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2006-2007 Essay Contest - Is immigration good or bad for the U.S. economy?
The Economics of Immigration
It is often said that America is a nation of immigrants. Generations have moved here seeking opportunity and liberty, and have contributed to making this country the wealthiest in history.
However, immigration has been a controversial topic almost since the first waves of immigrants arrived on our shores. Periodically, opposition swells from advocates who claim that enough people are already here and that too much immigration is bad for the country legally, culturally or economically.
Such a controversy has again arisen recently. From the formation of vigilante squads of "Minutemen" along the U.S. border, to nationwide protests over immigrant rights and congressional debates about "guest worker" programs, immigration has flared up again as a social issue.
For this reason, the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis has chosen the topic for its nineteenth annual essay contest, asking students the question, "Is immigration good or bad for the U.S. economy?"
Of course casting immigration as simply good or bad is a simplification. Immigration is a complex topic. But the point is to get you to pick a side and defend it. By doing so, you'll come to better understand the issue.
What can economics contribute? Economists probably won't have much to say about the effect of immigration on crime, language or American culture. But as with any other issue, economic analysis can provide insight into crucial trade-offs in the face of scarcity
As you tackle this essay, try to think about the many different aspects on which economics can be brought to bear. Since immigration is such a multifaceted topic, the intent of this primer isn't to give a complete overview of the controversy, but to highlight some important points.
Trade in goods vs. Trade in services
Ever since the British writer David Ricardo 200 years ago, economists have generally held that allowing the free movement of goods between two nations enhances the overall wealth of both nations by allowing them to use their comparative advantages. Shouldn't the same be true for services? If you think immigration is bad for the economy, you'll have to argue that labor is different from other commodities, and explain why.
Immigration affects labor markets
Most immigrants moving to the United States come for the work opportunities. This can dramatically improve the lives of those who come from poorer countries with fewer opportunities, but it also affects workers already living here. All else equal, a greater supply of workers will reduce wages for those already in the market. How much it changes wages is an empirical question for you to investigate.
Immigration has social costs
Like everyone else, immigrants use social services—education, public transportation, health-care, etc. But since many immigrants earn lower incomes, they are more likely to use certain services than higher-income Americans. An increasing immigrant population then places extra burden on government programs.
Immigration has social benefits
It is often said that poor immigrants work hard, unpleasant jobs that "Americans won't do." Economists will tell you this is wrong—it's not that Americans won't take the work, just not at the prevailing low wages. The problem is that for many of these jobs the return is low enough that they won't be profitable at the much higher wages required for Americans to take them. So, rather than immigrants "taking American jobs" on the one side versus working where Americans are "too spoiled to work" on the other, they are often performing valuable services that otherwise wouldn't get done at all.
What is the balance of costs and benefits for the U.S.? That is for you to answer in this essay. Take a look at our bibliography and find your own sources. Start reading about the topic and gathering evidence. Then take a side, keep your economic principles in mind, and try to be persuasive.
If you have any questions, contact Joe Mahon at [email protected] or call 612-204-5254.
The Andrea Mitchell Center for the Study of Democracy
Is Immigration Good or Bad for Democracy - Panelist Essays
P.j. brendese immigration, biopolitics and segregated time.
CONTEMPORARY IMMIGRATION DEBATES ARE FREQUENTLY STUDIED AS POPULATION FLOWS across spatial borders, with relatively less scholarly reflection on how the stakes of those debates are framed and contested in terms of time. The insufficiency persists despite the glaringly obvious temporal dimensions of neo-nativist arguments in the U.S. on behalf of reclaiming a past of patriarchal, white-governed, national greatness—partisans plainly seeking to turn back the clock. Such right-wing rallying cries articulate a broader desire for protection against a future of empowered minority groups who are simultaneously perceived as advancing too fast and whose respective differences are stigmatized as being backward, less evolved or behind the times.
The problem is only accelerated by queue-jumping foreigners who refuse to either wait their turn for citizenship or accept indefinite banishment—the latter being the stated preference among those who frequently invoke the epidemiological rhetoric of an “infestation” or military invasion. From the standpoint of time, then, it follows that calls to “build the wall” should also be heard as temporal desires expressed in spatial terms. On the left, pro-immigration advocates frequently, and uncritically, valorize the indispensability of immigrant labor. The logic that immigrants do the jobs that Americans will not, or cannot do, perpetuates an already enduring biopolitics whereby the extended lifetimes of dominant populations are leveraged on the foreshortened lifespans of racial others. Either stated or implied, a working premise is that a steady supply of cheap and plentiful immigrant workers is necessary to provide citizens with the accoutrements of twenty-first century digital capitalism, even if it means that immigrant others toil in conditions evocative of the nineteenth century. READ MORE
Elizabeth F. Cohen WHY TRUMP'S IMMIGRATION POLICIES WILL INCREASE UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRATION
Published in Politico, 03/01/2017
THERE ARE MANY REASONS TO BE CONCERNED about Trump’s executive order on border security and memoranda on immigration policy. He is clearly set on sealing the country’s southern border and indiscriminately deporting large numbers of people, a toxic combination of nativist policies with ominous implications for the U.S. economy and society.
For all the deserved criticism of Trump’s proposal, one big thing has been taken for granted: that it would actually succeed in reducing the undocumented population. In fact, walling off the southern border and throwing out residents who have been working in U.S. for extended periods of time could yield the exact opposite result. Turning ourselves into an anti-immigrant police state could actually increase the population of long-term undocumented people in the U.S.
Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia IS IMMIGRATION GOOD OR BAD FOR DEMOCRACY?
ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC, current debates about immigration (broadly defined) are divided into two opposing controversial perspectives. Proponents of restrictive policies argue that immigration is bad—for the economy, the safety of citizens, and national identity. From their perspective, immigrants pose a socioeconomic and an ethno-cultural threat to Western societies. They are perceived as stealing native workers’ jobs, reducing their wages, and vastly consuming social benefits. Immigrants reputedly threaten national identity and societal cohesion, especially the newcomers whose perceived distinctiveness challenges the assimilative capacity of their host societies. These claims fuel populist movements, nativist agendas, and anti-migrant sentiments.
