summary essay introduction example

Introduction

Goals and Goal Setting

Goals Common to All RST Writers

Other Goals to Consider

Defining My Own Goals

Advice about Assignments

Getting Started: Listing Topics to Write about in the Tutorial

Narrative One: Personal Piece on a Significant Experience

Narrative Two: Academic Piece on a Significant Experience

Summary/Response One

Summary/Response Two

Tutorial Evaluation Postscript

On Using the Resources for Writers

Generating and Developing Ideas

Finding/Expressing Main Ideas

Showing v. Telling Sentences

Focusing Topic Sentences

Thesis Statements

Reading Strategies

Assessing Your Reading Strategies

Summarizing

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Steps for Writing a Summary Essay

  • Thoroughly read and study the original text. When you read it, get a feeling for the author’s style, tone and mood, and try to identify the main ideas expressed.
  • Divide the text into several sections, and sketch a rough outline. Breaking the text into several parts will make the material easier to grasp. Then read each part once more, but this time highlight some of the key points. Mark areas you want to refer to in your summary, as well as those that shouldn’t be included in your essay.
  • When you have a clear understanding of the information in each part of the source, write down the main idea in each section in the form of a short overview.
  • Write an introduction. It should briefly present the main ideas in the original text. The introduction should include the name of the author, the title of their work, and some background information about the author, if needed.
  • In the main body paragraphs, state the ideas you’ve chosen while reading the text. Expand on them by including one or more examples from the original text. Include important information only and avoid describing minor, insignificant points.
  • After you have summarized the main ideas in the original text, your essay is finished. A conclusion paragraph should be added if your teacher specifically tells you to include one.

Summary Essay Topics

You can write a summary essay on a scientific work, an interesting article, a novel, or a research paper. This type of essay can be on any subject. For example, you might want to write a summary essay on:

  • Catcher in the Rye (book)
  • Citizen Kane (film)
  • Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (book)
  • Captain Fantastic (film)
  • Lord of the Rings (book)
  • Song of Two Humans (film)
  • Of Mice and Men (book)
  • Mad Max: Fury Road (film)
  • Moby Dick (book)
  • Ben Hurr (film)
  • For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway
  • A movie by Ingmar Bergman
  • A novel by Jack London
  • The Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant
  • An article in The New York Times
  • A blog post of a famous journalist

Key Points to Consider

  • One of the most important aspects about a summary essay is its connection to the source. Keep in mind that your interpretation of the source can mislead your readers or even distort the meaning of the original text.
  • Your summary essay should serve as a substitute for the original source; by reading your summary essay, a reader should be able to develop an understanding of the original work.
  • This type of essay is about summarizing the original text, not criticizing it.

All of this means that you need to thoroughly read and analyze the text you are going to describe. In case you don’t have time for that, you can get extra help. Browsing through an essay writing company review can give you an idea where better to find it.

Do and Don’t

Common mistakes.

– Including too much or too little information in your essay. – Forgetting to cite quotations, so that the words of the original texts’ author looks like your own. – Concentrating on insignificant details, examples, and anecdotes. – Trying to interpret or explain what the author wanted to say in his or her work. You must give a concise overview of the source, not present your own interpretation.

Now that you have acquainted yourself with the basic summary essay writing tips and rules, you can check out our summary essay samples to link theory with practice.

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  • How to Write a Summary

Proficient students understand that  summarizing , identifying what is most important and restating the text (or other media) in your own words, is an important tool for college success.

After all, if you really know a subject, you will be able to summarize it. If you cannot summarize a subject, even if you have memorized all the facts about it, you can be absolutely sure that you have not learned it. And, if you truly learn the subject, you will still be able to summarize it months or years from now.

Proficient students may monitor their understanding of a text by summarizing as they read. They understand that if they can write a one- or two-sentence summary of each paragraph after reading it, then that is a good sign that they have correctly understood it. If they can not summarize the main idea of the paragraph, they know that comprehension has broken down and they need to use fix-up strategies to repair understanding.

Summary Writing Format

  • When writing a summary, remember that it should be in the form of a paragraph.
  • A summary begins with an introductory sentence that states the text’s title, author and main point of the text as you see it.
  • A summary is written in your own words.
  • A summary contains only the ideas of the original text. Do not insert any of your own opinions, interpretations, deductions or comments into a summary.
  • Identify in order the significant sub-claims the author uses to defend the main point.
  • Copy word-for-word three separate passages from the essay that you think support and/or defend the main point of the essay as you see it.
  • Cite each passage by first signaling the work and the author, put “quotation marks” around the passage you chose, and put the number of the paragraph where the passages can be found immediately after the passage.
  • Using source material from the essay is important. Why? Because defending claims with source material is what you will be asked to do when writing papers for your college professors.
  • Write a last sentence that “wraps” up your summary; often a simple rephrasing of the main point.

Example Summary Writing Format

In the essay Santa Ana , author Joan Didion’s main point is ( state main point ). According to Didion “… passage 1 …” (para.3). Didion also writes “… passage 2 …” (para.8). Finally, she states “… passage 3 …” (para. 12) Write a last sentence that “wraps” up your summary; often a simple rephrasing of the main point.

  • Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : http://lumenlearning.com/ . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Authored by : Paul Powell. Provided by : Central Community College. Project : Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Authored by : Elisabeth Ellington and Ronda Dorsey Neugebauer. Provided by : Chadron State College. Project : Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Table of Contents

Instructor Resources (Access Requires Login)

  • Overview of Instructor Resources

An Overview of the Writing Process

  • Introduction to the Writing Process
  • Introduction to Writing
  • Your Role as a Learner
  • What is an Essay?
  • Reading to Write
  • Defining the Writing Process
  • Videos: Prewriting Techniques
  • Thesis Statements
  • Organizing an Essay
  • Creating Paragraphs
  • Conclusions
  • Editing and Proofreading
  • Matters of Grammar, Mechanics, and Style
  • Peer Review Checklist
  • Comparative Chart of Writing Strategies

Using Sources

  • Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Formatting the Works Cited Page (MLA)
  • Citing Paraphrases and Summaries (APA)
  • APA Citation Style, 6th edition: General Style Guidelines

Definition Essay

  • Definitional Argument Essay
  • How to Write a Definition Essay
  • Critical Thinking
  • Video: Thesis Explained
  • Effective Thesis Statements
  • Student Sample: Definition Essay

Narrative Essay

  • Introduction to Narrative Essay
  • Student Sample: Narrative Essay
  • "Shooting an Elephant" by George Orwell
  • "Sixty-nine Cents" by Gary Shteyngart
  • Video: The Danger of a Single Story
  • How to Write an Annotation
  • Writing for Success: Narration

Illustration/Example Essay

  • Introduction to Illustration/Example Essay
  • "She's Your Basic L.O.L. in N.A.D" by Perri Klass
  • "April & Paris" by David Sedaris
  • Writing for Success: Illustration/Example
  • Student Sample: Illustration/Example Essay

Compare/Contrast Essay

  • Introduction to Compare/Contrast Essay
  • "Disability" by Nancy Mairs
  • "Friending, Ancient or Otherwise" by Alex Wright
  • "A South African Storm" by Allison Howard
  • Writing for Success: Compare/Contrast
  • Student Sample: Compare/Contrast Essay

Cause-and-Effect Essay

  • Introduction to Cause-and-Effect Essay
  • "Cultural Baggage" by Barbara Ehrenreich
  • "Women in Science" by K.C. Cole
  • Writing for Success: Cause and Effect
  • Student Sample: Cause-and-Effect Essay

Argument Essay

  • Introduction to Argument Essay
  • Rogerian Argument
  • "The Case Against Torture," by Alisa Soloman
  • "The Case for Torture" by Michael Levin
  • How to Write a Summary by Paraphrasing Source Material
  • Writing for Success: Argument
  • Student Sample: Argument Essay
  • Grammar/Mechanics Mini-lessons
  • Mini-lesson: Subjects and Verbs, Irregular Verbs, Subject Verb Agreement
  • Mini-lesson: Sentence Types
  • Mini-lesson: Fragments I
  • Mini-lesson: Run-ons and Comma Splices I
  • Mini-lesson: Comma Usage
  • Mini-lesson: Parallelism
  • Mini-lesson: The Apostrophe
  • Mini-lesson: Capital Letters
  • Grammar Practice - Interactive Quizzes
  • De Copia - Demonstration of the Variety of Language
  • Style Exercise: Voice
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How to Write Article Summaries, Reviews & Critiques

Writing an article summary.

