- Issue: Generally, on the bar exam, the issues are clearly stated. Thus, they tend not to be hidden in a fact pattern as they are in a law school essay.
- Rule: State the rule as clearly as possible on your bar exam essay answer. If you know the key legal vocabulary then bold or underline those words to draw attention to them.
- Analysis: The analysis section won’t be as lengthy as it would be in a law school essay answer. Oftentimes, the examiners will expect you to simply apply the law then conclude. However, sometimes (for example on MEE essays), you will gain points if you recognize the majority view and minority view in your analysis section.
- Conclusion: On bar exams, the overall conclusion is important. Bar examiners’ will be looking for you to conclude. Further, generally, there is a “right” conclusion.
One key thing to note is that in bar exam essay answers:
- you should not write a lengthy background of the law. Instead, answer the questions directly and concisely!
- you should not write a lengthy policy analysis for each issue you analyze
- you should not arrive at a wishy-washy conclusion in your answers. Arrive at a clear conclusion.
- you should not argue both sides nearly as extensively as you would on a law school essay answer
Using this bar exam essay template as you approach essays can be a big help. If you have any questions about this, please contact us at your convenience.
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Examples of Passing Answers
Past bar exam questions and examples of passing answers.
The State Bar of Nevada offers questions and examples of passing answers from the past bar exams for applicants to review and use as a study tool.
Bar Examination Questions:
- 2023: February , July
- 2022: February , July
- 2021: February, July
- 2020: February , July
- 2019: February , July
- 2018: February , July
- 2017: February , July
- 2016: February , July
- 2015: February , July
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- 2010: February , July
- 2009: February , July
- 2008: February , July
- 2007: February , July
Examples of Passing Answers:
The selected answers are not to be considered “model” or perfect answers. The answers were written by actual applicants under time constraints. Thus, they do not always correctly identify or respond to all issues raised by the question, and they may contain some extraneous or incorrect information.
- 2021: February , July
- 2020: February , August
- 2016: February , July
- 2015 : February July
The contents of the Bar Exam Questions and the Examples of Passing Answers are intended solely for use by Nevada Bar Exam applicants only as a study reference. They are not intended for sale or distribution. No licensing agreement is available for the Bar Exam Questions or the Examples of Passing Answers. The contents of the Bar Exam Questions and the Examples of Passing Answers are not intended, nor do they constitute legal advice and should not be used or relied upon as such in dealing with any specific legal matter. By clicking on the link for viewing or downloading any or all of the documents linked above, you indicate that you have read the above information and you understand and agree that these are for Nevada Bar Exam applicants’ personal use only and may not be redistributed or republished in any form, whether electronic, written or printed.
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The MEE consists of six 30-minute questions. Areas of law that may be covered on the MEE include the following: Business Associations (Agency and Partnership; Corporations and Limited Liability Companies), Civil Procedure, Conflict of Laws, Constitutional Law, Contracts (including Article 2 [Sales] of the Uniform Commercial Code), Criminal Law and Procedure, Evidence, Family Law, Real Property, Torts, Trusts and Estates (Decedents' Estates; Trusts and Future Interests), and Article 9 (Secured Transactions) of the Uniform Commercial Code. Some questions may include issues in more than one area of law. The particular areas covered vary from exam to exam.
Effective with the July 2026 bar exam, the following areas will no longer be tested on the MEE: Conflict of Laws, Family Law, Trusts and Estates, and Secured Transactions.
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Philippine Bar Exam Preparation Guide
- May 9, 2020
Bar 101: A Guide on How to Answer Bar Exam Questions
Updated: Aug 25, 2021
Compiled By: Archiebald Faller Capila
Much has been said, written about, and debated upon the topic of how to properly answer Bar exam questions. Law students all over the Philippines may have heard a list or two on what to do and what to avoid come the time they take the exams for four Sundays. From different practitioners to a handful of professors trying to help the next generation of lawyers, different techniques and strategies have already been shared through various platforms.
