The Scientific Method Essay

Why the cswe and the nasw view research.

There are four main characteristics of the scientific method: observation/measurements, make an assumption, test the assumption, and revise the assumption. The first stage we make an observations. For instance, I notice that my peppers in my garden are not growing well. I am going to assume this is because I did not water that area well enough. So I am now going to test my assumption. This is done by watering the peppers in my garden more frequently. Lastly, I am going to see if my assumption was correct. If my peppers only needed more water, they will begin to grow more rapidly. It is also possible that my assumption was wrong, and that my peppers were getting enough water; however, there could be something wrong with the soil, temperature, etc. These are the four main characteristics of the scientific method; it is important to note that our assumptions sometimes be wrong, thus it is always important that we test our assumptions to make sure we are correct.

Essay On Scientific Method

The development of the scientific method in the late 1500’s to the early 1600’s was a crucial stepping-stone in the science community. The scientific method is based upon observations, hypotheses and experimentation. The concept is rather simple, and can be applied to many areas of study. Once an observation is made, the observer can make a hypothesis as to why that phenomenon occurs and can then design an experiment to prove whether or not that hypotheses is valid. Although the scientific method has been extremely useful in the discovery of various things from usages of medications to studying animal behavior, there are still those who question the usage of this tool. These critics claim that since

Scientific Method Research Paper

You may be hesitant to think that the clumsy process of trial and error is identical to the scientific method, if only because science is so often masked in complexity and jargon. Yet there is no fundamental difference. It might seem that scientists start with a more detailed understanding of their problem than the weekend car mechanic, but in fact most scientific inquiries have humble and ignorant beginnings. Progress can occur just as assuredly via trial and error as in traditional science, and the scientist isn't guaranteed of success any more than is the handyman: witness the failure to develop a vaccine for

How Did Galileo Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

Galileo discovered the principle of inertia. He used the “balls rolling on an inclined plane” experiment, which means that the balls on an inclined plan would roll to the same position as the initial position. Galileo also experimented with free-falling objects. Aristotle believed that when two objects are dropped, the heavier object will hit the ground before the lighter object. Galileo proved that theory to be incorrect when he dropped objects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and noticed that objects fall to the ground at the same time if air resistance is negligible. This experiment helped him come up with the concept of acceleration. Galileo also proposed the first Theory of Relativity and stated that there is no physical way to differentiate between a body moving at a constant speed and an immobile body. He also attempted to measure the speed of light, but discovered that light moved to

Biol 2215 Assignment 1

The scientific method is a process used to prove or disprove a hypothesis through experimentation and analysis. The steps necessary include Asking a question and/or observation, Forming a hypothesis, Test the hypothesis, Analyze the results, Draw a conclusion, and Publish the findings.

The Scientific Method

The scientific method is an organized way that helps anyone answer a question or begin to solve a problem. It is used in all types of Sciences such as Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Psychology. For psychologists it offers a standardized way to test a hypothesis, build on theories, and gain knowledge about the mind. There are several steps to The Scientific Method and each step serves its own purpose. By using the Scientific Method, you can understand better what psychologists go through to arrive at conclusions about human behavior.

Hellenistic Time Scientific Study

In modern science, all scientific experiments must begin with a scientific question. These questions aim to explain a topic through hypothesis-oriented experimentation. This same scientific method is modeled in the Hellenistic world. For example, Aristarcho calculated the size and distance of the sun and moon. He did this by creating a

Dating Back To The 17th Century: The Scientific Method

Dating back to the 17th century, the scientific method is a systematic way to research a question or problem. It first starts with asking the question you are interested, including the "how, what, when, where, why, who", etc. The next step is to do more research to learn the background of what you are inquiring. After that, you create a hypothesis or educated guess to predict an outcome to the question you are testing. It should be easy to measure. Next, you test the hypothesis in a fair and unbiased experiment while changing factors that affect your guessed outcome. This should be done multiple times to prove it is not just a random chance. After this, you analyze the data and draw a conclusion based on your findings. This is where you check

A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.

