- Awards Season
- Big Stories
- Pop Culture
- Video Games
Creating Lasting Memories: Best Toca Games to Play with Family
When it comes to spending quality time with your family, engaging in fun and interactive activities is the key to creating lasting memories. In today’s digital age, there are numerous options available for entertainment, but nothing beats the joy of playing games together. Toca games have gained immense popularity among kids and adults alike due to their unique and immersive gameplay experiences. In this article, we will explore some of the best Toca games that you can play with your family, ensuring hours of laughter and enjoyment.
Toca Life World: A World of Possibilities
Toca Life World is a virtual sandbox game that offers endless possibilities for imaginative play. This game allows players to explore different locations such as a bustling city, a vibrant vacation spot, or even a magical kingdom. With over 50 characters to choose from and countless customization options, Toca Life World encourages creativity and storytelling.
One of the best features of this game is its ability to connect various Toca Life apps, enabling players to transfer their characters and items seamlessly between different locations. This makes it perfect for collaborative play with family members; each person can create their own unique stories and share them within the game.
Toca Kitchen: Unleash Your Inner Chef
If you have little aspiring chefs in your family, then Toca Kitchen is the perfect game for them. In this culinary adventure, players get to experiment with different ingredients and create delicious meals for their virtual guests. From slicing vegetables to grilling steaks, every step of the cooking process is interactive and engaging.
Toca Kitchen promotes creativity by allowing players to mix ingredients in unconventional ways or even create out-of-this-world dishes that defy culinary norms. It encourages kids to think outside the box when it comes to food preparation while having fun alongside their family members.
Toca Hair Salon 4: Unleash Your Stylist Skills
If your family enjoys playing dress-up and experimenting with hairstyles, Toca Hair Salon 4 is a game that will keep everyone entertained. This game lets players become hairstylists in a virtual salon, where they can wash, cut, color, and style the hair of various animated characters.
With a wide range of tools and styling options available, Toca Hair Salon 4 allows players to unleash their creativity and create unique looks for their customers. Whether it’s giving someone a bold new haircut or trying out wild hair colors, this game provides endless opportunities for laughter and experimentation.
Toca Builders: Constructing Together
For families who enjoy building and designing things together, Toca Builders is the ideal game to spark creativity and teamwork. This game allows players to construct their own virtual world using blocks and various construction tools. From building towering structures to creating intricate landscapes, the possibilities are limited only by imagination.
Toca Builders promotes collaboration as family members can work together to design elaborate structures or divide tasks to create individual masterpieces. It encourages problem-solving skills as players figure out how different elements fit together and interact within their virtual world.
In conclusion, Toca games offer a fantastic way for families to bond while having fun together. Whether it’s exploring a virtual world in Toca Life World or unleashing your inner chef in Toca Kitchen, these games provide endless opportunities for creativity and imaginative play. So gather your loved ones, pick a Toca game that suits your interests, and embark on an exciting journey filled with laughter, joy, and unforgettable memories.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
MORE FROM ASK.COM
The Glass Menagerie as a Memory Play
The Glass Menagerie is a memory play. It s one of Tennessee Williams most renowned piece of work. Often referred to as a ‘memory play’, both the style and content of The Glass Menagerie are shaped and inspired by the memory of the play’s narrator, Tom Wingfield. The Glass Menagerie deals with a strong mix of emotions, including sadness, loneliness, anger and pride.
This is especially true for the character of Tom. Williams uses many different ways of portraying Tom’s feelings. According to Tom, due to the play’s origins in memory, ‘it is sentimental, it is not realistic’ and may be presented with unusual freedom from convention. Therefore, the play is subject to numerous peculiarities, such as dim lighting, frequent use of music and symbolism . Most fictional works are products of the imagination, which attempt to convince the audience of its realism , through realistic conflict , drama and setting .
The Glass Menagerie, however, although drawn from memory, is not attempting to escape its responsibility of dealing with reality’, but rather, is drawn from real experience and does not need to be constrained by the conventions of realism to convey truth. The despair of this character ’s circumstances clearly illustrates the theme of imprisonment. Williams makes it obvious that Tom is trapped from the exposition of the play as Tom is both narrator who escaped character and character in conflict .