However, due to the litany of strategies law students often hear from different people, they tend to be over-informed, worse, be rattled on what advice to follow.
To help law students narrow down what to do when it comes to answering Bar exam questions, we have compiled a list containing the most often told tips of law professors and law practitioners on how to properly answer a Bar exam question. Below is a guide that can help law students surpass the Bar.
Read and follow the instructions
Most Bar takers tend to go through the questions right away after being handed the questionnaires and having a go signal to start the exams. This, according to most professors and lawyers, is the common mistake of those who took the previous Bar exams. Given the fact that each Bar examiner has a specific set of instructions for their respective exams, bar examinees should read the instructions first.
Reading the instructions carefully is important in the two-examiner-per-subject Bar Exam format as every subject for the examination is checked by two examiners who made two separate sets of exams. This means that an examinee will be having two booklets for two sets of the exam. Under this new rule, the examinee is required to write his answers in two separate booklets corresponding to the two separate questionnaires/parts. As such, even if there are remaining spaces in the first booklet, the examinee is required to move to the second booklet for the second part.
Look at the questions first
At times, the exam offers a kilometric set of facts which will make the examinees spend so much time reading it. Most Bar questions have tricky facts that branch out to legal problems which will make law students think critically and exhaust them all the way. However, most of the time, the questions posed are simple.
By reading the question first, students will be able to read and understand the set of facts given in a legal problem. They can filter out unnecessary facts that will only confuse them.
Check for the keywords within the facts and the questions
A legal problem in the Bar exam will always hand in something to every examinee. Whether it be a word, a phrase, or even a legal provision, takers must consider the same and determine whether or not it is relevant to the answer they have in mind.
For example, one is confronted with a Criminal Law question and a crime was given in the facts. The examinee is then expected to cross-refer the same to the legal elements of the crime. Are the elements of the crime present? Is one or more lacking? If so, what? With this, a Bar taker could answer in a manner that is accorded with a legal basis and the like.
Don’t forget to write legibly and provide sizable margins
It must be ingrained in memory that every taker must leave a margin on both sides of the test booklets. Bar examiners always want a neatly-submitted booklet when they are checking the same.
Also, takers must write clearly. Grammatical errors may affect the grades an examiner may give to a taker. It must always be remembered that the Bar exam, first and foremost, is an English exam that requires mastery of the language as well.
Remembering ALAC and KISS
The ALAC method strikes as the most familiar and most useful to all bar exam takers out there. To those having a hard time on how to come up with a well-crafted answer in the Bar, let us revisit the said method.
Before stretching out one’s knowledge when it comes to the pertinent jurisprudence or codal provisions, one must first answer. Most questions will ask whether or not the contention of a party is correct. Takers must first answer by jotting down a YES or a NO followed by the question asked (e.g. YES, the contention of the petitioner is correct.)
After answering and establishing a point of reference, takers must now lay down the related jurisprudence or codal provision to defend the answer. One must take note however that while there may be a lot of possible answers considering the exceptions and the exceptions to the latter as well, remember that there is only one issue in the legal question in which the examiner would like to be answered. In short, do not complicate the answers and simplify them as much as possible.
Now that the legal basis is established, an analysis must then be made towards the facts of the legal problem. Here, correlation and cross-referencing to the facts as well as the question comes to play. This is the portion in which takers can further expound on their answer aside from the given legal basis.
At times, the ANALYSIS is also referred to as the APPLICATION wherein a taker must apply the legal basis he or she has given to the set of facts and problems in the exam.
For the last paragraph of the answer, one must sum up all of the factors already stated in the preceding sentences. It serves as the point referring to the end of your answer.
NO, the contention of X is incorrect.
According to the Revised Penal Code, the elements of self-defense as a justifying circumstance are as follows: unlawful aggression; the reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it, and; lack of sufficient provocation on the part of the person defending himself.
In this case, the second element is lacking. Shooting an aggressor multiple times at the back, according to jurisprudence, is not within reasonable means to prevent or repel an attack.