Conversely, proponents of liberal policies argue that the socio-economic and cultural contributions of immigrants are largely positive. They praise immigration as improving “diversity” (also broadly defined) while noting that newcomers actually assimilate faster than prior generations of immigrants, including those (such as Muslims and Hispanics) often suspected of being unable to assimilate at all. They provide evidence that immigration is unrelated to delinquency, criminality, or terrorism—natives being more likely to commit these acts than newcomers (as illustrated by evidence regarding domestic terrorists both in Europe and the United States).
I argue that these debates are sterile for at least three reasons. The first relates to a lack of clear definitions and the subsequent distortion of migration scale. Immigrants are basically defined as persons who, at some stage, have crossed a border. Yet, how should people born in their country of residence be defined when they do not have access to citizenship? Or how should nationals who are perceived as immigrants on the basis on their foreign origin be defined when they are citizens? Furthermore, definition of the category constituting “the others” has been expanded by the conflation of the notions of legal immigrants, illegal immigrants, foreigners, foreign-born nationals, asylees and refugees. This residual category lacks both analytic clarity or policy acuity. This large scale terminological confusion and statistical uncertainty fuels, and is fueled by, the politicization of debates over immigration issues. It allows restrictionists to claim that Western societies are “invaded” by immigrants, which in turn leads public opinion (and often media coverage) to overestimate the size of migrant communities—and by extension the level of threat they allegedly pose in their country of residence.
The second reason that I suggest these debates are sterile relates to the tendency to use simplistic dichotomies in discussing the issues raised by immigration—such as bad or good immigrants, closed or open borders, pull or push factors, and nationalistic realism (justified by the ethics of responsibility to protect the nation) in contrast to idealist cosmopolitanism (based on the ethics of conviction and the need to protect human rights). Such a binary approach ignores the “grey zones” that characterize many aspects of the decision-making process in the fields of border controls, socio-economic policies, and integration policies. For example, the focus on “selective immigration policies”—a euphemism for the pro-active import of highly-skilled workers—may be good for Silicon Valley, but it irrelevant (if not bad) for other parts of the country, where there is a labor shortage in low-skilled occupations. The cosmopolitan ideal of open borders is unsustainable for political, economic, and security reasons; yet, increased border controls do not curb the number of illegal immigrants, nor solve the roots causes of migration in sending countries. The ethics of responsibility requires prioritizing the interests of the state and its citizens; yet, it does not require the infringement of the human rights and civil liberties of “others”—notably in the current context of a “permanent state of emergency” in which native citizens are also targeted by discriminatory security measures. Conversely, proponents of the ethic of conviction tend to underestimate the issues raised by the minority integration process, taking for granted the idea that “diversity” will produce more tolerance. Moreover, the belief that global redistributive justice would be served by a global freedom of movement has actually normalize forced migration—instead of addressing critical push factors in that process (such as poverty, civil war, and effects of climate change).
This leads to the third limitation of these current debates: neither restrictionist nor liberal perspectives adequately address the core relationship between immigration and democracy. Both approaches are abstract. They remain vague about immigration (what kind of immigration? What kind of immigrants?) and unclear about the aspects of democracy actually involved (access to citizenship and voting rights? State sovereignty? Composition of the demos ? Civic culture?).
Instead of asking whether immigration is good or bad for democracy, I thus advocate analyzing what kind of immigration policies are democratic and which are not. Addressing this question requires defining the contours and substance of a democratic governance of immigration. In doing so, I provide a critical evaluation of two main common assumptions. The first relates to the belief that immigration, like other “dark forces” of globalization, poses a threat to the traditional Westphalian state. Such a belief is used to legitimize “extraordinary measures” such as the reestablishment of border controls within the Schengen area in the aftermath of the 2015 refugee crisis; the erection of fences in Central and Eastern Europe; the violation of the Dublin regulation in Europe and of the Geneva Convention elsewhere; and the stationing of military troops at the US-Mexican border. Consistent with those scholars “bringing the state back in,” I argue that immigration policy remains one of the few bastions of state sovereignty. States have the full authority to select who is allowed to enter the country, apply for asylum, and be granted citizenship. The inability of Western democracies to manage the dynamics of the migratory process should therefore not be interpreted as an indicator of their limited capacity to rule. Failed policies are rather the result of poor political assessments of migratory processes, ideological planning, and debilitating controversies.
The second assumption I address deals with the perception of immigration as a challenge to societal cohesion and political stability. This assumption relates to the suspicion that immigrants are either unable to subscribe, respect or apply key values (such as patriotism or secularism in some European countries) or that they are forming lobbies in order to infiltrate the political system and promote their own agenda to the detriment of the (native) common good. This suspicion, in turn, is used by most democratic governments to justify the racialization/ethnicization of border controls and visa policies, as well as a “return to assimilation” via more exclusive citizenship regimes.
The arrival of newcomers, as well as ethno-racial diversity, is neither good nor bad for democracy. Some aspects can be positive, others can be negative. There is strong evidence, however, that the impact of immigration on democracy depends on the fairness and effectiveness of integration policies. Issues raised by the integration of migrants have to be addressed by policies respectful of basic democratic principles. Otherwise, undemocratic policies are not only counterproductive but also damage the core principles of democracy—as illustrated by the negative consequences of the “lesser evil” agenda. Discriminatory policies based on security concerns do not provide more security. Instead, they fuel a sense of alienation and resentment—leading to undemocratic behavior of behalf of those excluded.
Attempts to improve the democratic governance of immigration should therefore focus on three consequential aspects: Who is allowed to enter the country and on what basis others are excluded; the availability and effectiveness of institutional structures allowing newcomers to join mainstream society; and the management of minorities’ integration over time.
Immigration: Good or bad?
Immigration reform is needed in the us essay.
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The immigration patterns of the United States have fluctuated over the years, some years having little while others see a rising amount of immigrants, both legal and illegal, looking for opportunities to improve their lives. The amount of illegal immigration is a problem since many take advantage of the social services provided by the government without contributing towards the country since they are not citizens and many people see these illegal immigrants as a threat to their employment. Illegal immigrants do affect the U.S negatively in a number of ways, but if those illegal immigrants were to have a safe passageway towards gaining citizenship, the immigrants would contribute greatly towards the
Should Immigration Laws Be Reformed?
Immigration is a great part of this country. Immigrants came here for freedom and liberty from their oppressed and miserable country. They come here to find a “NEW” life to live and support their family. America was basically built from immigrants. How else would we have started this beautiful country? If it wasn 't for Christopher Columbus (who was an immigrant) this wouldn 't be the great country it is today.