As narrator it is evident Tom’s situation was complicated. I give truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion ” This shows that he doesn’t like to believe the reality. He would rather just leave everything behind and get away far as possible from the Wingfield apartment. Williams also creates tension when Amanda focuses her attention on her so she knows that Tom is unhappy, but instead of helping him she decides to “turn a blind eye” and act as though he is going through a phase.
But deep down she is terrified that he is turning into his father. “I see you taking after his ways! She also makes him promise that he will never turn out to be an alcoholic. This puts Tom under enormous expectation. Both Amanda and Laura know that he could easily leave them in the same way According to Tom, The Glass Menagerie is a memory play—both its style and its content are shaped and inspired by memory. As Tom himself states clearly, the play’s lack of realism , its high drama , its overblown and too-perfect symbolism , and even its frequent use of music are all due to its origins in memory.
Most fictional works are products of the imagination that must convince their audience that they are something else by being realistic. A play drawn from memory, however, is a product of real experience and hence does not need to drape itself in the conventions of realism in order to seem real. The creator can cloak his or her true story in unlimited layers of melodrama and unlikely metaphor while still remaining confident of its substance and reality. Tom—and Tennessee Williams—take full advantage of this privilege.
The story that the play tells is told because of the inflexible grip it has on the narrator’s memory. Thus, the fact that the play exists at all is a testament to the power that memory can exert on people’s lives and consciousness. Indeed, Williams writes in the Production Notes that “ nostalgia . . . is the first condition of the play. ” The narrator, Tom, is not the only character haunted by his memories. Amanda too lives in constant pursuit of her bygone youth, and old records from her childhood are almost as important to Laura as her glass animals.
For these characters, memory is a crippling force that prevents them from finding happiness in the present or the offerings of the future. But it is also the vital force for Tom, prompting him to the act of creation that culminates in the achievement of the play. Why is The Glass Menagerie a memory play? The Glass Menagerie is a memory play – both its style become an independent and separate individual. and its contents are shaped and inspired by memory. Tom, The play is also a memory of Laura’s infancy.
She is who is the narrator and also a character in the play, like a little girl living in her own world of dreams and states clearly that the play “is sentimental, it is not illusions. The glass menagerie, to which she is entirely realistic”. As he implies in the beginning the truth devoted, stands for this infantile world. She is timid appears in the pleasant disguise of illusion . All the and immature, she refuses to go to school and doesn’t characters live in the past, they “turn back time”.
In take responsibility. Only playing and walking around make isolation from the outside world they are somehow set her happy. Being in love with a picture and having apart from reality. Existing in their memories they are immature attitude towards men, she doesn’t want to become trying to escape from the responsibility of dealing with a woman. the present. Another memory is of the father, who had left the The mother, Amanda, is haunted by the memory of her family to travel long distances. On account of this there youth.
She was an extremely popular and pretty young lady is no strong male presence in the play. Only his but she lost her chances. Now she refuses to understand photograph stays over the mantel to remind them of the life and reality. She doesn’t accept the fact that she is past. Thereby, love in the play becomes also a memory – already old and repeats the same story to her children the lost love of Amanda and the children for the father, over and over again, trying to protect them. Laura’s failed love. Another thing that gives the impression that Amanda. In a play created by memory and nostalgia , the lives in the past is the way she treats Tom and Laura.
Characters don’t live, they simply watch life go by. Thus For her they are still small children and she ignores the they cannot be conscious human beings. For Tom, Amanda fact that they have grown up. She doesn’t let them face and Laura memory is the crippling force that prevents reality like adults. With this denial of the truth she them from finding happiness in the present. Prevents Tom from becoming a man. Furthermore, she hopes to recreate the glamour of her own youth through her daughter, but it is impossible. She doesn’t even accept the fact that Laura is crippled. Because of that the young girl cannot.
The Glass Menagerie as a memory play
Tennessee Williams’ “The Glass Menagerie” is a drama that is frequently referred to as a “memory play.” This phrase describes a style of play in which the main character—typically the playwright—also serves as a character in the play and narrates the storyline using their own memories and recollections. Tom Wingfield, the play’s narrator and the main character, narrates the story to the audience in “The Glass Menagerie” while also playing a part in the play.