Hence, X cannot use self-defense to be exculpated of the crime charged.
As shown in the given example, the KISS method was also applied. The acronym stands for “Keep It Short and Simple.” Bar takers are expected to go directly to the point and avoid beating around the bush. Given the number of Bar takers in the country, examiners only have a very limited time in checking every booklet. Bar takers should know how to answer shortly yet so concise that all the issues in the legal problem are answered with just a couple of sentences.
While there is only ample time left in studying for eight subjects for a couple of months, how to answer Bar exam questions must already be given importance. Being compressed into five easy steps, may this guide serve as a simple yet handy reminder to all the Bar takers for this year and the years to come as well.
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The Study of Law in the Time of Lockdown
1. This Questionnaire contains ten (10) pages including this page. Check the number of pages and their proper sequencing. You may write notes on this Questionnaire.
Read each question very carefully and write your answers in your Bar Examination Notebook in the same order as the questions. Write your answers only on the front page of every sheet. Note well the allocated percentage points for each question or sub-question. In your answers, use the numbering system in the questionnaire.
2. Answer the questions legibly, clearly, and concisely. Start each answer on a separate page. An answer to a sub-question under the same number may be written continuously on the same page and the immediately succeeding pages until completed.
3. Your answer should demonstrate your ability to analyze the facts, apply the pertinent laws and jurisprudence, and arrive at a sound or logical conclusion. Always support your answer with the pertinent laws, rules, and/or jurisprudence.
A MERE "YES" OR "NO" ANSWER WITHOUT ANY CORRESPONDING EXPLANATION OR DISCUSSION WILL NOT BE GIVEN FULL CREDIT. THUS, ALWAYS BRIEFLY BUT FULLY EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWERS ALTHOUGH THE QUESTION DOES NOT EXPRESSLY ASK FOR AN EXPLANATION. DO NOT REWRITE OR REPEAT THE QUESTION ON YOUR NOTEBOOK.
4. Do not write your name or any extraneous note/s or distinctive marking/s on your Notebook that can serve as an identifying mark/s (such as names that are not in the given questions, prayers, or private notes to the Examiner). Writing, leaving, or making any distinguishing or identifying mark in the Notebook is considered cheating and can disqualify you.
YOU CAN BRING HOME THE QUESTIONNAIRE.
JUSTICE MARIANO C. DEL CASTILLO Chairperson 2018 Bar Examinations
Congress enacted a law to provide Filipinos, especially the poor and the marginalized, access and information to a full range of modern family planning methods, including contraceptives, intrauterine devices, injectibles, non- abortifacient hormonal contraceptives, and family planning products and supplies, but expressly prohibited abortion. To ensure its objectives, the law made it mandatory for health providers to provide information on the full range of modern family planning methods, supplies and services, for schools to provide reproductive health education, for non-governmental medical practitioners to render mandatory 48 hours pro bono reproductive health services as a condition to Philhealth accreditation, and for couples desiring to marry to attend a family planning seminar prior to the issuance of a marriage license. It also punishes certain acts of refusals to carry out its mandates. The spouses Aguiluz, both Roman Catholics, filed a petition to declare the law as unconstitutional based on, among others, the following grounds:
(a) It violates the right to life, since it practically sanctions abortion. Despite express terms prohibiting abortion, petitioners claim that the family planning products and supplies oppose the initiation of life, which is a fundamental human right, and the sanction of contraceptive use contravenes natural law and is an affront to the dignity of man.
(b) It violates the constitutional prohibition against involuntary servitude because it requires medical practitioners to render 48 hours of pro bono reproductive health services which may be against their will.
(c) It violates the Freedom of Religion, since petitioners' religious beliefs prevent them from using contraceptives, and that any State- sponsored procurement of contraceptives, funded by taxes, violates the guarantee of religious freedom.