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When writing a summary, the goal is to compose a concise and objective overview of the original article. The summary should focus only on the article's main ideas and important details that support those ideas.

Guidelines for summarizing an article:

  • State the main ideas.
  • Identify the most important details that support the main ideas.
  • Summarize in your own words.
  • Do not copy phrases or sentences unless they are being used as direct quotations.
  • Express the underlying meaning of the article, but do not critique or analyze.
  • The summary should be about one third the length of the original article. 

Your summary should include:

  • Give an overview of the article, including the title and the name of the author.
  • Provide a thesis statement that states the main idea of the article.
  • Use the body paragraphs to explain the supporting ideas of your thesis statement.
  • One-paragraph summary - one sentence per supporting detail, providing 1-2 examples for each.
  • Multi-paragraph summary - one paragraph per supporting detail, providing 2-3 examples for each.
  • Start each paragraph with a topic sentence.
  • Use transitional words and phrases to connect ideas.
  • Summarize your thesis statement and the underlying meaning of the article.

 Adapted from "Guidelines for Using In-Text Citations in a Summary (or Research Paper)" by Christine Bauer-Ramazani, 2020

Additional Resources

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How to Write a Summary - Guide & Examples  (from Scribbr.com)

Writing a Summary  (from The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center)

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  • Last Updated: Aug 16, 2023 11:47 AM
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Essay writing: Introductions

  • Introductions
  • Conclusions
  • Analysing questions
  • Planning & drafting
  • Revising & editing
  • Proofreading
  • Essay writing videos

Jump to content on this page:

“A relevant and coherent beginning is perhaps your best single guarantee that the essay as a whole will achieve its object.” Gordon Taylor, A Student's Writing Guide

Your introduction is the first thing your marker will read and should be approximately 10% of your word count. Within the first minute they should know if your essay is going to be a good one or not. An introduction has several components but the most important of these are the last two we give here. You need to show the reader what your position is and how you are going to argue the case to get there so that the essay becomes your answer to the question rather than just an answer.

What an introduction should include:

  • A little basic background about the key subject area (just enough to put your essay into context, no more or you'll bore the reader).
  • Explanation of how you are defining any key terms . Confusion on this could be your undoing.
  • A road-map of how your essay will answer the question. What is your overall argument and how will you develop it?
  • A confirmation of your position .

Background information

It is good to start with a statement that fixes your essay topic and focus in a wider context so that the reader is sure of where they are within the field. This is a very small part of the introduction though - do not fall into the trap of writing a whole paragraph that is nothing but background information.

Beware though, this only has to be a little bit wider, not completely universal. That is, do not start with something like "In the whole field of nursing...." or "Since man could write, he has always...". Instead, simply situate the area that you are writing about within a slightly bigger area. For example, you could start with a general statement about a topic, outlining some key issues but explain that your essay will focus on only one. Here is an example:

The ability to communicate effectively and compassionately is a key skill within nursing. Communication is about more than being able to speak confidently and clearly, it is about effective listening (Singh, 2019), the use of gesture, body language and tone (Adebe et al., 2016) and the ability to tailor language and messaging to particular situations (Smith & Jones, 2015). This essay will explore the importance of non-verbal communication ...

The example introduction at the bottom of this page also starts with similar, short background information.

Prehistoric man with the caption "Since the dawn of man..."

Defining key terms

This does not mean quoting dictionary definitions - we all have access to dictionary.com with a click or two. There are many words we use in academic work that can have multiple or nuanced definitions. You have to write about how you are defining any potentially ambiguous terms in relation to  your  essay topic. This is really important for your reader, as it will inform them how you are using such words in the context of your essay and prevent confusion or misunderstanding.

Student deciding if 'superpower' relates to the USA and China or Superman and Spider-man

Stating your case (road mapping)

The main thing an introduction will do is...introduce your essay! That means you need to tell the reader what your conclusion is and how you will get there.

There is no need to worry about *SPOILER ALERTS* - this is not a detective novel you can give away the ending! Sorry, but building up suspense is just going to irritate the reader rather than eventually satisfy. Simply outline how your main arguments (give them in order) lead to your conclusion. In American essay guides you will see something described as the ‘thesis statement’ - although we don't use this terminology in the UK, it is still necessary to state in your introduction what the over-arching argument of your essay will be. Think of it as the mega-argument , to distinguish it from the mini-arguments you make in each paragraph. Look at the example introduction at the bottom of this page which includes both of these elements.

Car on a road to a place called 'Conclusion'

Confirming your position

To some extent, this is covered in your roadmap (above), but it is so important, it deserves some additional attention here. Setting out your position is an essential component of all essays. Brick et al. (2016:143) even suggest

"The purpose of an essay is to present a clear position and defend it"

It is, however, very difficult to defend a position if you have not made it clear in the first place. This is where your introduction comes in. In stating your position, you are ultimately outlining the answer to the question. You can then make the rest of your essay about providing the evidence that supports your answer. As such, if you make your position clear, you will find all subsequent paragraphs in your essay easier to write and join together. As you have already told your reader where the essay is going, you can be explicit in how each paragraph contributes to your mega-argument.

In establishing your position and defending it, you are ultimately engaging in scholarly debate. This is because your positions are supported by academic evidence and analysis. It is in your analysis of the academic evidence that should lead your reader to understand your position. Once again - this is only possible if your introduction has explained your position in the first place.

student standing on a cross holding a sign saying "my position"

An example introduction

(Essay title = Evaluate the role of stories as pedagogical tools in higher education)

Stories have been an essential communication technique for thousands of years and although teachers and parents still think they are important for educating younger children, they have been restricted to the role of entertainment for most of us since our teenage years. This essay will claim that stories make ideal pedagogical tools, whatever the age of the student, due to their unique position in cultural and cognitive development. To argue this, it will consider three main areas: firstly, the prevalence of stories across time and cultures and how the similarity of story structure suggests an inherent understanding of their form which could be of use to academics teaching multicultural cohorts when organising lecture material; secondly, the power of stories to enable listeners to personally relate to the content and how this increases the likelihood of changing thoughts, behaviours and decisions - a concept that has not gone unnoticed in some fields, both professional and academic; and finally, the way that different areas of the brain are activated when reading, listening to or watching a story unfold, which suggests that both understanding and ease of recall, two key components of learning, are both likely to be increased . Each of these alone could make a reasoned argument for including more stories within higher education teaching – taken together, this argument is even more compelling.

Key:   Background information (scene setting)   Stating the case (r oad map)    Confirming a position (in two places). Note in this introduction there was no need to define key terms.

Brick, J., Herke, M., and Wong, D., (2016) Academic Culture, A students guide to studying at university, 3rd edition. Victoria, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.

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  • How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Published on 25 September 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 12 May 2023.

Summarising , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

  • Read the text
  • Break it down into sections
  • Identify the key points in each section
  • Write the summary
  • Check the summary against the article

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or analysing the source. You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

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Table of contents

When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, frequently asked questions.

There are many situations in which you might have to summarise an article or other source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
  • To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
  • To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyse or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarising is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

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You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

  • Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
  • Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
  • Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.

There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

  • Start by reading the abstract . This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
  • Pay attention to headings and subheadings . These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
  • Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?

To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organised into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Examples of article summaries

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarise this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying ‘an apple a day keeps the doctor away’.

An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

For example, in a literature review or research paper, you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

Citing the source you’re summarizing

When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

  • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
  • You haven’t missed any essential information
  • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.

If you’re summarising many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words.

Save yourself some time with the free summariser.

A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarising, and on the purpose of the summary.

With the summariser tool you can easily adjust the length of your summary.

You might have to write a summary of a source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
  • For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
  • To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
  • In a paper , to summarise or introduce a relevant study

To avoid plagiarism when summarising an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by   paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Reference the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarise the whole text, not just introduce it.