Williams’ own experiences served as the inspiration for both the play and the portrayal of Tom. The Wingfield family, which includes Tom, his mother Amanda, and his sister Laura, is the focus of the drama, which is set in St. Louis in the 1930s. The drama explores how they negotiate the harsh realities of life and try to find their position in it.
By using a memory play structure, the audience can view the narrative from Tom’s viewpoint, which is frequently nostalgic and idealized. Because Tom frequently embellishes or distorts his recollections, the play blurs the distinction between reality and fantasy. Tom’s recollections of his past are not always reliable. For instance, Tom idealizes Jim, a previous high school acquaintance of Tom and Laura, and sees him as a symbol of promise and hope.
Here are some aspects of memory plays illustrated by “The Glass Menagerie”:
Table of Contents
In order to allow the narrator to describe a range of memories, memory plays frequently have a non-linear plot that moves back and forth in time. The drama “The Glass Menagerie” starts with Tom remembering his family and their apartment, then cuts to a flashback of Amanda and Laura getting ready for a male visitor, and finally returns to the present. This play’s non-linear structure enhances the notion that it is being experienced through the prism of memory and contributes to the play’s dreamlike mood.
Read More: Waiting for Godot as a absurd play
Memory plays frequently employ symbolism to describe the thoughts and feelings of the characters. The fire escape in “The Glass Menagerie” symbolizes Tom’s wish to flee his life and his family’s world, while the glass menagerie itself is a sign of Laura’s frailty and vulnerability. These symbols are crucial because they enable the audience to comprehend the emotional significance of specific items or occurrences and to view the tale from the narrator’s point of view.
To express the narrator’s feelings and views, memory plays frequently use poetry and lyrical language. Williams frequently uses highly poetic and expressive language in “The Glass Menagerie,” which gives the play a dreamlike quality and supports the notion that it is being viewed through a lens of memory. For instance, Tom’s poetic description of his father as “a telephone guy who fell in love with great distances” captures the emotional toll that his father’s absence had on Tom and his family.
Read More: Theatre of absurd
Memory plays frequently make use of the notion that memories are fallible and subject to distortion over time. In “The Glass Menagerie,” Tom frequently romanticizes and idealizes his recollections of the past, including those of Jim, the gentleman visitor. On the other hand, Tom’s recollections of his sister Laura are frequently skewed by his grief and sorrow, and he sees her as a frail and helpless being. The audience is left to ponder what is real and what is imagined, which contributes to the play’s uncertainty and sense of mystery.
Williams is able to investigate themes of guilt, accountability, and the weight of recollection owing to the structure of the memory play. Tom is troubled by recollections of his family and feels obligated to ensure their welfare. Additionally, he is troubled by the memory of his father, who deserted the family, and he is constantly filled with remorse and guilt because of this memory.
Read More: Existentialism in English Literature
Limitations as a memory play:
Although “The Glass Menagerie” is a potent illustration of a memory play, there are some drawbacks to memory plays that are made clear in the play “The Glass Menagerie” :
Limited perspective: The audience only witnesses what Tom decides to recall and how he chooses to remember it because the play is recounted through Tom’s memory. This constrained viewpoint may omit crucial information and viewpoints from the other characters, particularly Laura and Amanda.
Distorted memories: The memory drama “The Glass Menagerie” illustrates how recollections can be twisted and unreliable. This is a quality of the play because it correctly captures the essence of memory, but it can also restrict how well the audience comprehends the plot. What truly occurred and what was just a figment of Tom’s bias or imagination may not be clear to the audience.
Unrealistic dialogue: The dialogue in “The Glass Menagerie” has an unrealistic tone and is frequently lyrical and stylized, which is a characteristic of memory plays. This can also be a drawback because it makes the audience less interested in the narrative because the conversation may come off as artificial or unnatural.
Absence of resolution: Memory plays frequently lack a definitive ending, and “The Glass Menagerie” is not an exception. While this can be a powerful way to illustrate how recollection is a living thing and how it affects our lives, it can also leave the audience feeling dissatisfied or uncertain about the play’s overall point.