Rule on each of the above objections. (2.5% each)
Agnes was allegedly picked up by a group of military men headed by Gen. Altamirano, and was brought to several military camps where she was interrogated, beaten, mauled, tortured, and threatened with death if she would not confess her membership in the New People's Army (NPA) and point to the location of NPA camps. She suffered for several days until she was released after she signed a document saying that she was a surenderee, and was not abducted or harmed by the military. After she was released, and alleging that her rights to life, liberty and security had been violated and continued to be threatened by violation of such rights, she filed with the Supreme Court (the Court) a Petition for the Writs of Amparo and Habeas Data with prayers for Temporary Protection Orders, Inspection of Place, and Production of Documents and Personal Properties. The case was filed against President Amoyo (who was the President of the Philippines when the abduction, beating, mauling and life threats were committed), General Altamirano, and several military men whom Agnes was able to recognize during her ordeal. The Court, after finding the petition to be in order, issued the writ of amparo and the writ of habeas data and directed the respondents to file a verified return on the writs, and directed the Court of Appeals (CA) to hear the petition. The respondents duly filed their return on the writs and produced the documents in their possession. After hearing, the CA ruled that there was no more need to issue the temporary protection orders since the writ of amparo had already been issued, and dismissed the petition against President Amoyo on the ground that he was immune from suit during his incumbency as President. Agnes appealed the CA ruling to the Court. The appeal was lodged after President Amoyo's term had ended.
(a) Was the CA correct in saying that the writ of amparo rendered unnecessary the issuance of the temporary protection order? (2.5%)
(b) Will the President's immunity from suit continue even after his term has ended, considering that the events covered by the Petition took place during his term? (2.5%)
What and whose vote is required for the following acts: (2% each)
(a) the repeal of a tax exemption law;
(b) a declaration of the existence of a state of war;
(c) the amendment of a constitutional provision through a constituent assembly;
(d) the resolution of a tie in a presidential election; and
(e) the extension of the period for the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus?
The Province of Amaya is one of the smallest provinces in the Philippines with only one legislative district composed of four municipalities: Uno, Dos, Tres, and Cuatro.
Andres, a resident and registered voter of Cuatro municipality, ran and was elected as member of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) of Amaya in the 2010 and 2013 local elections.
While Andres was serving his second term as ·sp member, a law was enacted re-apportioning the four towns of Amaya into two legislative districts: Uno and Dos comprising the First District, and Tres and Cuatro comprising the Second District.
In the 2016 local elections, Andres ran and was elected as member of the SP of Amaya representing the Second District.
Andres seeks your legal advice regarding his intention to run as a member of the SP of Amaya for the Second District in the next local elections in 2019. What will you advise Andres? (2.5%)
State whether or not the following acts are constitutional: (2% each)
(a) A law prescribing as qualifications for appointment to any court lower than the Supreme Court, Philippine citizenship, whether natural-born or naturalized, 35 years of age on the date of appointment, and at least eight years as a member of the Philippine Bar;
(b) A law requiring all candidates for national or local elective offices to be college degree holders;
(c) The designation by the President of an acting Associate Commissioner of the Civil Service Commission;
(d) The appointment by the President as Deputy Ombudsman of a lawyer who has been engaged in the practice of law for five years; and
(e) The nomination by a national party-list of a person who is not one of its bona fide members.
Ang Araw, a multi-sectoral party-list organization duly registered as such with the Commission on Elections (Comelec), was proclaimed as one of the winning party-list groups in the last national elections. Its first nominee, Alejandro, assumed office as the party-list representative.
About one year after Alejandro assumed office, the Interim Central Committee of Ang Araw expelled Alejandro from the party for disloyalty and replaced him with Andoy, its second nominee. Alejandro questioned before the Comelec his expulsion and replacement by Andoy.
The Comelec considered Alejandro's petition as an intra-party dispute which it could resolve as an incident of its power to register political parties; it proceeded to uphold the expulsion.
Is the Comelec's ruling correct? (5%)
The 2016 mayoralty race in the City of Ardania included Arnaldo and Anacleto as contenders.