The Impact of Immigration on The United States Essay
From an economic aspect, immigration is somewhat beneficial since it increases the US work force and it’s economy. According to Camarota Steven on his testimony’’ Immigration and the US economy’’, immigration overall increases the economy of the US due to the fact that more workers and more people mean bigger GDP. He also pointed out that the impact of immigration of the seize of the economy is not a measure of the benefits of natives. That means that regardless of the benefits of natives, Immigration is a tool to increase the economy of the US. On the other hand, it can be detrimental to the US economy. In fact most of the immigrants work “under the table” which make the fiscal
Should Illegal Immigrants Be Deported
Immigration has been a problem since the 1800s but now in the 2010s the immigration rate has increased over the years. We expect the immigration numbers to go up if nothing is done to stop from illegal immigrants coming across the border. There is many different viewpoints to look at immigration, many thinks it's good that they are in the United States because it could help the United States ecological standards. Some others don't like it at all that they are in the United States because of jobs getting outnumbered by illegal immigrants and leaves no american to get a jobs at certain companies.
The Pros And Cons Of Immigration In The United States?
The immigration debate in this country has grown stronger over the past few years. There are valid reasons for being in favor of allowing immigrants to enter this country. However, there are also legitimate concerns from those who oppose immigration to this country. I believe that by allowing immigrants to enter the country, it’s diversity increases and culture expands. It gives struggling people from all over the world an opportunity to a better life. This country was built by immigrants who sought opportunity, political & religious freedom, etc. Some of the most intelligent and ambitious individuals, who are unsatisfied with their own countries, bring their skills to America.
Immigration Argumentative Essay
Immigration has been a burning issue lately, particularly after Donald Trump’s immigration ban in the United States of America. It has been a topic that families discuss every morning with breakfast. Despite many concerns related to immigration, it has several positive benefits that mostly outweighs the negativity. People bizarrely argue when it comes to immigration, but these arguments are primarily based on facts and ideas that are outdated or inconsistent and blindfold the positive aspect related to immigration. Many immigrants in the United States are good workers who don't depend upon any public welfare and mostly help in the overall development of the economy. As a country made by immigrants, we must not forget the fact that immigrants have helped to build cities and create a path of development form Google to iPhones (Gray & Furman, 2012). These facts are secluded, and some related arguments with different content have been repeated for years and continue. Immigrants have a lot to give the United States rather than to take, especially when it comes to economic terms.
The Cost Of Immigration Reform
However, there are some immigrants that migrate to the U.S. that are disruptive and dangerous. So, I believe the most effective way to address the issue of immigration would be that of which would not cause any riot or separation within the people of the United States or any disruption with any of the other countries. One solution which would be very critical, would be enforcing immigration laws humanely. Another solution that would be helpful would be that a guest-worker friendly program be created and enforced. Along with the program, I believe that the U.S. should enhance border security, but not to the extent of building a wall along the border.
Immigrants In America
The increasing fear of crime and terrorism in the world is persuading many Americans that the country should close its door. But what about the fact that this country itself was founded by the immigrants? American journey of success would have not been possible without the generations of immigrants who have come to its shores from every corner of the world. I believe immigrants are a positive influence on America because they strengthen the country’s economy, allow people of America to learn about different cultures, languages and ideas, and shapes how the world views America.
America 's 240 Year Old Mixture Of Diversities
Immigration has been around since the first time the Mayflower arrived at Plymouth Rock with immigrants from Great Britain looking for a new home in order to have religious freedom. If Americans actually glance back into the history of the United States they will understand that they are all ancestors of immigrants who came from other countries looking for a better life in the new world. What made the United States a powerful country were the positive contributions of immigrants, such contributions were only possible by the numerous mixing of races while keeping true to their individual cultures; immigrants should adopt to a “melting pot” and a American way of life to have greater opportunities.
Nativism: Race and Immigrants
Economically speaking, immigration is beneficial for the American economy. Several arguments are given to try to prove this wrong. Some may say that immigrants take away jobs from Americans. But what jobs? Most immigrants work as maids or janitors, jobs that Americans do not want to do. What would the U.S. do without immigrants who are willing to do humiliating jobs for scarce amounts of money? Or maybe these critics of immigration are talking about the few amount of immigrants who want to excel and become successful? The anti-immigration people feel threatened and fear that these “minorities” will surpass the “native” Americans and they will no longer be able to control and manipulate these “ignorant, gullible immigrants.” Another argument is that immigrants receive more than their fair share of welfare benefits. But yet again in actuality immigrants pay their fair share of taxes. Julian
Undocumented Immigration Is It Bad For The United States
If we could reform the immigration laws we could push the country into a better direction, removing the immigrants is not the answer “Immigration reform would improve economic growth. The Bipartisan Policy Center estimates that reform would boost gross domestic product by 4.8 percent and productivity by 1.0 percent over 20 years. This expansion would have a powerful effect on easing our massive fiscal challenges. The Bipartisan Policy Center estimates that federal deficits would decrease by almost $1.2 trillion over 20 years.” (The Washington Times). Decreasing the federal deficit in 20 years instead of increasing it is a huge benefit to the country and possibly a solution it desperately needs.
The United States : The Dream Act Was Introduced By Senators Dick Durbin And Orrin Hatch
Immigration has been a part of the United States history since its birth. America is a country that was found and built by immigrants. In the beginning everybody was an immigrant. There were people from all over the globe coming to America with the hope for a better life—which still holds true today. There are countless reasons that people are wanting to come to America today. Some immigrants are fleeing radical governments, while others are escaping countries that are torn with civil war. On the down side, America is not a newly discovered land with wide open land for the taking anymore. She simply cannot accommodate every individual who wishes to live here. Regulating who, when, and the quantity of those who are coming to America is extremely important. Illegal immigration has been a problem in America for decades, and there have been numerous attempts in controlling it.
Why Is Immigration Good For The Us
For many years immigrants have been coming to the U.S for a better life and refuge. Immigrants do the the dirty jobs such as plumbing, construction, etc.