Does Research Design Affect Study Outcomes in Criminal Justice?

The term scientific method refers to a way of investigation or the acquisition of knowledge through the testing of a theory or hypothesis, then working through measurements (observation and empirical notes) to come up with a result, which should prove or disprove the original theory. Thus, the basic method consists of a) formulating a question or hypothesis, b) designing an experiment or means of collecting data, c) observation or experimentation, d) analyzing

Scientific Method Lab Report

To prove the effectiveness of the Scientific Method, an experiment was conducted to test the whether

Galileo Galilei Research Paper

It was previously believed, that when two objects of different masses were dropped from the same height, that the heavier of the two would reach the ground first due to its larger mass. In 1650, Galileo climbed to the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and dropped two cannonballs, of different masses, from the same height. Both balls, even though they had different masses, landed at the same time. He concluded that the forced pulling down on the objects must be the same and the only factor that may affect the timing is air resistance. Galileo also discovered that an object accelerates uniformly due to gravity, through his ramp experiment. He released a ball at the top of a ramp and found that the displacement of the ball was equal to time

G. 1. Scientific Method- A method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses.

The Scientific Method: Lessons Learned In Elementary School

Secondly, why stick to one method when there are so many more options to solving the problem. From the same article (Problems with the Scientific Method” by Jennifer Cutraro) it gives some examples of ways scientists use different methods being: Scientists will test ideas in the real world, they will experiment with the unknown, and some scientists will use computers to model the experiments. These are a few of many other ways scientists can use different methods to solve their scientific

A Discussion Of Galileo's Use Of Force

Nearly 2,000 years ago Galileo believed that heavier bodies fall faster than lighter ones. He was proved wrong by an experiment that proved all bodies fall at the same rate. The law claims that the distance traveled by a falling body is directly proportional to the square of the time it takes to fall. The equation that shows this is X=at^2.


Importance Of The Scientific Method

The scientific method is important to science because it is the foundation of scientific inquiry and without the contributions of many early scientists, there would not be a standardized method that helps to solve scientific problems or questions and there would not be a series of steps that can ultimately be used for more than just science . The scientific method is a process of experimentation. It is meant to explore scientific observations and data to reach a conclusion. In many ways it is the basis to reach a conclusion that is certain. The scientific method is composed of a total of six steps. The scientific method begins when you ask a question. The question can be include asking who, what, when, where, why, and/or how. The next process of the scientific method is to gather …show more content…

It can be used for things such as creating a recipe, writing a news story, making advertisements, corporate finances, and even for writing a paper. For cooking and baking you need a recipe, so you have to create one. For the recipe, you have to ask a question, “What am I going to make and how am I going to do it?”. More often than not, you need to do research and learn about tips, techniques, equipment, and ingredients. You need to know what to do and use and when to do or use it. Essentially when you write the recipe, you are making and writing down your hypothesis . Then you move on to experimenting and carrying out the recipe and then if something goes wrong, you go back and do trial and error, trying to fix those mistakes to improve and perfect your recipe. The scientific method can be also used with writing a paper or an article. You have plan what you will write about and edit it to make it better. The scientific method ties in with advertisements and finances because you have a goal to accomplish, but their can be setbacks that you have to rethink and fix. There is virtually anything you can use the scientific method

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that the scientific method is important to science because it is the foundation of scientific inquiry. without early scientists, there wouldn't be a standardized method that helps solve scientific problems or questions.
  • Explains the scientific method, which consists of six steps. the first step is to gather background information and a hypothesis.
  • Explains that the scientific method has evolved over hundreds of years and was built on idea upon idea until it was formed into a series of steps.
  • Explains that aristotle was born in stagira, greece, in 384 b.c., and died in chalcis. he furthered his education at the academy of plato, where he founded a school.
  • Explains that nicholas copernicus played a part in the formation of the scientific method, even though he did not know it.
  • Explains that tycho brahe, an astronomer, was driven by copernicus's theory about planetary alignment and positioning. he hired johannes kepler, a mathematician, to analyze his work.
  • Explains that galileo and newton both made their own laws from experimentation and analyzing information. both made advances in mathematics such as geometry, calculus and algebra.
  • Explains that francis bacon was the greatest contributor to the development of the scientific method on top of aristotle.
  • Explains that the scientific method can be used for things such as creating a recipe, making advertisements, corporate finances, and even writing an article.
  • Explains that the scientific method is a significant and crucial part to scientific inquiry. many of our earliest scientists took part in creating this principal method.