Arnaldo filed a petition with the Comelec to cancel Anacleto's Certificate of Candidacy (CoC) for misrepresenting himself as a Filipino citizen. Arnaldo presented as evidence a copy of Anacleto's Spanish passport and a certification from the Bureau of Immigration (Bl) showing that Anacleto used the same passport several times to travel to and from Manila and Madrid or Barcelona.
In his Comment, Anacleto claimed that, a year prior to filing his CoC, he had complied with all the requirements of R.A. No. 9225 (Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003) to reacquire his Philippine citizenship by taking an oath of allegiance and executing a sworn renunciation of his Spanish citizenship. He defended the use of his Spanish passport subsequent to taking his oath of allegiance to the Philippines as a practical necessity since he had yet to obtain his Philippine passport despite reacquiring his Philippine citizenship. Even after he secured his Philippine passport, he said he had to wait for the issuance of a Schengen visa to allow him to travel to Spain to visit his wife and minor children.
(a) Based on the allegations of the parties, is there sufficient ground to cancel Anacleto's CoC? (2.5%)
(b) In case Anacleto's CoC is properly cancelled, who should serve as mayor of Ardania City: Arnaldo, who obtained the second highest number votes, or Andrea, the duly-elected Vice Mayor of the City? (2.5%)
Two petitions for the cancellation of Certificate of Candidacy (CoC)/Denial of Due Course were filed with the Comelec against two candidates running as municipal mayors of different towns.
The first petition was against Anselmo. Years ago, Anselmo was charged and convicted of the crime of rape by final judgment, and was sentenced to suffer the principal penalty of reclusion perpetua which carried the accessory penalty of perpetual absolute disqualification. While Anselmo was in prison, the President commuted his sentence and he was discharged from prison.
The second petition was against Ambrosio. Ambrosio's residency was questioned because he was allegedly a "green card holder," i.e., a permanent resident of the US, as evidenced by a certification to this effect from the US Embassy.
Acting on the recommendations of its Law Department, the Comelec en banc motu proprio issued two resolutions granting the petitions against Anselmo and Ambrosio.
Both Anselmo and Ambrosio filed separate petitions with the Supreme Court assailing the resolutions cancelling their respective CoCs. Both claimed that the Comelec en bane acted with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction because the petitions should have first been heard and resolved by one of the Comelec's Divisions.
Are Anselmo and Ambrosio correct? (5%)
In 1990, Agripina migrated to Canada and acquired Canadian citizenship.
In 2008, Agripina retired and returned to the Philippines to permanently reside in her hometown of Angeles, Pampanga. A month after returning to the Philippines, Agripina took her oath of allegiance and executed a sworn renunciation of her Canadian citizenship in accordance with R.A. No. 9225.
In 2009, Agripina filed her certificate of candidacy for Congress for the 2010 elections. Agripina's political rivals lost no time in causing the filing of various actions to question her candidacy. They questioned her eligibility to run as member of Congress. Since Agripina had to take an oath under R.A. No. 9225, it meant that she needed to perform an act to perfect her Philippine citizenship.
Hence, they claimed that Agripina could not be considered a natural-born citizen. Agripina raised the defense that, having complied with the requirements of R.A. No. 9225, she had reacquired, and was deemed never to have lost, her Philippine citizenship.
Is Agripina disqualified to run for Congress for failing to meet the citizenship requirement? (2.5%)
Ascertain the constitutionality of the following acts: (2.5% each)
(a) An investigation conducted by the Ombudsman against a Commissioner of the Commission on Audit for serious misconduct.
(b) A law prohibiting any court, other than the Supreme Court, from issuing a writ of injunction against an investigation being conducted by the Ombudsman.
(c) A law prohibiting any appeal from the decision or final order of the Ombudsman in an administrative proceeding, except through a petition for review on certiorari filed before the Supreme Court.