An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarise a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, May 12). How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 19 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/working-sources/how-to-write-a-summary/

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Top 20 Essay Introduction Examples

Introduction

The top 20 essay introduction examples are the best and most popular introductions to use when writing essays. These examples are easy to read and clearly understand what the author is trying to say in their opening paragraph. These essay introduction examples can be used as templates for future essays.

As students, we must learn how to create our own memorable hooks so that we may stand out from other writers in our class. The more creative and original your hook is, the better chance you have of being remembered by your professor because they will notice something about you that they haven’t seen before. What’s more?

1) Your hook should grab your reader’s attention and make them want to read the rest of your paper.

2) Your hook should also reveal something about the topic at hand, perhaps even hinting at what will be discussed in more detail later on.

3) Your hook should be clear, concise, and to the point such that no one could think that your opening sentence is boring or unclear.

The first paragraph of a personal essay is crucial because it draws readers in and lets them know what will follow. That’s why the most important part of an introduction is to tell the reader what kind of essay you are writing and to give them a hint about the main idea.

For instance, let’s assume that you are writing a personal essay about how your friend lost his legs in an unfortunate accident and that you are trying to express the theme of hope. To start this kind of essay, you would do well using sentences like “Some people have hopeless causes for their lives, but I feel that my friend has things to hope for.”

Let’s go over a few tips before reaching the examples, but you can scroll to the examples section if you’re in a hurry. Also, in case you wish to skip this guide altogether due to reasons such as a busy schedule, our top writers are ready to cover you by ensuring that your essay is written to the highest standards. All you need to do is place an order with us!

The Importance of the Introductory Paragraph

summary essay introduction example

An introduction paragraph not only introduces the topic but also gives some insight into what will be discussed. A successful introductory paragraph must accomplish the following:

1) It should tell the reader what kind of paper they are about to read (e.g., memo, argumentative essay , narrative).

2) It should briefly state in one sentence the purpose of writing this paper.

3) It should tell the reader what kind of information they will get, and that is related to their purpose.

4) It should give a brief overview of the main points discussed in the rest of your paper.

5) It should give the reader an idea of your position regarding the topic.

6) If it’s a narrative essay , it should tell the main character and why they are important.

7) It should point out some startling or interesting information about your subject (e.g., quote them on something).

The purpose of your introductory paragraph is to grab the reader’s attention and get them interested in what you have to say.

How to Write a Good Introductory Paragraph

summary essay introduction example

First, write your subject in a simple declarative sentence—the simpler, the better. In this sentence, tell what you will talk about (your topic) and your main idea. The more specific your claim is, the easier it will be for you to develop your argument later on.

The next step would be to create your topic sentence. This sentence focuses on the main idea and includes the supporting ideas or subtopics that will be discussed later.

The last step is to start with your thesis statement that summarizes what you will discuss in this paper. It summarizes and answers the questions of what you want to prove and shows what you want your reader to believe in. This statement is the most important sentence of your entire writing because if this is not convincing, nothing else in your paper will be convincing either. So, make sure that it reflects all of these characteristics listed above.

Top 20 Examples of Good Essay Introductions

summary essay introduction example

Different types of essays require different ways to start the essay, but some general rules will apply to any kind of writing . The best way to get a sense of how you should structure your introduction is to look at model essays written by professionals and see how they approach it.

Here are 20 great essay introductions that can serve as a starting point for your essay. Read them to get some ideas on how to write your introduction:

Use of humor

A humorous introduction can sometimes grab the attention of your reader even better than an interesting fact.

Here are some examples of funny essay introductions:

1) “Most people, when asked for help, do their best to avoid doing anything that will make them feel uncomfortable or inconvenient. However, one particular person named Barbara McFadden is entirely different from all other people. She is one of those people who will go out of their way to make you feel special, even if that means calling the police and making a big scene.”

2) “Although, as funny as it is, I could see myself being an extra in that movie. I mean, there are times when my family and I go shopping, and we make so much noise that people stare at us and shake their heads with disgust.”

3) “Before I start telling you about our amazing vacation, I would like to tell you a little bit about myself. My name is Jana, and I am from Chicago; however, my family spent most of our weekends in Wisconsin. We enjoy going over there because we love the cold, crisp weather and the extremely friendly people.”

4) “There was a point when I lost my sanity. Every day that went by, I would miss her even more. It didn’t matter where I was or what I was doing, she still crossed my mind every few minutes. Whether it be day or night, awake or asleep, smiling or crying, my heart was filled with the pain of having her right there in front of me and not being able to hold her or take away the pain she must be feeling.”

Using statistics

Statistics can help make your essay attractive to the reader and show them some of the positive characteristics of your topic.

Here is an example of a good introduction with statistics:

5) “More than 50 million people will get married in the US by 2015, which is a 4.7% increase from 2008.”

6) “Although some people consider colleges to be similar, there is one thing that can make an enormous difference between them, and that is the tuition fees. The cost of public universities has doubled in the last ten years while the private ones have increased 7.5 times.”

7) “In the last decade, those people under 40 years of age have increased by about 6%. Many factors can be attributed to this increase in population. One of the main reasons for this is immigration; however, scientists believe that the other reason lies within our genes.”

Using anecdotes

Anecdotes are very interesting because they generally contain a lot of information about your topic, and they can show the reader exactly why your essay’s subject is important to you.

This is an example that uses anecdotes:

8) “It was my 11th grade when I planned on attending college. At the same time, my dad was planning to retire near our family home in Georgia. He had planned to stay there until he could fix up the old house of our relatives. To him, retirement meant time for him to do all the things that he had ever wanted. My dad has always had a passion for woodwork and animals. Therefore, my plan was simple: fixing up my new home with my father in Georgia.”

9) “After loving each other for so long, my boyfriend and I were finally getting married. We had made all the plans to have a wonderful wedding and honeymoon in France; however, there was one problem. One week before our wedding, my husband-to-be got in a car accident that left him paralyzed from the waist down. For me, it was like my world had shattered to pieces. He was the only thing that kept me going. I knew that as long as I stayed strong, he would make it through anything and everything.”

10) “The teachers at my college were always very helpful; however, there was one teacher in particular who stood out from all the rest. Her name was Mrs. Middleton. She was always late to class and extremely messy; however, she would make up for it by being the most interesting teacher I had ever had. Whenever her class came, there was never a dull moment.”

Using quotes

Quotes are a great way of starting an essay because they show your audience how credible you are as a writer. Through them, you can also show your audience that you want to use credible sources.

Here is an example of a good quote introduction:

11)” “Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.” John F. Kennedy – a famous American president, 17th of November, 1960″ It’s hard to imagine that freedom and democracy first started centuries ago in ancient Greece. We’re free to say what we want, do what we want, buy whatever we want, and even start a business of our own.

12)” “Those born into poverty die without ever knowing anything else” taken from The Women Who Would Be Queen by Linda Grant.” The subject of this book is the American society. It tells us a story about women born to low-income families but still decided to do something with their lives. They weren’t afraid of taking risks and worked very hard to achieve what they deserved.

13)” “Everyone has inside of him a piece of good news. The good news is that you don’t know how great you can be! How much you can love! What you can accomplish! And what your potential is!” – Mother Teresa” Human beings are often underestimated. This is because the media makes us believe that everyone around us has it better than we do. However, this is not true. People out there have a third of what they need and are willing to share with others.

You may also be interested in SAT examples

Use of vivid imagery

Your essay is much easier to read when you use vivid imagery. It not only makes your content better, but it also helps the reader to understand what you are trying to say. Not to mention that they add color and depth to your writing style.

14) “He was sitting in his wheelchair staring out of the window with a slight smile on his face. His body looked so frail that it made me want to cry. It reminded me of a small tree that had been uprooted from its roots and was now exposed to the rage of mother nature.”

15) “The smell was like a combination of alcohol, vomit, and sweat all mixed into one. Everyone in the room knew that they didn’t need to be there, but it was the only place where no one judged them. This is why everyone kept coming back.”

16) “I remember that day like it was yesterday. The sun had just come up, and the rays were shining through my bedroom window. The smell of fresh air filled the room with the warmth of a summer’s day, and I could hear the birds chirping in a nearby tree…”

Use of compare and contrast technique

Using compare and contrast technique can be very effective in an introduction. It gives you the chance to set a standard for what will be written about later in your essay.