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The Black Death and The Song Ring Around the Rosie

...overies in geography, technology, and navigation, all of which were important in the years to come. Thus, the scientific method laid the framework for the development of a more modern and accurate understanding of the world.

Process of Scientific Inquiry

The process of scientific inquiry begins with the motivation to uncover the answer to a question. It then requires extensive research to gather all the information that could possibly be useful. Finally, one must put all the pieces of the puzzle together to make sense of all the information gathered and interpret it to answer the question. The last step is to write out what has been learned and publicize it to spread the new knowledge. There are many other factors, however, that also come into play in the process of scientific inquiry.

The Scientific Method, A Cyclical And Self Correcting Process

The scientific method is a cyclical and self-correcting process that involves several steps. Observations and collecting qualitative and quantitative evidence are important to make predictions and to develop a theory.

Charles Sanders Pierce's The Fixation Of Belief

Peirce calls it a method to satisfy our doubts and the only one to make a distinction between a right and a wrong way. The only test on the first three methods is what the individual or state or whoever thinks, but using the scientific method, all people can come to the same conclusions, therefore those conclusions must be true. And experience of the method hasn't cause people to doubt it, but to believe it because it settles opinions beyond reasonable doubt. Therefore truth and true knowledge can come into existence for all humans who chose to believe in the scientific method. But we all use this method for a variety of every day observations, so in truth we all use this method, but not everyone believes that they believe in

biology scientific process

Scientists make progress by using the scientific method, a process of checking conclusions against nature. After observing something, a scientist tries to explain what has been seen. The explanation is called a hypothesis. There is always at least one alternative hypothesis. A part of nature is tested in a "controlled experiment" to see if the explanation matches reality. A controlled experiment is one in which all treatments are identical except that some are exposed to the hypothetical cause and some are not.

Skepticism: A Good or Bad thing?

...use it is used to justify and solidify theories. Every time scientists take experiments and replicate them, they utilize the skeptical approach. Contrary to that history focused more so on a skeptical approach by those in society, not necessarily scientists. Miguel de Unamuno comments that, “The skeptic does not mean him who doubts, but him who investigates or researches, as opposed to him who asserts and thinks that he has found.” This approach is very important to gaining knowledge. It allows us to ensure that the knowledge and information we have, is supported with evidence and logic. This approach plays a significant role in gaining knowledge in various AOKs and is highly valued by some, including myself.

Introduction to the Scientific Method

Recognizing that personal and cultural beliefs influence both our perceptions and our interpretations of natural phenomena, we aim through the use of standard procedures and criteria to minimize those influences when developing a theory. As a famous scientist once said, "Smart people (like smart lawyers) can come up with very good explanations for mistaken points of view." In summary, the scientific method attempts to minimize the influence of bias or prejudice in the experimenter when testing an hypothesis or a theory.

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method is the standardized procedure that scientists are supposed to follow when conducting experiments, in order to try to construct a reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary representation of our surroundings. To follow the Scientific Method is to stick very tightly to a order of experimentation. First, the scientist must observe the phenomenon of interest. Next, the scientist must propose a hypothesis, or idea in which the experiments will be based around. Then, through repeated experimentation, the hypothesis can either be proven false or become a theory. If the hypothesis is proven to be false, the scientist must reformulate his or her ideas and come up with another hypothesis, and the experimentation begins again. This process is to be repeated until a theory is produced. The production of a theory is usually called the conclusion. After considerable testing of the theory, it may become what is known as a law, but laws are only formed in very rare occasions where the theory can be proven without a doubt, which is usually done through induction.