Under Section 6 of Article V (on Criminal Jurisdiction) of the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA), the custody of a United States (US) personnel who becomes subject to criminal prosecution before a Philippine court shall be with the US military authorities, if the latter so requests. The custody shall begin from the commission of the offense until the completion of all judicial proceedings. However, when requested, the US military authorities shall make the US personnel available to Philippine authorities for any investigative or judicial proceeding relating to the offense with which the person has been charged. In the event that the Philippine judicial proceedings are not completed within one year, the US shall be relieved of any obligation under Section 6.
The constitutionality of Section 6, Article V of the VFA is challenged on two grounds: (1) it nullifies the exclusive power of the Supreme Court to adopt rules of procedure for all courts in the Philippines; and (2) it violates the equal protection clause to the extent that it allows the transfer of the custody of an accused to a foreign power as providing a different rule of procedure for that accused.
Rule on the challenge. (5%)
Section 9 of P.O. No. 1606, as amended, provides that the Sandiganbayan may adopt internal rules governing the allotment of cases among its divisions, the rotation of justices among them, and other matters relating to the internal operations of the court.
Section 6 of Article IX-A of the Constitution allows each of the Constitutional Commissions "en bane [to] promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules however shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights."
Section 16(3) of Article VI of the Constitution states that "Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings." Section 21, Article VI of the Constitution further provides that "The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries... in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure."
Finally, Section 3(8) of Article XI of the Constitution declares that "The Congress shall promulgate its rules on impeachment to effectively carry out the purposes of this section."
Are the rules promulgated pursuant to these provisions subject to review and disapproval by the Supreme Court? (5%)
PO1 Adrian Andal is known to have taken bribes from apprehended motorists who have violated traffic rules. The National Bureau of Investigation conducted an entrapment operation where P01 Adrian was caught red-handed demanding and taking PhP500.00 from a motorist who supposedly beat a red light.
After he was apprehended, PO1 Adrian was required to submit a sample of his urine. The drug test showed that he was positive for dangerous drugs. Hence, PO1 Adrian was charged with violation of Section 15, Article II of R.A. No. 9165 or the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002.
PO1 Adrian argues against the admissibility of the urine test results and seeks its exclusion. He claims that the mandatory drug test under R.A. No. 9165 is a violation of the accused's right to privacy and right against self-incrimination.
Are PO1 Adrian's contentions correct? (2.5%)
Amoroso was· charged with treason before a military court martial. He was acquitted.
He was later charged with the same offense before a Regional Trial Court. He asks that the information be quashed on the ground of double jeopardy.
The prosecution objects, contending that for purposes of double jeopardy, the military court martial cannot be considered as a "competent court."
Should the Regional Trial Court grant Amoroso's motion to quash on the ground of double jeopardy? (2.5%)
Annika sued the Republic of the Philippines, represented by the Director of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and asked for the revocation of a deed of donation executed by her in favor of said Bureau. She alleged that, contrary to the terms of the donation, the donee failed to install lighting facilities and a water system on the property donated, and to build an office building and parking lot thereon, which should have been constructed and made ready for occupancy on or before the date fixed in the deed of donation.
The Republic invoked state immunity and moved for the dismissal of the case on the ground that it had not consented to be sued. Should the Republic's motion be granted? (2.5%)
Five foreign nationals arrived at the NAIA from Hong Kong. After retrieving their checked-in luggage, they placed all their bags in one pushcart and proceeded to Express Lane 5. They were instructed to place their luggage on the examiner's table for inspection.
The examiner found brown-colored boxes, similar in size to powdered milk boxes, underneath the clothes inside the foreigners' bags. The examiner discovered white crystalline substances inside the boxes that he inspected and proceeded to bundle all of the boxes by putting masking tape around them. He thereafter handed the boxes over to Bureau of Customs agents. The agents called out the names of the foreigners one by one and ordered them to sign their names on the masking tape placed on the boxes recovered from their respective bags. The contents of the boxes were thereafter subjected to tests which confirmed that the substance was shabu.