19th Century Immigration
Immigration has always and will always play an important role in America’s history, along with the United States having the most open immigration policy in the world to this date. American history began with flocks of immigrants competing for lands to start a life, bringing over their vast traditions and values. Some brought nothing but determination. It’s disgusting to see our congress and lawmakers make these higher-end laws to keep foreigners out, yet our country is built off immigrants. Since the 19th century, America has been the leading destination unlike no other for immigrants to reside. No other country has such a wide range of races and population like America. Diversity is indeed, what makes this country so unique. America has always
The Hot Topic of the Immigration Issue Essay examples
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Immigrants built America into the country it is today. Some were fleeing persecution in their own countries. The immigrants came as free individuals, indentured servants, or slaves. Most came here to pursue a better life. America welcomed those individuals, and it has a process in place for those wishing to gain legal citizenship. The immigration issue is a hot topic in the United States today and concerns individuals who are entering the country illegally. Our representatives are proposing new laws to limit access to our country through other than legal means. There are strong feelings on each side.
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Why Is Immigration Good Or Bad
Show More Immigration: Good or Bad? Society has mixed feelings about immigration. Some might say immigration brings in wealth and more jobs to the country they have immigrated. Others might say immigration brings poverty and steals jobs from the working class citizens. The United States’ laws on immigration are generally difficult to understand, and, therefore, difficult for immigrants to enter the U.S(Zadeh). In the eyes of the immigrants and even some citizens, this is not the American Dream, but from the citizens’ perspective, these laws are protecting their rights to work and have their own American Dream. Some believe allowing hard working, skilled immigrants to stay in America will bring America back to being an economic leader. Allowing immigrants
Argumentative essay on family deportation.
“The American Dream”, the most promising lifestyle all have aspired to reach some point for a better life, a better future or simply new beginnings it's not an easy journey especially for those migrating from another country. Immigrants have been the prime example of this search for hundreds of years here in the U.S., many of them come here seeking for a better tomorrow for not only themselves but their families as well. Many of these immigrants, however, are faced with the obstacle of not having citizenship. Entering the country illegally puts each and every one of them at risk of being taken away by immigration and has forced many of these families to live in constant fear of deportation and separation from their loved ones. Although thousands…
Immigration To America Research Paper
Also, it is why people from foreign countries are poor. People view the concept of immigration as bad simply because they think many illegal immigrants come to the U.S and commit crimes. Moreover, people also think that immigrants take over…
Why Illegal Immigration Is Bad For America
America’s economy is struggling. Millions of hard working American citizens have lost their jobs and fight to make ends meet. In addition, according to “Our Democratic Debt,” an article written in July of 2014, the federal government’s total debt is approaching $18 trillion (DeMuth). With this in mind, over eleven million undocumented immigrants reside in America. Illegal immigrants do not pay taxes, which worsens this debt and burdens the economy.…
What Are The Pros And Cons Of Us Immigration
Do you ever wonder why do people leave their home countries and immigrate to other countries? Many people emigrate from a country to other because of different reasons. some are forced to move, while others are looking for a better life. The United States of America seems to be the perfect county since it is the top destination country for global immigrants over the time. In the past, immigration was not playing a huge role of the population growth in The Untied States of America, but today it is playing a huge role.…
Rhetorical Analysis On Immigration
Amanda Frost introduces the ethical dilemma of immigration officials, in the present, through her text in the Iowa Law Review. She expresses that the process and policies of current immigration officers, “leaves unauthorized immigrants vulnerable to exploitation at both work and home--harming not just them, but also the legal immigrants and U.S. citizens with whom they live and work.” Frost unbiasedly brings out the pros and cons of detaining and deporting immigrants throughout her text. She presents that, “Trump's campaign rhetoric expressed hostility to all unauthorized immigrants” which displays the trait of fear where has appeared progressively through time. “If the Trump Administration's primary goal is to instill fear in the immigrant population and appeal to…
What Are The Pros And Cons Of Immigration
U.S. Immigration Policy A current controversial issue in the U.S. is the immigration policy. In 2013, The American Community Survey (ACS) estimates that the U.S. immigrant population stands at about 41.3 million, or 13 percent, of the total U.S. population and this population rises to 80 million or 25 percent of the 316.1 million that resides in the U.S. if the immigrant’s U.S. born children are included. The pro views to the immigration policy is that immigrants make up a great deal of the country and they also created it.…
The American Dream Is Hard To Success Essay
American Dream Many immigrants come to America with hopes of achieving their dreams and living a successful life. “The American dream is the idea that everyone has an equal opportunity to achieve success that can be earned through hard work, determination and inicative.” People are beginning to question whether the American dream is still achievable. The American dream is no longer available to everyone.…
Is Immigration Wrong
- Immigration is wrong because you never know if the immigrates are going to be or are good / bad people. -Donald Trump believes that all Muslims need to be blocked from the United States no questions asked. -People agree if they are here illegally then they need to be sent back to where they came from.…
Immigration: The Importance Of Migration To The United States
The United States was founded upon principles that anyone can achieve the American dream. The term American Dream can be seen in the declaration of independance and how it states that we have the right to the pursuit of happiness. Everything that makes the US so greats comes for this document giving us right and freedom that we deserve. The American dream can be interpreted as everyone that has an opportunity to make their way of living easier, than in other countries. Immigration is a huge effect from the opportunities that the U.S offers its foreign travelers.…
Barriers To The American Dream
The American dream is often characterized or described with luxuries and fame, although this is not the wrong approach to the infamous American dream, this is the dream of the citizens of this country. But if we take a different approach and ask immigrants what their American dream is, we discover a different perspective of the American dream. For many immigrants in the country , like myself, the American dream involves prosperity and the opportunity to reach higher education. Unlike U.S born citizens, undocumented immigrants have to work twice as hard to achieve any form of stability in the U.S, due to the fact that many needed resources are non-existent. The inevitable contrast between these two distinct approaches to the American dream,…