Here are some good examples:

17)” America has always been much more liberal than Britain when it comes to sexuality. Compared to America, Britain is much more conservative. Homosexuality is still illegal in Britain, while it has been legal since 2003 in America. Women are expected not to be sexually promiscuous in Britain, while in America, it’s completely fine to sleep around.”

18) “Facebook and LinkedIn are both social media sites. However, there are many major differences. For example, LinkedIn is mostly used for professional communication, while Facebook is used for personal communication. Facebook being so big has the advantage of having more people to communicate with, but LinkedIn is easier to use and a lot more personal.”

19) “I prefer to live in a city than in the countryside. This is because cities give you a chance to meet lots of new people and learn about their cultural background. The only thing that makes me feel uncomfortable is the lack of nature.”

Using shocking facts

This is something that can be very beneficial to your writing style, especially if you have passionate feelings about a specific subject. It can take the introduction in an unexpected way and present information and facts that readers might not know exist.

20) “It is estimated that over 30 million people suffer from eating disorders in the US alone. This number has grown exponentially over the past 40 years. Some of those suffering have turned to social media for help and support. However, the focus in these online communities has moved away from recovery to self-promotion and vanity.”

21) “In England, abortion is legal up until 24 weeks. After that period, a pregnancy can be terminated if there are serious fetal abnormalities or risks to the woman’s mental health. Each year over 190,000 women have abortions in Britain, which is equivalent to about one-third of all pregnancies.”

22) “It is estimated that around three percent of boys and two percent of girls have an Autism Spectrum Disorder. These numbers may not seem much, but they are a lot higher than previously believed. What makes these disorders even more worrying is the fact that there are a growing number of children being diagnosed with Autism.”

Use of questions

Questions are a very good introduction technique. Usually, they can help engage and hook your reader’s interest. For example:

23) “What is the best age to get married? Marriage is a very important thing. Not many people are aware of this, but the right age to get married can greatly impact your life. It is one decision that can change your life forever, so it should be well thought out.”

24) “What makes you happy? Happiness is something that everyone wants to achieve. We all want to feel and experience it in our lives. What makes us happy differs from person to person. They are a lot of different things: love, success, knowledge, the list goes on.”

25) “What can I do to be successful? Success is what everyone strives for. Some people want it in a short amount of time, others gradually over a much longer period of time. In this essay, we’re going to look at how you can achieve success in your life.”

Emotional sentence

This sort of introduction is usually very effective because it can open up a line of thought that will make your reader feel sympathy for the writer. It has also been proven that emotional sentences are more likely to keep your readers interest in what they’re reading. Here are examples:

25) “My grandmother never taught me how to cook. She said that men were supposed to take care of women, and society expects women to be able to do these things themselves.”

26) “I want an education so that I can get a good job and earn enough money for my family, but my parents disagree with me. They say that it is unnecessary for the woman in the family to have an education. It is also not a priority for them.”

27) “I don’t like my brother’s girlfriend. I guess she just seems too controlling for her own good.”

Use of adjectives and adverbs

An effective way to keep your reader engaged in your writing is by using adjectives and adverbs effectively. For example:

28) “I’ve always hated school. It’s just a never-ending cycle of meaningless assignments that I do not care about.”

29) “After the big earthquake, people came together to help each other in any way they could. They banded together and helped those affected in every single way imaginable. They were always on the lookout for dangerous aftershocks and were always listening out for any news about people trapped under rubble.”

30) “Stress is a very serious topic. It can destroy your life if you’re not careful. I’m going to talk about what stress is, how it affects us, and what we can do about it.”

Getting personal

Sometimes, it can be a very good idea to make your introduction personal. For example:

31) “I agreed with my aunt and cousin that we should all go to the beach together. At first, I thought it was a great idea because I really enjoyed spending time with them, but then they started talking about what swimsuit they were going to wear, and I wanted to run away.”

32) “I have always been a big fan of Harry Potter. In my teenage years, I’d read all of the books many times over!”

33) “When my friends and I would talk about school, we were not usually happy with what we had to say. For one thing, the teachers were often no help at all. They never seemed to want to help us figure out what we needed, and they were always telling us how bad our grades were.”

Use of metaphors and similes

Using metaphors may be a good idea if you want your reader to understand what you’re writing. Similes are also great because they can help you make comparisons that the reader can relate to. For example:

34) “Sometimes I feel like I’m in a huge war all on my own. It’s like I’m under constant attack. My enemy isn’t really clear, except that it seems to be coming from every single side at the same time.”

35) “I can’t understand why some people stay in jobs they don’t like. Sometimes you have to do something that you’re not comfortable with if you want to get ahead. You have to take risks.”

36) “Baseball is like a religion in America. People worship players as if they were gods and millions of fans come out every year to watch them play. It’s something that you have to respect, even though it may seem a little overboard.”

Using surprising information

A rather unique way to start an essay is by using information that most people wouldn’t expect. It could detail about yourself, or it could be something very specific about the topic of your essay. For example:

37) “I used to love playing ice hockey. There was just something so satisfying about being able to hit the puck with your hockey stick and then get into position to watch it sail right past the goalie.”

38) “When I was born, my parents were really young. They weren’t even twenty-one years old yet when they had me!”

39) “After reading a book recently about World War II, I’ve realized that these events can potentially have an impact on each and every one of us for decades to come. They can leave scars that remain in our society for many years after they are over.”

Using special words and phrases

Sometimes, the most effective way to get your reader interested in what you have to say is by using special words or phrases that many people wouldn’t usually use. For example:

40) “I’ve always wanted to be a writer. I think it would be fascinating to write novels that can help influence others.”

41) “I think that gardening is a great hobby for children to have. It’s interesting to see them learn about plants and how to take care of them.”

42) “Whenever it gets really cold outside, people in my neighborhood all get together at the local library and form groups around their favorite activity. We’re like little families!”

Common Mistakes People Make when Writing Introductions:

• Not making a clear statement about your subject (e.g., not giving the reader an idea of what kind of essay they are going to read).

• It’s long and boring, so it doesn’t grab people’s attention and make them want to read the rest of your paper.

• Your opening sentence is unclear or confusing.

• It has no point to it, or it’s not connected with the rest of your writing.

• Your thesis statement does not reflect what you are going to discuss in this essay, or it doesn’t give an idea about what you want your reader to believe in.

You may also check how to begin a “Why this College” essay

How to Write a Good Essay

summary essay introduction example

Good essay writing takes a lot of time and effort. Personally, I have always been satisfied with the results of my work. But it’s not enough just to write an essay, you need to know how to get feedback on it and improve your skills even further.

Good essays start with choosing a great topic . It’s not easy to find a fresh idea. You may use a couple of resources. They will help you discover some new and exciting ideas. When you’ve found something that sparks your interest, read as much material on the subject as possible. It is always better to write about something familiar.

After you’ve got some information on the subject of your essay:

  • Write down all the things that you want to include in your work.
  • As soon as possible, structure these points into paragraphs .
  • Check if there are any necessary additions or corrections.

A general outline of an essay

Outlining your essay is the next important step. It will help you to see if your points are coherent and not related to each other. You can use various structures for outlining your work: thesis-support, compare-contrast, problem-solution, chain of events (storyline), definition of a term, and so on.

Thesis-support outline

This is one of the most popular structures for writing an essay. It’s based on the construction of a thesis statement and supporting evidence. Examples of such statements are “the weather is fine” or “technology has changed human life.” The main method for creating a thesis statement is to create a compound sentence that will include two different viewpoints :

a) the negative;

b) the positive.

The following statement is an example of a thesis-support outline: “The media has negative and positive effects on young people.” In this case, you can use different examples to support your viewpoint, like violence in movies or the pros of social networks. That’s why it’s important to choose an appropriate topic for your work.

The compare-contrast outline

This structure is based on comparing and contrasting two different things or three similar ones. It can be used to describe different aspects of the same thing: for example, people in the world, fashion styles. The best examples are “American and British English” or “the cat and the mouse.”