Can the shabu found inside the boxes be admitted in evidence against the five foreigners for the charge of illegal possession of drugs in violation of the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002? (2.5%)
The police served a warrant of arrest on Ariston who was suspected of raping and killing a female high school student. While on the way to the police station, one of the police officers who served the warrant asked Ariston in the local dialect if he really raped and killed the student, and Ariston nodded and said, "Opo." Upon arriving at the police station, Ariston saw the City Mayor, whom he approached and asked if they could talk privately. The Mayor led Ariston to his office and, while there in conversation with the Mayor, Ariston broke down and admitted that he raped and killed the student. The Mayor thereafter opened the door of the room to let the public and media representatives witness Ariston's confession. In the presence of the Mayor, the police and the media, and in response to questions asked by some members of the media, Ariston sorrowfully confessed his guilt and sought forgiveness for his actions.
Which of these extrajudicial confessions, if any, would you consider as admissible in evidence against Ariston? (5%)
Two police teams monitored the payment of ransom in a kidnapping case.
The bag containing the ransom money was placed inside an unlocked trunk of a car which was parked at the Angola Commercial Center in Mandaluyong City.
The first police team, stationed in an area near where the car was parked, witnessed the retrieval by the kidnappers of the bag from the unlocked trunk. The kidnappers thereafter boarded their car and proceeded towards the direction of Amorsolo St. in Makati City where the second police team was waiting.
Upon confirmation by radio report from the first police team that the kidnappers were heading towards their direction, the second police team proceeded to conduct surveillance on the car of the kidnappers, eventually saw it enter Ayala Commercial Center in Makati City, and the police team finally blocked it when it slowed down. The members of the second police team approached the vehicle and proceeded to arrest the kidnappers.
Is the warrantless arrest of the kidnappers by the second police team lawful? (5%)
President Alfredo died during his third year in office. In accordance with the Constitution, Vice President Anastasia succeeded him. President Anastasia then nominated the late President Alfredo's Executive Secretary, Anna Maria, as her replacement as Vice President. The nomination was confirmed by a majority of all the Members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, voting separately.
(a) Is Anna Maria's assumption as Vice President valid? (2.5%)
(b) Can Anastasia run as President in the next election? (2.5%)
Andreas and Aristotle are foreign nationals working with the Asian Development Bank (ADS) in its headquarters in Manila. Both were charged with criminal acts before the local trial courts.
Andreas was caught importing illegal drugs into the country as part of his "personal effects" and was thus charged with violation of Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002. Before the criminal proceedings could commence, the President had him deported as an undesirable alien. Aristotle was charged with grave oral defamation for uttering defamatory words against a colleague at work. In his defense, Aristotle claimed diplomatic immunity. He presented as proof a communication from the Department of Foreign Affairs stating that, pursuant to the Agreement between the Philippine Government and the ADS, the bank's officers and staff are immune from legal processes with respect to acts performed by them in their official capacity.
(a) Can the President's act of deporting an undesirable alien be subject to judicial review? (2.5%)
(b) Is Aristotle's claim of diplomatic immunity proper? (2.5%)
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CBSE Class 10 English Practice Paper 2024 with Solutions: Best for Last Minute Revision
Cbse class 10 english practice paper 2024: check the cbse class 10 english practice paper with solutions to prepare for the upcoming board exam. this practice paper is as per the latest exam pattern and based on the full syllabus. download the practice paper and solutions in pdf..
CBSE Class 10 English Practice Paper PDF: Practice paper for CBSE Class 10 English (Language and Literature) is provided here to help students practise important questions and assess their preparedness for the upcoming CBSE Class 10 English Exam which is scheduled for February 26, 2024 (Monday). The practice paper is based on the latest exam pattern, making it an essential resource for students to familiarise themselves with the questions’ format and marking scheme. Additionally, the questions included in the practice paper have been curated by experienced subject teachers based on the key topics and previous years’ trends. Download the practice paper along with solutions to prepare for your CBSE 10th English board exam.