The Glass Menagerie is a good example of a memory play because it has a non-linear plot, symbolism, evocative language, and distorted recollections. The play “The Glass Menagerie” is a riveting example of a memory drama, but it also has flaws, including an unreliable narrator, distorted recollections, unrealistic conversation, and an unsatisfying ending. However, given that they correctly capture the characteristics of memory and the complexity of the human experience, these constraints can also be seen as strengths. I’ll sum up by saying that “The Glass Menagerie” is a memory play that employs the memory structure to investigate the subjects of recollection, accountability, and guilt. Through the character of Tom, the play encourages the audience to consider the strengths and weaknesses of memory as well as how it affects our lives.
- Significance of the title The Way of the World by William Congreve
- Conflicts in Things Fall Apart
- Wuthering Heights as a Victorian Novel
- Anachronism | Definitions | Examples
- Harlem Renaissance in English Literature
Leave a Comment Cancel reply
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
- Free Essays
- Citation Generator
The Glass Menagerie Is a Memory Play
You May Also Find These Documents Helpful
Dysfunction in the glass menagerie.
Tennessee Williams’ play The Glass Menagerie gives its audience a glance into the life of a family that can only be described as the definition of dysfunction. At the beginning of the play, the Wingfield family is introduced to us as the typical family, just struggling to get by. Delma E. Presley, an English professor at Georgia Southern University, even describes Amanda’s impulse to preserve her single-parent family as something that is as familiar as the morning newspaper (53). But as the story continues, we see this family’s issues rise to the surface. Almost immediately, we are introduced to each character’s difficulties and how they escape the entrapment of their unhappiness. In this play, it is made clear that the source of their problems…
The Glass Menagerie Escape Analysis
In the Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams there is a since of fantasy and escape among the characters. They all live in there own type of world. Tom Wingfield, our narrator’s sister Laura is in a crippled world of her own. She lives in a world where it consist of phonography records and her favorite glass animals, she lives in a world of confinement and dependency. Amanda Wingfield, Tom’s mother lives in a world of the past, she feels trapped by the life she was given. She did not choose to be left with her two children alone not being able to enjoy life. She escapes to her world of her gentlemen callers to forget about it all. Tom Wingfiled lives in a world of movies and writing, but among all these characters, there is one character who has managed to escape the desperate and…
Tennessee Williams begins The Glass Menagerie with a comment by Tom Wingfield, who serves as both narrator of and character within the play: “Yes, I have tricks in my pocket, I have things up my sleeve. But I am the opposite of a stage magician. He gives you illusion that has the appearance of truth. I give you truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion.” In one sentence, Williams has summarized the essence of all drama. To the very end of the play, he maintains a precarious balance between truth and illusion, creating in the process what he contends is the “essential ambiguity of man that I think needs to be stated.” 1 The Glass Menagerie, Tennessee Williams’ first major play to appear on Broadway, is an autobiographical work. In it he delineates several personal and societal problems: the isolation of those who are outsiders for one reason or another, the hardships faced by single mothers, the difficulties a disability may create for a family, and the struggle of a young artist to begin his career. 2 Read The Glass Menagerie (1945) by Tennessee Williams and complete all parts of the assignment below. Moreover, you must complete the “Rising Senior Survival Guide” contained in this document. All work is due on the first day of class.…
Fragility In The Glass Menagerie
Tennessee Williams unravels a theme of fragility in his classic play, The Glass Menagerie, by emblemizing Tom breaking various glass figures to emotionally breaking Laura and also symbolizing Laura’s disorder to the unicorn figure’s unusual horn. Although the theme brims he play, fragility most blatantly illustrates through Laura’s quote, “Glass breaks so easily. No matter how careful you are” (86). The quote illustrates the representation of how easily glass can break to how brittle Laura is. Laura’s delicacy can also be channeled through Tom’s anger and selfish needs, specifically when Tom leaves the family for his own good.…
The Glass Menagerie Analysis
In The Glass Menagerie, Tennessee Williams utilizes the characters in such a way, that Tom is not only a character, but he is also the narrator, the father is in the play but only figuratively, but his character can also be seen through Tom “ I’m like my father. The bastard son of a bastard! see how he grins and he’s been absent going on sixteen years!” ( Williams Pg. 483) . There is also another character and that is Jim, Jim is one of Tom’s friends and he is seen as a gentleman caller by Amanda, yet he engaged to his high school sweetheart he is also see as a very sweet person “people are not so dreadful when you get to know them. That’s what you have to remember and everybody has problems not just you, but practically everybody has got some problems,…
The Glass Menagerie Character Analysis
The Glass Menagerie is a wonderful autobiographical play written by Tennessee Williams. The play is placed in the 1930s in St. Louis. The play is a memory from Tennessee Williams; he explains that since its from memory there may be some unreliable information given. Throughout the story there is several uses of symbolism, including the glass menagerie, the Wingfield’s fire escape, and pleurosis.…
Family In The Glass Menagerie