The problem-solution outline

This structure is most often applied in scientific papers. The main idea of such kinds of essays is to state the main problem and offer a solution for it. By this means, you can focus on your writing skills and clarify your point of view, if any. For example, a statement like “homeless people don’t have enough money” may be followed by “the government should make more public shelters.”

A chain of events outline

This structure is based on creating a story, which will include one or several steps. The beginning and the end can illustrate some final idea or thesis statement. It’s an effective way to tell your reader about something and make them feel involved in your story.

General format of an outline

The basic format of an outline is:

The introduction

Body paragraphs

conclusion.

The introduction is the first paragraph of your essay. It’s a good idea to make it an attention-grabber so that readers don’t hesitate to continue reading your work. You must present your topic clearly and as easily as possible. The last sentence should be about the main idea of the work or thesis statement.

The main part of an essay is the body. Its purpose is to describe different aspects and dimensions of your topic. Use the following things to create your paragraphs:

· Introductory sentence- It should contain the topic of your paragraph, a thesis statement, and a transition.

· Body sentences – These are the supporting sentences. They should prove your thesis or describe a specific aspect of the topic. Each sentence must have its significance in the overall context.

· Concluding sentence – It’s important to make it an appropriate conclusion of your paragraph. It should be similar to the introductory one.

The last paragraph of an essay is named “conclusion.” Its main purpose is to state your opinion or recommendation on a particular issue. You must be careful with it and make sure that you don’t contradict yourself in any way. Here are some things you can use for creating a conclusion:

· Restatement of your thesis – You can repeat your main idea differently or use it for the main sentence of a concluding paragraph.

· Summarizing statement – If you think that there is no need to restate your thesis again, you can make a summary instead, which will be a brief retelling of your main idea.

· The future tense – Sometimes, you can use the future tense to imply what needs to be done in this or that sphere. For example, “Technology will develop further; researchers will find a cure for cancer.”

These are the basic elements of an outline. In general, it’s important to follow a structure and use the right words.

Essay Writing Tips

The most important thing when writing an essay is to follow a structure and make sure that all your paragraphs are coherent with each other. Other tips are:

· Planning – It makes your work much easier to write and finalize. You should be able to control the general idea, so planning will help you start right away.

· Grammar – It’s important to know its basics and check all your content for any mistakes . After all, you will be able to deliver the message clearly and accurately.

· Thesis statement – This statement should reflect the main idea of an essay and make a clear point about the subject at hand. It’s good to develop it further in the body paragraphs.

· Word choice – Choose your words wisely and always check if they sound clear and easy to understand. Avoid using complicated sentences or phrases, but be concise and ensure you don’t waste any words.

· Accuracy – Don’t forget that essays are quite different from creative writing. They should be as accurate as possible, so make sure that you have all the necessary facts and ideas before you begin to write.

You may also want to check various speech topics, such as demonstration speech topic

Getting help with writing essays

The best way to make sure your essay introduction is done the right way, the first time, is to find somebody who can help you with this sort of task. There are two things you should always keep in mind when looking for a good essay helper:

1) They need to have experience writing and editing term papers. This means that they have to be professionals in their field.

2) They have to know what your teacher wants you to write and how they want the introduction written. Therefore, they will have absolutely no problem fully understanding an assignment and doing everything exactly according to your preferences and instructions.

Our writers have all these qualities, and you may try our services by click here.

How to pick a good custom essay writer

When you’re picking a custom essay writer, there are some things that you have to keep in mind. For example:

Budget-friendly options

You have to know about essay writers who will not overcharge you for their services. Of course, everybody wants quality writing and affordable prices at the same time! Be it a high school essay or an MBA application essay, the price shouldn’t be too high. Thus, you should pick custom writing services that won’t make you feel ripped off after paying for their services.

Deadlines and quality of writing

Another important aspect to consider is the deadlines these essay writing services give their customers. Some places may promise you a deadline but won’t deliver on time, while others will not even bother giving you an exact date. Let them know that your essay has to be in by a certain date (or if it already is, let them know so they can stop working on it). If something goes wrong with the writing process, contact your writer and let them know about it. You should always get what you have paid for.

Writing styles and quality of service .

You should also find a custom writing service with many authors who can do their job in different ways. For example, some writers provide in-depth research papers, while others like to focus on a specific area (e.g., literature). Just browse through their samples and make sure that you can see the kind of writing they do.

Customer services support

When you are getting a paper from a professional writer, there should always be someone who will help you with your essay. For example, it’s okay to ask where you can find more information about how much an essay will cost. It’s also okay to ask if your teacher will accept the essay you have ordered on a certain topic. The best custom writing services will always offer their clients some support. You should always get answers from your customer service representative when you call or email them with questions or remarks about an order.

Recommendations

Finally, make sure you read reviews about the custom writing service you’re going to use: that way, you’ll know whether or not it’s worth paying for their services.

When it comes to choosing a professional essay writer, there are many things you need to be aware of and take into consideration. Do your homework before committing to any particular website, and avoid dealing with unreliable custom writing services.

You can find some reviews about essay writers on the web: just check out their testimonials and see whether or not they seem legitimate. You’ll also have to make sure your writer understands what you need. We also have a list of top writers !

The introduction paragraph is the most important part of your essay. It should not be underestimated, as it is necessary to hook readers on what will come next in a convincing way that makes them want to read more.

Therefore, it is very important to avoid common mistakes, or misinterpretations students often make when writing their introduction. The purpose of this post was to help you understand the paragraph and use it in such a way that it makes a good first impression on readers so that they are motivated to read more.

If you can do all of these things, you will be able to write a proper introduction for your essay that will lead to more positive results. If you still do not know where to start, click the green button below and leave it to our writers!

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Introduction to a Summary Essay

Table of Contents

In this article, we will give you a run down introduction to a summary essay . In a summary, you basically restate the article’s key points in your terms.

A summary essay is an overview of an original text. It gives the reader a brief yet accurate overview of the full content.

In a summary essay, you may need to identify the text’s point of view and genre. Let’s check out essay summary writing procedures, tips, and a sample of a summary essay.

silver iphone 6 on white paper

Essay Summary Writing Procedures

These are the steps to composing an excellent summary:

1. Read the article paragraph by paragraph

Highlight the subject sentence of each paragraph (topic sentence). If you cannot highlight the passage in the book, write it on your computer or a piece of paper. Read all the highlighted passages at the end of the article.

2. Write a statement

Write one statement that explains the fundamental idea in your own words. Introduce the sentence with the author and title of the article.

Continue composing your summary by rewriting the remaining highlighted phrases in your own words. Remember that you must alter both the terms and the sequence of the phrase.

3. Utilize transitional phrases

Utilize transitional phrases to connect your sentences. Transitional words such as “in this sense” or “at this point” are valuable tools in determining how to build a compelling and cohesive argument.

4. Use author tags

Include the author’s name, article title, or “author tags” to indicate that you are discussing the author’s words and not your own.

5. Re-read your piece

Does it read smoothly? Are there excessive details? Not adequate? Your summary should be as brief and to the point as feasible.

Sample of a Summary Essay

1. author tag.

You must begin your summary with the article’s title and author’s name. Here are three examples of how to accomplish this (note the punctuation):

  • In “How Tsunami Began,” historian James Bright explains…
  • In his work “How the Tsunami Began,” James Bright claims that the actual cause…
  • “How the Tsunami Began,” by historian James Bright, describes…

The opening line should contain the article’s core idea along with the title and author’s name.

It should address the question: What is the purpose of this essay? (thesis).

In “How the Tsunami Began” by James Bright, the author argues that the underlying cause of the Tsunami was not due to natural forces. He claims that the Tsunami was triggered due to man-made disruptions below water.

Rest of Synopsis:

The remainder of your essay will provide supporting arguments and proof for your thesis statement. In other words, what is the writer’s core argument, and what are the supportive concepts he or she employs to substantiate it?

Does the author present any counterarguments, and how does the writer dispute them? Here is an example of a sentence type:

XXX is the issue addressed in “(article’s title)” by (author’s name). The thesis of this essay is XXX.

Author’s central claim is XXX, and his/her subclaim is XXX. The author argues XXX. Other people argue XXX. The author refutes these ideas by saying XXX. His/her conclusion is XXX.