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CBSE Class 10 English (Language & Literature) Practice Paper 2024
Section A: Reading Skills (20 Marks)
1.Read the given text: 10 M arks
(1) Starting Monday, the country's low-cost Mars mission with the red planet for an extended period will enter the blackout phase snapping communication with the satellite. From June 8 to 22 the Sun will block Mars from the Earth snapping communication with the satellite.
(2)A senior Indian Space Research Organization official said. "That will be for the first time that there will be communication break for such a long period of about 15 days. During this period there will be no communication with the satellite, he added.
(3)Expressing confidence about regaining control over the satellite once the blackout phase is over, he said, "the scenario had been tested and the line of communication will be established" The spacecraft's life has been extended for another six months in March due to surplus fuel.
(4)Stating that the spacecraft has been "configured for the blackout, the ISRO official said, "we are not sending any commands to the spacecraft now; till 8 June few hours of signals will be sent by the spacecraft that will be for about two to three hours per day" In May next year, the mission will have to go through a similar phase once there is another extension of mission life when the Earth will come between the Sun and Mars.
(5)Scripting space history, India on September 24 last successfully placed its low-cost Mars spacecraft in orbit around the red planet in its very first attempt, breaking into an elite club of three countries.
Based on your understanding of the extract, answer the questions below:
(i) Infer one reason for the following based on information in paragraph 1:
The blackout phase is significant---------------------
(ii) Choose the appropriate option to fill in the blank.
From paragraph 1&2, we can infer that there will be………………….
1.no communication with the people.
2. blackout phase
3. satellite will get no communication
4. moon will block the earth
5. the communication break will be for 15 days
(iii) According to ISRO official till 8 June, when Sun will block Mars……………. Signal/signals per day will be sent to the spacecraft
(D) only few
(iv) Complete the following sentence.
(iv) The ISRO officials are............. about their control over the spacecraft after the blackout phase.
(v) The spacecraft's life was extended by six months because of
(A) extra fuel
(B) incomplete work
(C) lack of communication amongst ISRO officials
(D) technical problems in its landing
(vi) Read the following sentence:
(a) The blackout was a sudden development.
(b) Because of this, the officials are very nervous about the success of the spacecraft.
(A) Both (A) & (B) are true
(B) Both (A) & (B) are false.
(C) (A) is true and (B) is false.
(D) (A) is false and (B) is true.
(vii) Find the word in the 1st para which means the same as ‘a sudden break’…………..
(viii) Throw light on India's script in space history in about 40 words.
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BAMBOO.BAR restaurant of Moscow-City
The tropical exotic island of peaceful atmosphere with the inimitable pan-Asian cuisine and conceptual music is located between concrete jungle of business center “Moscow-City” and Presnenskaya embankment.
BAMBOO.BAR is a two-storeyed restaurant of “Moscow-City” where you can enjoy a twelve meter long contact bar, a famous summer terrace and the most glamorous parties in the city.
The head chef, Sergey Kozhakov, offers the guests the unique menu of traditional pan-Asian dishes designed by his own. He gets inspiration from his gastronomic journeys around Asian and Oriental countries.
The menu of unique pan-Asian dishes of BAMBOO.BAR is the embodiment of Sergey Kozhakov’s creativity. The recipe of his flawless cuisine consists of select ingredients and pure inspiration, got by Sergey’s gastronomic journeys around Asian and Oriental countries. Sergey Kozhakov underwent training in the restaurant “Five Elements” from a head chef Made Runatha who is a true master in the field of macrobiotics, Ayurveda and rawism. He also mastered the unlimited tastes and formations based on plants. Sergey is completely supportive of the Orient philosophy and says that dishes should be born with love and come from the Universe. He creates his new masterpieces under the influence of his muse that can become anything – starting from the smile of a passer-by and finishing with an experienced emotion. ...
BAMBOO BAR RESTAURANT MENU
Home — Essay Samples — Geography & Travel — Travel and Tourism Industry — The History of Moscow City
The History of Moscow City
- Categories: Russia Travel and Tourism Industry
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Published: Feb 12, 2019
Words: 614 | Page: 1 | 4 min read
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