Importance Of Scientific Method

An understanding of the scientific method is important in the microbiology laboratory. The scientific method is known in the microbiology world to be the steps that are followed by scientists to answer specific questions about the world. Scientists who work in laboratories especially a microbiology laboratory use the scientific method. The purpose of the scientific method is to construct an accurate, reliable, consistent representation of the world. The scientific method involves steps such as asking a question, doing background research, constructing a hypothesis, testing your hypothesis by doing an experiment, analyzing your data and drawing a conclusion, and reporting your results. Using the scientific method is to clearly do an experiment

Skills for Criminal Investigation

The scientific method is the analyzation of evidence, to examine a case from every angle possible, to not give up on an investigation until all of the angles are covered and to not allow personal emotions create a bias in their mind (Osterburg 2010). A scientific method example would be when an investigator arrives to a crime scene, they would first search the area for clues and see if something doesn’t seem right. Next they would have to search for different forms of evidence, most important would be trace evidence because it can provide DNA evidence which can also link a suspect to the crime. There are many more ways evidence and other clues can be harvested from a crime scene but it is up to the investigator to use their knowledge and help find the person responsible for the crime

Scientific method consists of five steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion and scientific theory. You must identify your problem when doing observation. Second you must gather as much information about the problem as possible. Third you want to form a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an unproved explanation for a natural event. Based on observation a hypothesis is a scientist best explanation. One reason why hypothesis is so important is because it is the comparison for experimental data. Next you have experiments, which is basically testing ...

The Pros And Cons Of The Scientific Method

Science is applied to the world with experiments. Scientists created the scientific method to make a “conclusion about the world around them” (1). “The Scientific Method helps to “organize thoughts and procedures to finalized conclusions” (2). The Scientific Method consists of six steps to carry out an experiment reach. The first step is, ask a question. When an individual questions the things around them they tend to do an experiment to see if it can be affected by something. Before you can perform the experiment the second step is to find background research about the topic. Understanding the question and analyzing it can help a person gain insight and a greater depth of understanding. The third step of the method is creating a statement

Importance Of Science Essay

Science is about understanding and building knowledge about how the natural world works. It explains the inter-relationship with one's life and nature and promotes environmental education and more so environmental habits. Science teaches us as learners’ important skills such as reasoning, problem solving, analyzing, predicting, etc. It builds a foundation by providing a base in case a child does not go to higher level of education. Since science is all around us it is important to teach it so that the children could learn about themselves and their environment. Science also provides the knowledge needed to create new pieces of technology, which scientists used to develop civilization. For example, rather than writing

What is science?

Science is a method of understanding how things work. It is important because we need science in order for things to work and to develop new technology that is used in every day life. It is personally important to me because I really want to become a vet when I get older and I would need to do really well in science. Even though science isn’t exactly my best subject, I am willing to put in the hard work and determination so I may eventually get better and learn what I need to know.

The Myth Of Science Essay

The steps that are included in most pre-college textbooks are defining the problem, gathering background information, forming a hypothesis, making observations, testing the hypothesis, drawing conclusions, and communicating the results, but this method is not used. One reason for this myth is the way results are published in research journals because it makes people believe that scientists follow a certain research plan. Philosophers have shown that no research procedure is applied by all scientists. Usually scientists use imagination, knowledge, perseverance, and other methods used by problem solvers. This myth teaches that science is not different from other challenges that humans face. This myth has a chance to be corrected because many newer textbooks are taking the method out of the discussions of