Points to Note

You need to make it apparent when an idea is from the article and when it is your own. Typically, you should include the article’s title and the author’s complete name in the first sentence of your summary. When summarizing an article or book, mention the author’s surname or the title.

For publications with one to four writers, cite all authors the first time the article and title are mentioned. Use “authors” or the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” (which is Latin for “and others”).

For papers with more than four writers, include the first author’s name and “et al.” in the opening line. Then, use “et al.” or “writers” or some other plural designation throughout.

A summary essay often equates to content digesting. It may be helpful for college applicants who want to analyze their writing talents objectively.

You should always use a summary essay to help send the author’s main points in a structured, easy-to-read fashion for a potential audience.

Introduction to a Summary Essay

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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English that goes straight to the heart

Summary Essay Examples

The summary essay is a brief account of the chief points of an essay. There’s no hard and fast rule about the length of the summary, but so much can be half of the original essay .

In this post, we have added the best 12+ Summary Essay Examples for you.

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Summary Essay

Summary Essay Examples #1

ESSAY: When we survey our lives and efforts, we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that the whole of nature resembles that of social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, and live in houses that others have built. The greater part of our knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people through the medium of a language that others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have therefore to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast-like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has not much in virtue of individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to the grave. (193 words)

Rough Draft

  • Humans are social animals.
  • They depend on each other for necessities and social needs.
  • Humans use language to communicate with each other and further their mental development.
  • Humans are superior to animals as they live in societies that guide their material and spiritual existence.

TITLE: Man and society

SUMMARY: Human beings have their actions and desires bound up with society as they are social animals. They depend on each other for food and clothes and share their knowledge and beliefs, and use language created by others to communicate, which helps in their mental development. They are superior to beasts because they live in human society. An individual left alone since birth would grow utterly beast-like. Human society guides man’s material and spiritual existence. (76 words)

Summary Essay Examples #2

If you will, believe me, you who are young, yours is the golden season of life. As you have heard it called, so it verily is the seed-time of life in which if you do not sow or if you sow tares instead of wheat, you will arrive at little. And in the course of years when you come to look back if you have not done what you have heard from your advisers and among many counsellors there is wisdom you will bitterly repent when it is too late.

The habit of studies acquired at universities is of the highest importance in the afterlife. At the season when you are young in years, the whole mind is, as it were, fluid, and is capable of forming itself into any shape that the owner of the mind pleases to allow it or constrain it, to form itself into. The mind is then in a plastic or fluid state but it hardens gradually to the consistency of rock or iron, and you can not alter the habits of an old man. (180 Words)

Title: The Golden Season of Life / The Importance of Sowing Good Seeds

Youth is the golden and fertile time of life. If one does not listen to and act upon the advice of his superiors, he must eventually repent. Youth is a fluid state of mind and any good habits now will stand you in good stead later in life. Then the mind becomes rigid and no good habits are formed. (58 Words)

The golden season of life is the seed-time of life in which if you do not sow or sow tares instead of wheat, you will arrive at little. The habit of studies acquired at universities is of the highest importance in the afterlife, as the mind is fluid but hardens gradually to the consistency of rock or iron. (58 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #3

Variety is the spice of life – is it not? We all practically live and strive for having better food, but food remains insipid without the addition of spices. The only difference between a good curry and a bad curry lies in the presence or absence of spices. The absence of variety makes life drab and monotonous. A man working six hours a week will have his rest on Sunday. A man wearing a coat for five days will like a shawl on the sixth day. If a man lives in Calcutta for six years, he will like to spend a month outside. We hear that Tagore could not live in the same house for a long time.

He used to change his residence pretty often, which shows a poet’s longing for novelty. Life is many stringed instruments and we must give proper attention to all the strings. Ever since creation man has gone on from progress to progress by responding to new circumstances. So, for the development of civilization, new circumstances and a new environment are necessary. (179 Words)

Title: The Need for Change and Variety / Variety: The Spice of Life

Variety is the spice of life, and without it, life is dull and monotonous. To develop civilization, new circumstances and a new environment are necessary. Tagore was a poet who changed his residence often, showing his longing for novelty. Life is many stringed instruments and we must give proper attention to all the strings. (54 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #4

Everyone has continual control during his life with the variety of experiences known as art. Their experience ranges from the craft level found in the design and execution of the practical things of life to the more imaginative because less material level is required for the enjoyment of music, painting, sculpture, and literature. In the fine arts, human creativity is no longer concerned with producing an object which will be required for use anyhow, whether it is beautiful or not, but with providing a stimulus for the satisfaction of human emotion in its various levels of manifestation.

The majority of human beings since they are culturally underprivileged, are satisfied if their emotions are roused easily and mechanically by the more simple emotional easily identified sentimentalities that easily assimilate emotional reflexes-by dance, and music, by the identified references of cinema organ sentimentalities, by the picture with a story or easily assimilated moral, and by the simple violent plots of the cheap magazine. The culturally privileged demand a more complicated satisfaction. They require because they are educated on the aesthetic aspects of the arts. (180 Words)

Title:  The Power of Art / The Importance of Art Education

The most important idea is that art provides a stimulus for the satisfaction of human emotion and that the majority of people are satisfied with simple emotional sentimentalities, while the culturally privileged require a more complicated satisfaction due to their education in the aesthetic aspects of the arts. (48 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #5

The study of history depends more than any other branch of science or literature on the availability of many books. The history student nowadays is often discouraged or hampered by the lack of them, especially of those older standard works which have gone out of print. Even before the Second World War publishers were not willing to risk reprinting works often running into several big volumes for which the demand, was uncertain and the cost of production high. During the war air raids destroyed over a million books in one district of London alone, and reduced to ashes the entire stock of one firm which had specialized in historical works.

Since the war paper has been costly and scarce; the costs of printing and binding have risen sharply; and the demand, though greater, is still not large enough to make worthwhile the republication of many books which historians regard as essential. The main reason for this insufficient demand is the disappearance of the private library. Private libraries were common in Victorian Times but they no longer exist in modern small houses where there is no room for bookshelves. (190 Words)

Title: The Challenges of Historical Research in the Modern Era

The study of history is hindered by the lack of books, especially older standard works which have gone out of print due to the cost of printing and binding. The main reason is the disappearance of private libraries, which no longer exist in modern small houses. (46 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #6

Speech is a great blessing, but it can also be a great curse, for, while it helps us to make our intentions and desires known to our fellows, it can also, if we use it carelessly make our attitude completely misunderstood. A slip of the tongue. the use of an unusual or ambiguous word, and so on, may create an enemy where we had hoped to win a friend.

Again different classes of people use different vocabularies, and the ordinary speech of an educated man may strike an uneducated listener as showing pride; unwittingly we may use a word that bears a different meaning for our listener from what it does to men of our own class. Thus speech is not a gift to use lightly without thought, but one which demands careful handling. Only a fool will express himself alike to all kinds and conditions of men. (148 Words)

Title: The Blessing and Curse of Speech

Speech is a great gift, but it can also be a curse if used carelessly. Different classes of people use different vocabularies, and the ordinary speech of an educated man may strike an uneducated listener as pride. Careful handling of speech is essential, as only a fool will express himself alike to all people. (54 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #7

Man is the architect of his own fate. If he makes a proper division of his time and does his duties according he is sure to improve and prosper in life; but if he does otherwise, he is sure to repent, when it is too late and he will have dragged a miserable existence from day to day.

To kill time is as culpable as to commit suicide, but our life is nothing but the sum total of hours, days, and years. Youth is the golden season of life. In youth, the mind is pliable and soft and can be moulded in any form you like. If we lose the morning hours of life, we shall have to repent afterwards. It is called the ‘seed time of life’. If we sow good seeds, we shall reap a good harvest when we grow up. (142 Words)

Title: Youth: The Gloden Opportunity to shape your / Man is the Architect of his own Fate

Man is responsible for his own fate, and if he does not make proper use of his time, he will regret it. Youth is the golden season of life, and if we lose the morning hours of life, we will have to repent. (43 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #8

It is sometimes said that the pleasures of giving are peculiar to the rich, and no doubt the joy of giving is one of the greatest and purest that wealth can bestow. Still the poor also may be liberal and generous. The widow’s mite, so far as the widow is concerned, counts for as much as the rich man’s gold.