Persuasive Essay On Undocumented Immigrants
The Dreamers The United States of America is best known as a “free nation.” There are many opportunities in this country, but not everyone can enjoy them. There is an “estimated 11.7 million undocumented immigrants” in the United States (Chen 4). Immigrants however, are best known as hard and motivated workers.…
Essay On Illegal Immigrants Should Provide A Pathway To Citizenship
Illegal Immigrants Should be Provided a Pathway to Citizenship The American dream can defined as the idea that all American citizens have a chance for great success and happiness in life. To many, America is viewed as a place where opportunity is around every corner. Not every country offers the same freedoms as the United States, so immigrants travel from their country to another in hopes of obtaining a better life for not only them, but their families as well. Not every person that comes over is legal, however.…
Urban Crisis Research Paper
CCJ 6638: Communities & Crime Mariel Snouffer Topic 2: The Origins and Legacies of the Urban Crisis Contrary to the belief that anyone that works hard enough will be rewarded, “real life” is not necessarily the “American Dream” that everyone thinks. Neighborhoods do indeed matter for individual outcomes both independently and beyond individual characteristics. There are many long term impacts on the intergenerational transmission of poverty and wealth; and most certainly crossing racial and ethnic lines. The “American Dream” is the idea that is the primary story of American Immigration; the proposal that steered much of the thrust for civil rights. It is also a suggestion that has been undeviating with the American’s perception of impartial and just treatment, as long as there is a universal option for advancement.…
Conclusion For Immigration Essay
Immigration has been the subject of a national controversy over the years in the United States. More than one hundred and thousands of immigrants are migrating to America every year. As some immigrants are legal, while others are illegal. Some are getting away from religious prosecution and political mistreatment while others come to search out the America freedom, benefits and protection. Either way, the migration of an immigrant had an exceptionally critical impact on numerous areas of American life.…
What Is A Threat To The American Dream
The american dream is often characterized or described with luxuries and fame, although this is not the wrong approach to the infamous american dream, this is the dream of the citizens of this country. But if we take a different approach and ask immigrants what their american dream is, we discover a different perspective of the american dream. For many immigrants of the country , like myself, the american dream involves prosperity and the opportunity to reach higher education. The inevitable contrast between these two different approaches to the American dream create division within the country that leads to hate, stereotypes and constructed fear.…
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Impacts of immigration
Migration is a driver of social and economic well-being in many countries, but the profile of an immigrant varies, as does the rate of migration. Because of its financial clout and the provision of a wide range of jobs, the United States is considered to have the world's highest number of refugees. The economic influence of these migrations, in particular, has been hotly debated. There are also aspects of its socio-economic structure and criminal consequences. There are things such as work markets where they pick up jobs that natives would usually ignore, such as a factory or domestic jobs. Therefore it can be said that over the past couple of centuries, immigrants have maintained the status quo of the United States seen by the rest of the world if not making it better. Although the impacts of migration are still debated, many studies have been conducted to really verify its effect. There are many aspects that are looked into; that is, the economic, social system, education, crimes, healthcare services, welfare systems among many others. Most of the findings from these studies show that immigration actually positively impacts the country in many ways (Snel & Leerkes, 2007).. Additionally, the country gets to enjoy status of improving the lives of people who are fleeing their countries from wars, discrimination, natural calamities, persecution, and lack of opportunities and job. In this regard, the country is highly esteemed.
Most asked question on effect of immigration is on economic aspect. Shall immigration lead to fewer opportunities for a natives and slower wage growth? Evidence often shows that immigration enhances the supply of labor. To survive in a new country, migrants often take any job available more so those shun by the natives such as farm work or domestic work. This implies that they are not competing with the natives with the same occupations. New migrants, however, might affect the wages of the older migrants. Research shows that immigration increased the remuneration of the natives. Migrants actually manage to also offer cheap labor even though they are normally exploited (Snel & Leerkes, 2007). Knowing that it is very difficult to land a job, many migrants actually work very hard and their productivity is very high compared to the natives. The fear of losing that one job causes them to do a diligent job. Additionally, immigrants are in the front position at innovation and cleverness in the US, therefore they account for many science and technology graduates in the universities and hold senior positions in major firms. Furthermore, their existence forces the low skilled native to improve their skills as they face competition hence enhancing their productivity (Scott, Coomes & Izyumov 2005). Immigration additionally enhances the State’s financial situation because the migrant pay huge taxes than they use government services. In the labor market, even though the migrants improve the supply of labor, they also use their salaries on food, entertainments among other commodities, therefore enlarge domestic economic demand. The high demand, in return, creates extra jobs through home buildings, making and selling foods and others services consumed by the immigrants (Sampson, 2015). The standard economic hypothesis is that whereas huge labor supply from immigrants might first decrease the remuneration, with time companies improve investment to re-establish the amount of capital per employee, in turn restoring the remuneration. Immigrants are of two categories, those who never attended high school and those who have graduated from the university. In this regard, they supply labor from every angle. They additionally complement the native employees instead of substituting them. Since uneducated migrants struggle with language needed for many jobs, they go into the manual jobs in industries like agriculture and construction (Sampson, 2015). Even for the natives in these low skilled industries, the competition from migrants is negligible as majority capitalizes on their good communication skills and move to jobs where their abilities are helpful like sales. Educated migrants disadvantaged in communication focused jobs and therefore often go to the scientific and technical sector (Scott, Coomes & Izyumov 2005). In fact a majority of the Americans actually shun the technical or scientific field, most affected being girls, therefore, the migrants can be seen as filling the deficit market. Highly skilled residents in many areas often do not compete with the highly skilled migrants. Thus, the supply of workforce tend to concentrate on occupations that favor migrants, therefore, it is the early immigrants that face competition not the natives.