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Everyday Life: The Scientific Method

importance of scientific method essay

Show More In everyday life the Scientific Method can be utilized regularly. Most of the time, people don’t even realize that they are using the steps to the Scientific Method when figuring something simple out. People can move through the steps so quickly it is hard to recognize that many used them while making decisions about regular daily life situations. Kausik Datta wrote “that his wish for every Non-Scientist is to understand the use of the Scientific Method , and how it is the foundation for rational, empirical, evidence-based understanding of the natural world; the central idea elegantly guiding how science works to advance knowledge” (2012). Often the Scientific Method is used very quickly for solving problems and making split-second decisions on routes to take when driving or ingredients to use when cooking. “The steps of the Scientific Method in order are, ask a question, do background research, construct a hypothesis, test with an experiment, analyze your results and draw a conclusion then communicate your findings (“Steps of the Scientific Method”, n.d.). Many times, in different scenarios, steps are thought to be skipped, but if the whole process is played out we see all steps are indeed utilized. Using the Scientific Method for everyday life events like unexpected delays to work or an appliance that quits working is how we come to conclusions on why things happen. It also helps us to know how things work and the way things fit together. This helps many …show more content… It may only take seconds to move through the steps but each step is, indeed, used. From roadblocks to cooking, appliance repair to problem solving at home or work the Scientific Method will help make decisions on the course of action to take. Science is used in life for answer to everyday living and it is an awesome thing to utilize and

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If your friend jumps off a bridge, would you do it too? With the scientific method, you can test if that old saying you were told as a kid makes sense.

What is the scientific method?

  • What are the steps to the scientific method?
  • Why is the scientific method important?

The Scientific Method Definition

The scientific method is the standardized process by which scientists gather data to test whether their hypothesis aligns with existing scientific knowledge.

The scientist (or experimenter) goes through the steps of the scientific method to prove their new theory, being detailed in their work so that their experiment can be replicated. Although it is impossible to know who originated the scientific method, the first person to document this process was Sir Frances Bacon in the 1500s.

The Scientific Method Steps

The scientific method begins when someone makes an observation. Let’s say your science teacher noticed that students who eat in the morning score better on their tests compared to those who do not. The teacher thinks there might be reasoning behind this but isn’t quite sure. The next step in this method is to question this observation. Why do students who eat in the morning perform better on their tests? After research, this question then develops into a theory.

A theory is a plausible explanation for the question based on observations that the person might have.

Your teacher’s theory could be that students who take the time to eat in the morning are also the type of students to take the time to study more before a test.

Once a theory has been developed, the next step is creating a hypothesis.

The hypothesis is reworking your theory into a statement that can be tested. If the hypothesis cannot be tested, it is not a hypothesis.

Your teacher’s hypothesis might be that if the student does not eat in the morning, they will not score as high on their science test compared to their average.

An important part of the hypothesis is the operational definitions that come along with it.

Operational definitions are aspects of your hypothesis and experiment that are explicitly defined before the experiment begins so as not to produce any Bias .

Your science teacher would define that eating in the morning requires a minimum of 300 calories before 8:00 am and that scoring higher on the test means beating their average.

Next, it’s time to test your hypothesis in an experiment. The experimental design is crucial in ensuring that your experiment tests your hypothesis. After collecting data, the scientist will be able to determine whether the experiment agrees or disagrees with their hypothesis. Suppose the experiment is unsuccessful in supporting the hypothesis. In that case, the scientist will take the time to review their theory and make amendments, potentially leading to a new experiment with a different hypothesis. Let’s say that your science teacher found that students who did not eat in the morning performed better on the science test. Your teacher would then revise his hypothesis and conduct the experiment again.

Regardless of the outcome, it is important to analyze the data from the experiment to draw conclusions. However, your science teacher found that the students scored higher than their average when they ate on the morning of a test and told your history teacher. Your history teacher knows that a test is coming up in a week and decides to test the science teacher’s hypothesis.

One of the most important parts of the scientific method is the ability for the experiment to be reproduced. Every detail of the experiment needs to be written down, so someone else can replicate the experiment and get the same results. Your history teacher would solely be relying on what was documented by the scientific method to conduct the experiment.

The more an experiment is replicated, and a hypothesis is supported, the more reliable it becomes.