While reading the play The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams, the reader quickly learns of a, sadly, typical tale of family strife. In this play a family struggles to find the way out of their secluded, seemingly solitary life. Amanda Wingfield, the mother of Tom and Laura, only craves for the best for her kids. However, this ostensibly adoring mother puts Toms needs at the bottom of list. As a family without a father figure Tom, being the only boy, steps up to help his mother and sister. Striving to live up to his father’s memory, Tom helps by paying for the rent while putting his personal goals on hold. The Wingfield family goes through much trouble and strife portraying the sad truth of what goes on in the everyday family and home.…
The Glass Menagerie Symbolism
“The Glass Menagerie” by the famous American playwright Tennessee Williams is well-known for its lyrical tone and poetic power. The play is about love and understanding, inner isolation and desire to escape, when the main characters have their own paths to follow. Tennessee Williams depicts a true-to-life picture of the family survival with their mutual care and tenderness, but at the same time pressure and home violence. The events are presented by one of the main characters, Tom Wingfield, who lives with his mother and a crippled sister, and because of their father’s financial problems it is Tom who has to take care of others. In fact, he dreams to quit his tiring job at a shoe warehouse and become a poet, but being unable to do it, he starts…
Tennessee Williams Broken Dreams
From having unfulfilled desires to abandoning loved ones, Tennessee Williams encompasses both aspects in his most successful piece of literature that will be examined for generations to come. The struggles of Laura are displayed perfectly by Tom’s memory in respect to her shyness and incapability of forming into society because of a disability yet this play is much more than just finding likely suitors. In The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams, the characters Tom and his father are compared with each other in a fight against destiny. Both characters are faced with the struggles of a transitioning South being revolutionized into an industrial movement sweeping the world. Confronted by the same struggles of a typical Southern…
Tenessee Williams: the Glass Menagerie
The glass menagerie is a superb work of art by Tennessee Williams. It is a play that highlights the various realities and desperations of its characters in their response to a confused society. Williams has an admirable talent for creating a play that’s genre is serious and has a tragic ending; yet he keeps the story interesting to the audience whether it be through reading it as a text or in the theater.…
- The Glass Menagerie
(Tischler 33). The menagerie really symbolizes Laura herself, and the many facets of the glass…
Non-Linear References/ Symbolism in the Glass Menagerie
Tennessee Williams', The Glass Menagerie, is a play that evokes great sympathy and in some cases, empathy for a protagonist who struggles to overcome two opposing forces; his responsibilities and his desires. There are many symbols and non-liner references that contribute to the development of characterization, dramatic tensions and the narrative. This essay will examine in detail, the aspects of the play that contribute to the development of the above mentioned elements.…
The Glass Menagerie Movie Review
The Glass Menagerie is a “memory play” and it was the first of its' kind. To achieve this type of play, Tennessee Williams included many, precise stage directions in his script. The stage directions-lighting, music, pictures on a screen-were important factors in setting the play apart and making it the success that it was. In the 1973 movie remake however, a lot of these stage directions were ignored, such as the pictures on a screen, the lighting and the focus on characters. This stripped the play of its individuality, leaving it plain and very lacking.…
Tom’s role in The Glass Menagerie—as a character whose memories the play documents and as a character who acts within those memories—underlines the play’s tension between objectively presented dramatic truth and memory’s distortion of truth. Unlike the other characters, Tom sometimes speaks to the audience directly, looking to provide a more detached explanation of what has been occurring onstage. But at the same time, he displays real and sometimes juvenile emotions as he takes part in the play’s action. It shows how the nature of recollection is itself problematic: memory often involves confronting a past in which one was less virtuous than one is now. Because The Glass Menagerie is somewhat autobiographical, and because Tom is a stand-in for the playwright himself (William's given name was Thomas, and he, like Tom, spent part of his youth in St. Louis with an unstable mother and sister, his father not present most of the time), we can apply this remark on the nature of memory to William's memories of his own youth. Tom is full of disagreement. On the one hand, he reads literature, writes poetry, and dreams of escape, adventure, and higher things. On the other, he seems connected to the dirty, petty world of the Wingfield household. All we learn is what he thinks about his mother, his sister, and his warehouse job—the things from which he wants to escape.…
The Glass Menagerie Paper
In Tennessee Williams’ The Glass Menagerie there are great deals of symbols that are seen throughout the story line. Tennessee Williams made the most important symbol of the story its title. Every character in the play such as Laura and her sister express the escape of reality and wanting to be in the real world and how the glass menagerie can be related to humans today.…
- Tennessee Williams
- TOP CATEGORIES
- AS and A Level
- University Degree
- International Baccalaureate
- 5 Star Essays
- Study Tools
- Study Guides
- Meet the Team
- English Literature
- Tennessee Williams
- The Glass Menagerie
The Glass menagerie - 'Being a memory play, it is dimly lighted, it is sentimental, it is not realistic'. To what degree is the play memory and to what degree is it realistic?