Immigrant brings about talent, skills and knowledge. In the areas such as engineering, in university, majority of the graduate are from foreign countries. They also have skills in management, with many being in top management or research. States with migrant workers often have a fast productivity growth (Reitz, 2001). With low income than the natives, immigrants are likely to use government welfare programs such as Medicaid, SNAP among other services than the nationals. However, they are less likely top get public aid compared to citizens. Additionally, if they get public aid, their value is less than average meaning that it is only a small cost to the government compared to low income residents. Migrants are in almost all fields. They are in engineering, construction, manufacturing, medicine, technical, business and other areas (Reitz, 2001). There are doctor migrants who graduated to high honors and go on to be the best practicing surgeons, ER doctors, physicians, nurses, nutritionists and other medical practitioners. Others have also joined the police force, armed forces, navy and even fire department. Looking at the US health care report, about a quarter of practicing doctors are foreign born while they also constitute almost half of the all medical scientists. The Institute for Immigration Research shows that migrants become top leaders in scientific, biological medical or technical research are esteemed for the resilience, intelligent, commitment and hard work. When it comes to companies, actually about 40% of the fortune 500 companies were established by the immigrants or the generations of immigrants. This of course leads to more employment opportunities and contribute revenue to the government. Google is an example of a company founded by immigrant. The founder is Russian Sergey Brin. Brin ran away from the Soviet Union in 1979 and sought asylum in the US. Elon Musk who is the chief executive of Tesla and SpaceX is an immigrant whose roots are from South Africa (Cain, 2017). Musk’s companies have made major contributions to the space exploration. AT&T is a company founded by Alexander Graham Bell who was an immigrant from Scotland. He came to united stated as a teacher of the deaf which caused him to invent the microphone and telephone. EBay is a company founded by French Pierre Omidyar. He and his wife donate a major contributor in fighting against human trafficking. Theodore and Milton from England founded Radioshack. Pfizer was founded by Charles Pfizer who is a German (Cain, 2017). Tech firm Intel was founded by Hungarian Andrew Grove. Jerry yang from Taiwan founded Yahoo. Colgate was established by Willan Colgate, an immigrant from England. Steve jobs the CEO of largest tech company Apple Inc. was a son of immigrant from Syria. Kraft Foods founder JAMES l. Kraft is from Canada (Cain, 2017). He was struggling to get money to start this company that has become quite a player in the food industry. These and other companies have been impacted the many lives of Americans. So if Immigrants have negative impacts on economy, how can so many immigrants establish some of the most important companies in the world such as Google that have created employment for the natives.
Many countries have different cultures, therefore immigration enhances cultural diversity. There are intermarriages between the immigrants and the natives. Most migrants from from Africa come from continent or countries who value family system and ties. They value stronger, long lasting marriages. They thus impact positively the ever increasing family breakdown in the US. The intermarriages often last long compared to the native ones. For the natives, their minds are opened about other people culture’s. People get fascinated by the different culture and they are very optimistic to learn other people cultures (Peguero, 2011). Therefore, natives learn to view other cultures in positive way and even apply them to their lives. They do not feel that their culture is better than that of the migrants. Immigration adds diversity to life. This breaks the stereotypes and facilitates learning new things. There are different foods, festivals, practices as well as music. The natives get to learn the new culture so that if they go to the migrants’ country for other commitment like work, they can fit in easily and are not shocked by that culture. Natives can learn culture like karate or martial art from the Asian continent which can be used for self defense (Duleep & Regets, 2014). The families share their experience with their social networks; therefore, all natives learn to accept different culture. Intermarriages prevent social segregation as they the two cultures meet in family gathering or social networks and allow the natives to appreciate different cultures. They comfort one another during times of sorrows. There is often a misconception that immigrants are responsible for increase in crimes, more so in the wake of terrorist threat (Stacey, Carbone-López, & Rosenfeld, 2011). Research over the last 30 years actually shows the opposite, there are no increases in crime; in contrast, immigration leads to decrease in crime (Zatz & Smith, 2008).. Immigration minimizes crime rates by reviving neighborhoods, establishing dynamic communities and causing economic expansion (Zatz & Smith, 2008). Immigrants are hard workers therefore they force the natives to enhance their skills and work hard as well. Given a chance to go to school, they are able to perform well and observe utmost discipline in school (Peguero, 2011). Immigrants from poor nations often do not have the opportunity for education, therefore when given the chance, they manage to perform extremely well and utilize that opportunity. Therefore in return they cause the natives to work hard as well.
Challenges Immigrants Face
Whereas the immigrants are happy to get any job present when they come to the country, getting that job can be a challenge in the initial stages. Being promoted is even harder. In addition to this difficulty, they also have language challenge. Uneducated migrants, who had good jobs, find it hard to obtain the similar jobs in the new country. Companies often favor work experience from the US rather than outside the country. It is not surprising to find a former engineer working in a different field. They often start at low level to get experience before obtaining jobs that befit their qualifications (Mermin, 2006). The children of the immigrants actually have an advantage since they are educated and work in the US. There is also the issue of racial; discrimination. Employers exploit the desperation of these people and give them low wages in harsh working conditions. There is also [prejudice I many areas such as government services, health care and school institutions. The undocumented migrants often feel they do not have any privileges. United States is not a multilingual country, therefore immigrants who do not speak English have difficulty carrying out tasks such as buying commodities, in school, communicating at work or even making applications. They might become subject to exploitation (Mermin, 2006). To tackle this they might have to take classes with is tiresome remembering they still have to work. It is even harder for those not coherent in their own mother tongue. Another difficulty is the culture. It can be stressful for migrant parents to bring up children in a totally different culture (Mermin, 2006). They are practices may be they want their children to learn from their countries. The children learn English first and therefore parents are afraid they shall forget their roots. Older children might have to struggle to keep with native children in a new education system and environment. There have been reports of bullying and racial discrimination due to cultural diversity. Another issue immigrant face is housing. Safe housing is very costly, so with low wages, they are not able to afford decent housing. Therefore large families are forced to live together and homes with deplorable conditions. Public housing is focused on helping people own homes at subsidized costs. Although it targets low income earners, the immigrant even those born in the country are often discriminated against. Undocumented migrants have difficulty in access of services, since they do not want to be deported (Mermin, 2006). They avoid seeking services such as healthcare, public assistance or legal issues even when it is very necessary. Mental issues are key issues as migrants were violated, abused or even raped in their countries, they might not have knowledge on seeking help. Those who have obtained services, their experiences are not good. There is also the issue of transportation. It is hard to obtain driver’s license in America even if they were a shrewd drivers in their home country. The ones who do not know English, a translator is required and it is difficult to get one. Furthermore one ought to be literate write exam. Food is also different and might not be easy to consume new ones. The migrants face a variety of issue in the new country, but they manage to overcome them and survive.