A chart of the scientific chart, StudySmarter

The Scientific Method Applications

The s cientific method can be used not only across many academic disciplines but also in your daily life. You go through your day using steps of the scientific method without even knowing it. For example, you notice that your stomach starts hurting. Why is it doing that? Is it the beans I ate for lunch? You avoid beans for a week, noticing that it helps, but then eat beans again and realize that yes, it was definitely the beans that made your stomach hurt. You made an observation (my stomach aches), formulated it into a theory (the beans made my stomach hurt), hypothesized (if I eat beans, then my stomach will hurt), and tested it (I ate beans, and my stomach hurt)! Although the scientific method is most commonly used in psychology, physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences, don’t forget that you use it too!

Importance of the Scientific Method

This methodology is crucial in standardizing the process we use when we approach experiments. Through the scientific method, scientists can replicate other experiments, upping the reliability of those experiments. An experiment that truly follows the scientific method can be reproduced in varying locations worldwide. Thanks to the scientific method, your science teacher’s experiment could be replicated by a professor in England or a teacher in South Korea.

The Scientific Method also removes any biases that the researcher may have through the standardization of the process. Going step by step through the scientific method, an experimenter will document all steps and predictions, avoiding them from trying to unconsciously (or consciously) sway the outcome.

Examples of Scientific Method

There are oodles of examples of the Scientific Method since so many experiments use it, but let’s use an extremely famous psychological experiment as an example, the Milgram experiment.

In the 1960s, Stanley Milgram wondered about authority's effects on the individual. This study is often tied to the Holocaust, with the question being – did Nazis act of their own accord, or did they commit the atrocities they did because there was someone superior to them telling the Nazis to do so? Milgram hypothesized that the participants in the study would obey the orders of those superior to them, especially within close proximity.

The experimenter took the study subjects and told them that they were teachers, testing the learner’s knowledge in a study of memory. If the learner answered a question wrong, they would get an electric shock in increasing amounts. Unbeknownst to the subject, the learner was an actor, and the shocks were fake. Milgram determined how impactful the experimenter’s authority was on the participants, for when they verbalized discomfort at giving others shocks, the experimenter would tell them to continue. Milgram found that 65 percent of the participants would administer the final, “fatal,” 450-volt shock.

After the experiment, Milgram analyzed his data and published his findings, resulting in this experiment being replicated again and again. He concluded that there is an incredible social influence from an authority figure and found that it was even more prevalent when the experimenter was physically closer to the participant. Milgram followed all the steps of the scientific method to produce one of the most notable psychological experiments.

A diagram of the Milgram experiment, StudySmarter

Of course, the scientific method can be used in a less stressful way – figuring out why the dishwasher isn’t working (is it plugged in? Is the electricity out?), determining if sleeping a lot the night before a test helps, or why, in a group, no one calls 911 during an emergency.

The Scientific Method - Key takeaways

The scientific method is important in making a researcher’s study unbiased.

It is also crucial in allowing other researchers to replicate the original experiment.

There must be a testable hypothesis, your theory reworked into a statement that can be tested.

Operational definitions are necessary to define certain aspects or variables of the experiment so there are no biases or confusion.

This way of research can be applied not only to psychology but also to daily life.

An observation turns into a question, which leads to a theory, from which a hypothesis is formed, resulting in an experiment and then a conclusion.

Frequently Asked Questions about Scientific Method

--> what is the scientific method.

The scientific method is a process scientists or researchers use to test their hypotheses. It acts as a guide of steps for people to follow to produce an unbiased, replicable study. 

--> What are the steps in the scientific method?

The steps of the scientific method are: 

Make an observation and ask a question.

Conduct background research and form a hypothesis.

Conduct experiment.

Collect data.

Draw conclusions.

--> What is the importance of the scientific method? 

The importance of the scientific method is in standardizing the process in which scientists and researchers conduct experiments. Through this, other experimenters can replicate these studies. 

--> What are examples of the scientific method in psychology?