Moreover, as regards kindness and sympathy which are far more valuable than money, the poor can give as much as, perhaps even more than the rich. Money is not wealth. A proverb says: “A man’s true wealth is good that he does in the world”. When he dies, men will ask what property he has left behind, but Angels will inquire, “What good deeds hast thou sent before thee?” (130 Words)

Title: The Pleasure of Giving / Generosity Knows No Wealth

The poor can give as much as the rich, and kindness and sympathy are more valuable than money. A proverb states that a man’s true wealth is the good deeds he does in the world. (35 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #9

The lot of our Indian peasant is certainly a pitiable one. He labours under many disadvantages. In the first place, he is illiterate, and does not, therefore, care to know more than he has inherited from his ancestors. He laughs at his tiny piece of land from morning to evening and if the seasons favour him, earns what barely suffices to meet his daily demands. He does not grumble to pay his rent so much as he does for the loss of his plough cattle. He lives in debt over head and ears, yet he does not care to save anything for the morrow.

To ameliorate his condition, the supply of good plough cattle, the adoption of preventive measures to save the animals from diseases, and, last of all, primary education should engage the serious attention of the Indian Government. (138 Words)

Title: Illiteracy and its effect on Indian Peasant / The Pitiable Conditions of Indian Peasant

The Indian peasant is suffering from many disadvantages, such as illiteracy, poverty, and debt. To improve his situation, the supply of good plough cattle, preventive measures, and primary education should be addressed by the Indian Government. (36 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #10

The aim of culture and religion is the same. Men are all members of one great whole, and the sympathy which is in human nature will not allow one member to be different from the rest or to have perfect welfare independent of the rest. The expansion of our humanity to suit the idea of perfection that culture forms must be a general expansion. Perfection, as culture conceives it is not possible while the individual remains isolated. He must carry others along with him in his march towards perfection. Culture lays on us the same obligation as a religion which says that “to promote the kingdom of God is to increase and hasten one’s own happiness.

Culture is a harmonious expansion of all the powers which make the beauty and worth of human nature. Culture is not consistent with the over-development of any power at the expense of the rest. Here it goes beyond religion, as religion is generally conceived by us. (162 Words)

Title: Culture and Religion: The Two Sides of the Same Coin

Culture leading to perfection, like religion, complements rather than competes with the latter. Culture, like religion, demands perfection rather than the unification of everything. Culture means harmonious development of all faculties and not overdevelopment of any at the expense of others. Here it transcends religion in its emphasis on harmonious development. (50 Words)

The aim of culture and religion is the same: to expand humanity to suit the idea of perfection. Culture is a harmonious expansion of all the powers which make the beauty and worth of human nature, and is not consistent with the over-development of any power at the expense of the rest. It lays on us the same obligation as a religion to promote the kingdom of God is to increase and hasten one’s own happiness. (72 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #11

Perseverance is the very hinge of all virtues. On looking over the world, the cause of nine-tenths of the lamentable failures which occur in much of their history lies not in the want of talents, but in the manner of using them, in flying from object to object, in starting away at each little disgust, and thus applying the force which might conquer anyone difficulty to a series of difficulties so large that no human race can conquer them.

The smallest brook on earth by continuing to run has hollowed out for itself a considerable valley to flow in. Commend me, therefore, to the virtue of severance. Without it, all the rest are little better than fairy gold which glitters in your purse, but taken to the market proves to be state or cinders. (134 Words)

Title: The Importance of Perseverance / Perseverance: The Hinge of Virtues

Perseverance is the key to success, and severance is the virtue of severance. Without it, all the rest are a little better than fairy gold. (25 Words)

Perseverance is the key to all virtues and is the cause of many failures in history. It is the act of flying from object to object, starting away at each little disgust, and applying the force which might conquer anyone’s difficulty to a series of difficulties so large that no human race can conquer them. Without it, all the rest are little better than fairy gold which glitters in your purse, but when taken to the market proves to be state or cinders. (83 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #12

Films should contribute to human understanding and progress rather than hinder them antisocially. The excitement of gangsterdom is permissible so long as the antisocial quality of gangsterdom is not held up as something desirable. Frivolous gaiety may be introduced, but it should not be presented as the be-all and end-all, of living. Life can be made exciting and romantic provided it is not permanently distorted.

For there can never be much human progress if we distort things by pretending the world is much better than it actually is. Thus the attitude of a film to the grimmer side of life can not be worthwhile if it glosses it over, since that only confirms our backwardness. Nothing bad should be treated approvingly. The introduction of gangsterdom, war, idle luxury; slums unemployment, poverty, and their accompanying misery, crime, and disease, should not leave the audience complacent, but should if anything inspire them with a determination to end them. (159 Words)

Title: Films  -Entertainment or Distortion of Reality / The Impact of Films on Society

Films should contribute to human understanding and progress rather than hinder them antisocially, and should not gloss over the grimmer side of life, such as gangsterdom, war, idle luxury, and poverty. (31 Words)

Films should contribute to human understanding and progress rather than hinder them antisocially. Life can be made exciting and romantic, but it should not be permanently distorted. The introduction of gangsterdom, war, idle luxury, slums unemployment, poverty, and their accompanying misery, crime, and disease should not leave the audience complacent but should inspire them with a determination to end them. (60 Words)

Summary Essay Examples #13

A poor woman once came to the Buddha and begged him to revive her dead child. The holy man was touched by the woman’s great sorrow. Then he asked him to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a house where death had never entered. The sad mother started looking for mustard seeds from door to door. One said, our little child died last year. Another said I lost my father. The evening came.

He returned to Lord Buddha with a heavy heart and told him about the results of his search. Then the Buddha gently told him not to think of his own suffering, for suffering and death are common to all.

Title: The Buddha and the Grieving Mother / The Universal Experience of Suffering and Death

Summary:  A poor woman came to the Buddha and begged him to revive her dead child. He asked her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a house where death had never entered. The mother searched for mustard seeds from door to door and returned to Lord Buddha with a heavy heart. The Buddha gently reminded her that suffering and death are common to all. (65 Words)

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  • How to write a literary analysis essay | A step-by-step guide

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay | A Step-by-Step Guide

Published on January 30, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 14, 2023.

Literary analysis means closely studying a text, interpreting its meanings, and exploring why the author made certain choices. It can be applied to novels, short stories, plays, poems, or any other form of literary writing.

A literary analysis essay is not a rhetorical analysis , nor is it just a summary of the plot or a book review. Instead, it is a type of argumentative essay where you need to analyze elements such as the language, perspective, and structure of the text, and explain how the author uses literary devices to create effects and convey ideas.

Before beginning a literary analysis essay, it’s essential to carefully read the text and c ome up with a thesis statement to keep your essay focused. As you write, follow the standard structure of an academic essay :

  • An introduction that tells the reader what your essay will focus on.
  • A main body, divided into paragraphs , that builds an argument using evidence from the text.
  • A conclusion that clearly states the main point that you have shown with your analysis.

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Table of contents

Step 1: reading the text and identifying literary devices, step 2: coming up with a thesis, step 3: writing a title and introduction, step 4: writing the body of the essay, step 5: writing a conclusion, other interesting articles.

The first step is to carefully read the text(s) and take initial notes. As you read, pay attention to the things that are most intriguing, surprising, or even confusing in the writing—these are things you can dig into in your analysis.

Your goal in literary analysis is not simply to explain the events described in the text, but to analyze the writing itself and discuss how the text works on a deeper level. Primarily, you’re looking out for literary devices —textual elements that writers use to convey meaning and create effects. If you’re comparing and contrasting multiple texts, you can also look for connections between different texts.

To get started with your analysis, there are several key areas that you can focus on. As you analyze each aspect of the text, try to think about how they all relate to each other. You can use highlights or notes to keep track of important passages and quotes.

Language choices

Consider what style of language the author uses. Are the sentences short and simple or more complex and poetic?

What word choices stand out as interesting or unusual? Are words used figuratively to mean something other than their literal definition? Figurative language includes things like metaphor (e.g. “her eyes were oceans”) and simile (e.g. “her eyes were like oceans”).