Reasons for Immigration
Immigrants come to America for a variety of reasons; however, to disrupt the American system or do criminal activities is not one of them. They are just looking for better activities. N the immigrant host countries, there are normally less employment and business opportunities, therefore most people migrate to the US to seek better opportunities. It is actually true because even the low wage jobs the migrants get compared to wages in their countries, they are much better. United states have some of the leading universities in the world; there are those who move here to seek high quality education (Gent, 2002). They are certain to acquire skills and become experts in their fields. This gives them higher chance of securing better job opportunities. Parents migrate to US because they want their children to have better education than the one they had and get good jobs. Other migrants come to the US to run away from persecution from their countries. Some are discriminated against based on their views on politics or religion. It is even harder when the leader of a country is a dictator and cannot stand diverse views. He or she normally arrests those criticizing him and persecute or even kill them. In many nations and even in the US, individual fleeing persecutions, war or violence are are often granted asylum (Gent, 2002). Another reason why immigrants flee their country is to seek refuge after displacement from natural calamities. Disasters such as floods, droughts or other climate changes are dangers that have an effect on those living already in abject poverty. With the significant changes in the climate with even more changes anticipated in the coming years, there bound to be even more displacements. This is a concern that many migrant countries are trying to tackle as it has become a troubling issue. Others might migrate to well-established nations to seek better healthcare when suffering from a serious ailments (Gent, 2002). Standard of Healthcare in third world countries is very low and it might not be able to handle serious ailments like cancer, open heart surgeries, and transplants among others. Therefore people come seeking better health care and might even decide to be permanent residents. Some people get into interracial relationship and therefore when they get married the spouse is obligated to move to another country and establish citizenship there. Finally there are those who migrate to another country to reunite with their families while others seek freedom. United States is a democratic country and many come here to enjoy political and social freedom. In some countries, women have regarded as inferior gender (Gent, 2002). They are subject to abuse from their husbands which the society approves, not allowed to go to school, have no freedom to make decisions or choose their husbands. Other issues are wife inheritance which puts wife at risks from health concerns and other still practice female genital mutilation. Society especially in African country often treats women unfairly. Therefore they are forced to flee the country and seek better opportunities like education and employment.
Immigrants most certainly have positive impacts in the United States in many fronts. Socially it can be seen how they have change the way Americans view others, taught them to value family units. They have enhanced the American culture and enabled people to have have unbiased views and break stereotypes. Immigration has led to availability of human skills in areas of medical research, biomedicine, engineering, aerospace well as scientific research. Immigrants have provided their skills also in the about market and forced the natives to improve their skills. Although they face many obstacles in the country, immigrants are much better off in the US even with discrimination than their native countries. References
Duleep, H., & Regets, M. (2014). US Immigration Policy at a Crossroads: Should the US Continue Its Family‐Friendly Policy?. International Migration Review, 48(3), 823-845. Gent, S. (2002). The root causes of migration: Criticising the approach and finding a way forward. Sussex Centre for Migration Research. Mermin, L. S. P. (2006). Living in America: Challenges facing new immigrants and refugees. Robert Wood Jonson Foundation. Available online at: http://www. policyarchive. org/handle/10207/bitstreams/21623. pdf (assessed 10 August 2012). Ousey, G. C., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities, 1980–2000. Social problems, 56(3), 447-473. Peguero, A. A. (2011). Immigration, schools, and violence: Assimilation and student misbehavior. Sociological Spectrum, 31(6), 695-717. Reitz, J. G. (2001). Immigrant success in the knowledge economy: Institutional change and the immigrant experience in Canada, 1970–1995. Journal of social Issues, 57(3), 579-613. Sampson, R. J. (2015). Immigration and America’s urban revival. American Prospect, 20-24. Scott, D. M., Coomes, P. A., & Izyumov, A. I. (2005). The Location choice of employment‐based immigrants among US metro areas. Journal of Regional Science, 45(1), 113-145. Snel, E., Burgers, J., & Leerkes, A. (2007). Class position of immigrant workers in a post-industrial economy: the Dutch case. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(8), 1323-1342. Stacey, M., Carbone-López, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(3), 278-298. Zatz, M. S., & Smith, H. (2012). Immigration, crime, and victimization: Rhetoric and reality. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 8, 141-159. Cain, Á. (2017). From Tesla to Pfizer: 14 major US companies founded by immigrants. Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 19 April 2017, from https://www.businessinsider.com.au/major-us-companies-founded-by-immigrants-2017-2
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Is Immigration A Good Thing Or A Bad Thing
Immigration How did the immigrants that came to America help our country and what was some bad things about it. Why did they come to America in the first place? Was immigration a good thing or a bad thing? Immigration was when people from other countries would come to different countries and live there for different reasons. For example when the immigrants came from their country to America for greater economic opportunity and racial tolerance and religious beliefs. They also brought materials from their country to ours that benefited us. Some of the things the immigrants brought was the Steal Plow and Cotton Gin. Immigration was from 1600’s to the 1700’s. Immigration still
In this essay, the author
- Explains that immigrants came to america for economic opportunity, racial tolerance, religious beliefs, and brought materials from their country to ours that benefited us.
- Explains that immigration still affects society today in many ways, including overpopulation, diseases, and other things.
- Opines that if immigrants brought over dangerous things from their country it could cause a war and things could go back to the way they used to be. there are multiple ways this topic could affect the future.
- Opines that immigrants have influenced the american culture by bringing over materials that have helped us. immigration is a very important topic in history because our country was shaped by immigrants.
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Immigration Helps America
Immigration can be defined as passing foreigners to a country and making it their permanent residence. Reasons ranging from politics, economy, natural disasters, wish to change ones surroundings and poverty are in the list of the major causes of immigration in both history and today. In untied states, immigration comes with complexities in its demographic nature. A lot of cultural and population growth changes have been witnessed as a result of immigration. In the following paper, I will focus on how immigration helps United States as compared to the mostly held view that it hurts America.
Essay About Immigration
Immigration to the United States provide many benefits to immigrants and the nation in the past, and now. The United States was a great option for people to start a new life in due to being in new territory, and being in a place where you could have a fresh start. Many immigrants from all around the world immigrated to the United States in search of the American dream. Others immigrated to the United States for freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and many other rights that weren’t provided in their home country. Immigration helped to make America grow into a big and diverse nation even though some people believed immigrants were bad.
The Positive And Negative Effects Of Immigration In The United States
Immigration has affected America in many ways. America was created due to immigration. Immigration has helped shape our country in many ways. Just to think that 13 percent of the population in the United States is from a foreign nation lets you know that immigration is important to our country. CITE It has had positive and negative effects. It has brought ideas, cultures, and people together and it has created diversity as well. However, immigration has affected laws especially those concerning the security of our country and our economy.