Examples of the scientific method in psychology involve any psychological experiment able to be replicated. One example is the Stanford Prison Experiment. In this experiment, researchers had questions about people conforming to assigned societal roles. They reformed this question into a hypothesis and tested their theory. 

--> Who invented the scientific method?

The inventor of the scientific method is unknown, but Sir Frances Bacon is credited with the first documentation of the steps that are now known as the scientific method. 

Final Scientific Method Quiz

Scientific method quiz - teste dein wissen.

What is the definition of Reliability?

Show answer

Reliability is the presence of a stable and constant outcome after repeated measurement or test

Show question

What is the definition of Validity?

Validity is an indicator that a test or tool of measurement is true and accurate.

What is the importance of Validity and Reliability in terms of research?

 They indicate whether a measurement is consistent, accurate, and trustworthy. All of which, add value to the research.

What are two errors of Reliability?

Method error and trait error.

What is the issue of Maturation?

The passage of time in an experiment interferes with the Validity of the measurement.

What is the bias issue in validity?

Bias in the selection of participants made by the researcher may affect the validity of an outcome.

What is an interaction effect in validity?

multiple tests before one another can negatively impact the outcome of a test that follows.

Method error is: 

An issue of reliability stemming from the experimenter or tool of measurement

Trait error is:

an issue of reliability that stems from the actions or behavior of a participant/subject

Can something be Reliable but not Valid?

Anne is playing a game of darts. She throws all of her darts on the lowest scoring area of the board every single turn and loses the game. Were the shots taken by Anne reliable or valid? Explain.

Reliable but not valid. Because Anne consistently hits the same area each turn, it is reliable. Anne failed to achieve the goal of the game by hitting the center of the board, therefore it was not valid.

You step on a new weight scale and see an accurate number on the scale of how much you weigh. You step on the scale 4 more times and get a completely different weight every time. Valid or Reliable? Why?

The scale was Valid once for reading a correct weight; however, because the result was not consistent it is not a reliable measurement.

List the 4 types of Reliability

  • Test/retest
  • Alternate-forms

List the 3 types of Validity

What Scientific process is used in all research?

The Scientific Method

What is a theory?

A plausible explanation for the question based on observations that the person might have

What is a hypothesis?

Stating what you are going to test in your experiment

What is an operational definition?

An aspect of your hypothesis and experiment that is explicitly defined before the experiment begins in order to not produce any bias

What are the steps of the scientific method?

Make an observation and ask a question

Background research and make a hypothesis

Conduct experiment

Collect data

Draw conclusions

A process for scientists or researchers to test their hypotheses. It acts as a guide of steps for people to follow in order to produce an unbiased, replicable study. 

When is the scientific method used?

All the time! Anytime you are unsure of a problem and want to figure it out, you use the scientific method. 

Who invented the scientific method?

No one is 100% sure, but it is thought that Frances Bacon first documented the steps that are now the scientific method. 

Do you have to have a hypothesis for your experiment to use the scientific method?

What is one of the main reasons why the scientific method is used today?

The ability to replicate the experiment after completion

What is the difference between operational definitions and variables?

Operational definitions are extra information about certain aspects of the study as to not lead to confusion or bias (for example, giving an exact temperature instead of just writing "hot." 

Variables are the aspects of the experiments that are manipulated by the researchers. 

What is the difference between a theory and hypothesis?

A theory is an explanation for something that a researcher observed, while a hypothesis is that theory reworked into a statement that can either be proven true or false. 

Why is it important for experiments to be replicated?

Replicating experiments leads to more reliability of the original experiment. If an experiment cannot be replicated, does that experiment actually show anything?

Did Stanley Milgram follow the scientific method?

Yes, however the ethics behind his experiment are now questionable. 

What is reliability?

Reliability is a way to measure something and get consistent results.

What is validity?

Validity is how accurate something that measures, can actually measure what it means to measure.

How many different reliability/validity types of measurements can there be from a research study?

There can be four different result types from a research study.

What are the four different reliability/validity types of measurements that can come from a research study?