Also keep an eye out for imagery in the text—recurring images that create a certain atmosphere or symbolize something important. Remember that language is used in literary texts to say more than it means on the surface.

Narrative voice

Ask yourself:

  • Who is telling the story?
  • How are they telling it?

Is it a first-person narrator (“I”) who is personally involved in the story, or a third-person narrator who tells us about the characters from a distance?

Consider the narrator’s perspective . Is the narrator omniscient (where they know everything about all the characters and events), or do they only have partial knowledge? Are they an unreliable narrator who we are not supposed to take at face value? Authors often hint that their narrator might be giving us a distorted or dishonest version of events.

The tone of the text is also worth considering. Is the story intended to be comic, tragic, or something else? Are usually serious topics treated as funny, or vice versa ? Is the story realistic or fantastical (or somewhere in between)?

Consider how the text is structured, and how the structure relates to the story being told.

  • Novels are often divided into chapters and parts.
  • Poems are divided into lines, stanzas, and sometime cantos.
  • Plays are divided into scenes and acts.

Think about why the author chose to divide the different parts of the text in the way they did.

There are also less formal structural elements to take into account. Does the story unfold in chronological order, or does it jump back and forth in time? Does it begin in medias res —in the middle of the action? Does the plot advance towards a clearly defined climax?

With poetry, consider how the rhyme and meter shape your understanding of the text and your impression of the tone. Try reading the poem aloud to get a sense of this.

In a play, you might consider how relationships between characters are built up through different scenes, and how the setting relates to the action. Watch out for  dramatic irony , where the audience knows some detail that the characters don’t, creating a double meaning in their words, thoughts, or actions.

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Your thesis in a literary analysis essay is the point you want to make about the text. It’s the core argument that gives your essay direction and prevents it from just being a collection of random observations about a text.

If you’re given a prompt for your essay, your thesis must answer or relate to the prompt. For example:

Essay question example

Is Franz Kafka’s “Before the Law” a religious parable?

Your thesis statement should be an answer to this question—not a simple yes or no, but a statement of why this is or isn’t the case:

Thesis statement example

Franz Kafka’s “Before the Law” is not a religious parable, but a story about bureaucratic alienation.

Sometimes you’ll be given freedom to choose your own topic; in this case, you’ll have to come up with an original thesis. Consider what stood out to you in the text; ask yourself questions about the elements that interested you, and consider how you might answer them.

Your thesis should be something arguable—that is, something that you think is true about the text, but which is not a simple matter of fact. It must be complex enough to develop through evidence and arguments across the course of your essay.

Say you’re analyzing the novel Frankenstein . You could start by asking yourself:

Your initial answer might be a surface-level description:

The character Frankenstein is portrayed negatively in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein .

However, this statement is too simple to be an interesting thesis. After reading the text and analyzing its narrative voice and structure, you can develop the answer into a more nuanced and arguable thesis statement:

Mary Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as.

Remember that you can revise your thesis statement throughout the writing process , so it doesn’t need to be perfectly formulated at this stage. The aim is to keep you focused as you analyze the text.

Finding textual evidence

To support your thesis statement, your essay will build an argument using textual evidence —specific parts of the text that demonstrate your point. This evidence is quoted and analyzed throughout your essay to explain your argument to the reader.

It can be useful to comb through the text in search of relevant quotations before you start writing. You might not end up using everything you find, and you may have to return to the text for more evidence as you write, but collecting textual evidence from the beginning will help you to structure your arguments and assess whether they’re convincing.

To start your literary analysis paper, you’ll need two things: a good title, and an introduction.

Your title should clearly indicate what your analysis will focus on. It usually contains the name of the author and text(s) you’re analyzing. Keep it as concise and engaging as possible.

A common approach to the title is to use a relevant quote from the text, followed by a colon and then the rest of your title.

If you struggle to come up with a good title at first, don’t worry—this will be easier once you’ve begun writing the essay and have a better sense of your arguments.

“Fearful symmetry” : The violence of creation in William Blake’s “The Tyger”

The introduction

The essay introduction provides a quick overview of where your argument is going. It should include your thesis statement and a summary of the essay’s structure.

A typical structure for an introduction is to begin with a general statement about the text and author, using this to lead into your thesis statement. You might refer to a commonly held idea about the text and show how your thesis will contradict it, or zoom in on a particular device you intend to focus on.

Then you can end with a brief indication of what’s coming up in the main body of the essay. This is called signposting. It will be more elaborate in longer essays, but in a short five-paragraph essay structure, it shouldn’t be more than one sentence.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, protagonist Victor Frankenstein is a stable representation of the callous ambition of modern science throughout the novel. This essay, however, argues that far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as. This essay begins by exploring the positive portrayal of Frankenstein in the first volume, then moves on to the creature’s perception of him, and finally discusses the third volume’s narrative shift toward viewing Frankenstein as the creature views him.

Some students prefer to write the introduction later in the process, and it’s not a bad idea. After all, you’ll have a clearer idea of the overall shape of your arguments once you’ve begun writing them!

If you do write the introduction first, you should still return to it later to make sure it lines up with what you ended up writing, and edit as necessary.

The body of your essay is everything between the introduction and conclusion. It contains your arguments and the textual evidence that supports them.

Paragraph structure

A typical structure for a high school literary analysis essay consists of five paragraphs : the three paragraphs of the body, plus the introduction and conclusion.

Each paragraph in the main body should focus on one topic. In the five-paragraph model, try to divide your argument into three main areas of analysis, all linked to your thesis. Don’t try to include everything you can think of to say about the text—only analysis that drives your argument.

In longer essays, the same principle applies on a broader scale. For example, you might have two or three sections in your main body, each with multiple paragraphs. Within these sections, you still want to begin new paragraphs at logical moments—a turn in the argument or the introduction of a new idea.

Robert’s first encounter with Gil-Martin suggests something of his sinister power. Robert feels “a sort of invisible power that drew me towards him.” He identifies the moment of their meeting as “the beginning of a series of adventures which has puzzled myself, and will puzzle the world when I am no more in it” (p. 89). Gil-Martin’s “invisible power” seems to be at work even at this distance from the moment described; before continuing the story, Robert feels compelled to anticipate at length what readers will make of his narrative after his approaching death. With this interjection, Hogg emphasizes the fatal influence Gil-Martin exercises from his first appearance.

Topic sentences

To keep your points focused, it’s important to use a topic sentence at the beginning of each paragraph.

A good topic sentence allows a reader to see at a glance what the paragraph is about. It can introduce a new line of argument and connect or contrast it with the previous paragraph. Transition words like “however” or “moreover” are useful for creating smooth transitions:

… The story’s focus, therefore, is not upon the divine revelation that may be waiting beyond the door, but upon the mundane process of aging undergone by the man as he waits.

Nevertheless, the “radiance” that appears to stream from the door is typically treated as religious symbolism.

This topic sentence signals that the paragraph will address the question of religious symbolism, while the linking word “nevertheless” points out a contrast with the previous paragraph’s conclusion.

Using textual evidence

A key part of literary analysis is backing up your arguments with relevant evidence from the text. This involves introducing quotes from the text and explaining their significance to your point.

It’s important to contextualize quotes and explain why you’re using them; they should be properly introduced and analyzed, not treated as self-explanatory:

It isn’t always necessary to use a quote. Quoting is useful when you’re discussing the author’s language, but sometimes you’ll have to refer to plot points or structural elements that can’t be captured in a short quote.

In these cases, it’s more appropriate to paraphrase or summarize parts of the text—that is, to describe the relevant part in your own words:

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The conclusion of your analysis shouldn’t introduce any new quotations or arguments. Instead, it’s about wrapping up the essay. Here, you summarize your key points and try to emphasize their significance to the reader.

A good way to approach this is to briefly summarize your key arguments, and then stress the conclusion they’ve led you to, highlighting the new perspective your thesis provides on the text as a whole:

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
  • Post hoc fallacy
  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
  • Sunk cost fallacy

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By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

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Caulfield, J. (2023, August 14). How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay | A Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr. Retrieved February 19, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/literary-analysis/

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