Immigration in USA
In short, it can be said that immigration is a natural process of movement of non-native individuals into a country from very past. In USA, every year a vast number of diverse immigrants come with lots of hope. Economic, politics, and education reasons are mostly motivate people to come in the U.S. Most of those immigrants become successful and contribute enormously in U.S. culture, economy, and workforce.
The Pros And Cons Of Immigration
The United States has been historically a country of immigrants. Since the first British settlers landed on the shores of the eastern United States in the 1600’s, there has been a strong and steady influx of immigrants to North America. They were driven by the promise of a new and better life for themselves and for their families. Over the last 400 years there have been successive waves of immigration that have risen and fallen over time. Historically most immigration has come from the European nations with waves coming to the United States by region and specific countries. In the 1800’s there was a mass migration of Irish, German, British, and French Immigrants. The largest group, the Irish, was escaping the Potato Famine that left Ireland in an awful state of poverty and famine. These groups sought a better life from the poor economic and social times of Europe and were lured to the United States by the hope of land, freedom, opportunity, and jobs. Later improvements in technology in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s led to lower transatlantic fares. Many Slavic people, Greeks, Hungarians, Poles and over 4 million European Jews came over during this time in search of a better quality life, better jobs, and more oppor...
The Pros And Cons Of Immigration To The United States
As one can see, the United States is an important place of diversity and multiculturalism. Without immigration it would not be the place that it is today. The United States is dependent on immigration to help it flourish. Jobs that would normally not be filled, are filled and for less pay. Immigrants are passionate about what they do and want to have a better life. If we continue to allow them to come live in America, we will continue to see a positive cultural
Immigration is nothing but good for the United States, immigrants do not come to just take away from us, they come and also provide for this country. They are hard workers looking to succeed in any field of work as long as they are earning money and helping out. They are investing the money they earn here in the U.S, most of their money comes back to the U.S economy. High skilled immigrants are more likely to pay for more taxes than they use in public services. Immigrants do pay and taxes, and not all use government services. Just by them coming here they are helping out the American community in a variety of areas. In a study of immigration 's impact on U.S cities Cortes the author of “Immigration and Economic Growth” found out that in cities where low skilled immigrants are, there are lower prices on things such as dry cleaning, housing, cleaning, yard care, and other services. This gives more hours spent at work to higher skilled
The Importance Of English Immigration To America
Immigration is the movement into a destination country to which they are not native nor possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. English immigrants were the first who left their home countries in hope of improving their lives, taking the first very important step towards a completely new culture. They had to establish an entirely new nation, on land that was inhabited by Native Americans.
Persuasive Essay On Illegal Immigration
Immigration is one of the most common disputes in the United States, let’s define what immigration stands for. Immigration is the act of coming to a foreign country to live, the act of leaving one 's country to settle in another is called emigration. Immigrants who leave their country because of persecution, war, or disasters such as famines or epidemics are known as refugees or displaced persons.
People have been crossing their nation 's borders in search of better opportunities since historical times. There are numerous reasons as to why people leave the comfort and familiarity of their homes. Whether it be to seek business growth and migrate to a foreign country or flee a civil war that is ripping apart a country, most people immigrate in order to benefit themselves so they can have better lives. Immigration laws that facilitate the migration of people between the two countries are of help in such cases. We can 't say that immigration is completely advantageous, because in reality, it has both pros and cons.
Pro And Negative Effects Of Immigration
The United States, founded by immigrants 238 years ago, continues to be influenced by the presence of migrants. The first wave of immigrants occurred during the colonial era when the majority of Europeans came in search of better economic opportunities, while others sought religious freedom. The early settlers set the pattern for future migrants, who currently come to the United States seeking a better life, one filled with plenty of financial opportunities. According to the American Community Service report of 2012, 40.8 million immigrants, equivalent to 13% of the population, live in our nation. While this figure continues to grow exponentially, Americans remain in constant negotiations about the effects of immigration on the U.S. economy.
Immigration to America began when Christopher Columbus discovered the new land now called the American continent. Immigration increased in the 17th century when people came from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the new land. There were many colonies, such as the British and Dutch. When people came they go to their people and find jobs as farmers. The first immigrants were in the east coast around 1607 to 1775 after the number of immigrants increased. In 1790 - 1850 there were few immigrants who came to America, but in 1850 to 1930 the number of immigrations increased (Dolan 4).
The Importance Of Immigration In America
Immigration has been part of America since before the 17th century. America has evolved into what it is today due to immigration; however immigration as negative effects as well. Immigration is the building blocks for America. Every one that lives in America today are here because their ancestors immigrated here long ago. Over the years immigration as evolved into a more sophisticated matter. There are many laws they have been put in place to monitor and stop immigration. Immigration I a big factor in America but must be done correctly to insure Americas safety.
Immigration to America in the Early 1900's
It has been said that immigration is as old as America itself. Immigration traces back as far as the 1500's when the West faced the coming of the Spanish. At that time, the Americas had been settled by the Indians, who were soon threatened by the first immigrants of America. These Spanish conquerors threatened to undermine the culture of the Indians as well as their way of life. Evidently, immigration started from the beginning of our country's time and has had an everlasting effect on America today.
Immigration In The 19th Century
Immigration has always been a major part of America. In fact, without immigration the creation of America would not have been possible. The majority of immigrants came to America for religious freedom and economic opportunities. However, for the most part before the 1870’s most immigrants were Protestants from northern and western Europe. These immigrants often migrated to the United States as families and usually lived on farms with family or friends who had already migrated beforehand. A lot of immigrants came to America with a plan or goal in mind. They often had saved up money for the long immigration overseas, were skilled in a certain trade, or had already been educated at a high level. Sadly, this would not last. Immigration became so prominent in America between 1870 and 1900 that the foreign-born population of the United States had almost doubled. A lot of German and Irish Catholics had immigrated in the 1840’s and 1850’s, and more decided to immigrate after the Civil War. A portion of Americans were biased against Catholics. Thankfully, the Irish spoke English and the German Catholics reputation was improved because of their Protestant countrymen’s good reputation. However, their children often lacked any skill or education, but they were able to blend in quite well with the American society. More and more immigrants would migrate to the United States without any skill or education and on top of that they were usually poor. These immigrants were called “new” immigrants and they came from all over the world including Italy, Greece, Poland, Hungary, and Russia. However, you cannot blame immigrants for migrating to America. Many immigrants faced religious persecution in their home countries which pushed them away, otherwi...
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