Reliable and valid, reliable and not valid, not reliable and valid, not reliable and not valid.

What does it mean for test results to be reliable and valid?

In this, the results are considered reliable, giving consistent results, and they are considered to be valid, meaning that something is accurately measuring something else.

What does it mean for test results to be reliable, but not valid?

In this, the results are considered reliable, giving consistent results, but they are not considered to be valid, meaning that something is not accurately measuring something else.

What does it mean for test results to be not reliable, but valid?

In this, the results are considered not to be reliable, giving inconsistent consistent results, but they are considered to be valid, meaning that something accurately measures something else.

What does it mean for test results to be not reliable and not valid?

In this, the results are not considered reliable, giving inconsistent results, and they are not considered to be valid, meaning that something is not accurately measuring something else.

What are the two types of errors in reliability?

The two types of errors in reliability are random errors and nonrandom errors.

What is the one type of error in validity?

The one type of error in validity is a systematic error.

What happens when a random error occurs?

Random Errors occur when something by chance (randomly) affects the ability to get an accurate measurement. When more random errors are present, it results in a less reliable result.

What is a nonrandom error?

Nonrandom errors are more of a systematic error, and can also affect the validity of a test.

When do systematic errors occur?

Systematic errors occur due to different factors that systematically influence the measurement process.

True or False: It is important to have reliable and valid test results.

True or False: A thermometer that gives faulty readings over and over would be considered a systematic error.

Fill in the blank: 

The scientific method is important in making a researcher’s study ________.

Who was the first person to document the process of the scientific method? 

Sir Frances Bacon 

In what decade was the first documentation of the scientific method? 

True or False: A theory is a plausible explanation for the question based on observations that the person might have.

Once a theory has been developed, the next step is ___________ __ ________. 

"creating a hypothesis" 

When does the scientific method begin? 

When someone makes an observation.

True or False: One of the most important parts of the scientific method is the ability for the experiment to be reproduced. 

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Fill in the blank: The scientific method is important in making a researcher’s study ________.

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importance of scientific method essay


How the Scientific Method Works

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Importance of the Scientific Method

gregor mendel

The scientific method attempts to minimize the influence of bias or prejudice in the experimenter. Even the best-intentioned scientists can't escape bias. It results from personal beliefs, as well as cultural beliefs, which means any human filters information based on his or her own experience. Unfortunately, this filtering process can cause a scientist to prefer one outcome over another. For someone trying to solve a problem around the house, succumbing to these kinds of biases is not such a big deal. But in the scientific community, where results have to be reviewed and duplicated, bias must be avoided at all costs.

­T­hat's the job of the scientific method. It provides an objective, standardized approach to conducting experiments and, in doing so, improves their results. By using a standardized approach in their investigations, scientists can feel confident that they will stick to the facts and limit the influence of personal, preconceived notions. Even with such a rigorous methodology in place, some scientists still make mistakes. For example, they can mistake a hypothesis for an explanation of a phenomenon without performing experiments. Or they can fail to accurately account for errors, such as measurement errors. Or they can ignore data that does not support the hypothesis.

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), an Austrian priest who studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants and helped pioneer the study of genetics, may have fallen victim to a kind of error known as confirmation bias . Confirmation bias is the tendency to see data that supports a hypothesis while ignoring data that does not. Some argue that Mendel obtained a certain result using a small sample size, then continued collecting and censoring data to make sure his original result was confirmed. Although subsequent experiments have proven Mendel's hypothesis, many people still question his methods of experimentation.

Most of the time, however, the scientific method works and works well. When a hypothesis or a group of related hypotheses have been confirmed through repeated experimental tests, it may become a theory , which can be thought of as the pot of gold at the end of the scientific method rainbow.

Theories are much broader in scope than hypotheses and hold enormous predictive power. The theory of relativity, for example, predicted the existence of black holes long before there was evidence to support the idea. It should be noted, however, that one of the goals of science is not to prove theories right, but to prove them wrong. When this happens, a theory must be modified or discarded altogether.

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