ENGLISH LITER ATURE LONG ESSAY
MEMORY AND REALITY
(IN TENNESSEE WILLIAMS’ THE GLASS MENAGERIE )
‘Being a memory play, it is dimly lighted, it is sentimental, it is not realistic’. To what degree is the play memory and to what degree is it realistic?
“When a play employs unconventional techniques, it is not trying to escape its responsibility of dealing with reality, or interpreting experience, but is actually attempting to find a closer approach, a more penetrating and vivid expression of things as they are” (Tennessee Williams). The Glass Menagerie is one of Tennessee Williams’ most eminent works and no doubt qualifies as a classic of the modern theater. Often referred to as a ‘memory play’, both the style and content of The Glass Menagerie are shaped and inspired by the memory of the play’s narrator, Tom Wingfield. According to Tom, due to the play’s origins in memory, ‘it is sentimental, it is not realistic’ and may be presented with unusual freedom from convention. Consequently, the play is subject to numerous peculiarities, such as dim lighting, frequent use of music and overblown, almost ‘too-perfect’ symbolism. Most fictional works are products of the imagination, which attempt to convince the audience of its realism, through realistic conflict, drama and setting. The Glass Menagerie , however, although drawn from memory, is not ‘attempting to escape its responsibility of dealing with reality’, but rather, is drawn from real experience and does not need to be constrained by the conventions of realism to convey truth. The Glass Menagerie is essentially reality presented in an unrealistic way, through memory. In order to evaluate the degree to which the play is realistic rather than memory or vice versa, and how the two interact in the ultimate aim of ‘interpreting experience’, we must examine the various realistic aspects of the play, such as the characters, the setting, and the situation presented to us, as well as the memory aspects, such as the lighting, music and symbolism.
Despite being a ‘memory play’, the basis and content of The Glass Menagerie is truth and reality as Williams’ attempts to ‘find a closer approach, a more penetrating and vivid expression of things as they are’. This basis of reality is evident in the play’s setting, as The Glass Menagerie is presented with great fidelity to the social and historical realities of the time. This is demonstrated from the play’s beginning as Tom ‘reverses time to that quaint period, the thirties’, and juxtaposes the turmoil in Spain to the uneasy peace in America, in an allusion to the forthcoming war (World War II). There are other allusions to the war throughout the play, such as in Tom’s closing speech as he claims the ‘world is lit by lightning’. It is clear that the historical realities of the time are effectively conveyed in the play, although it is not only the war-related realities of the time that Williams highlights.
Williams’ presentation of the social realities of the period is clear with the bleak lower-middle-class life in America, portrayed by the Wingfield family. This is most evident in the way that Laura, Amanda and Tom each develop their own methods of escaping their empty lifestyle; Amanda through her memory of a glamorous youth at Blue Mountain (where she entertained ‘seventeen gentleman callers!’), Laura through her glass menagerie and Tom by seeking adventure at the movies as he dreams of faraway lands. Clearly, The Glass Menagerie deals strongly with the social and historical realities of the time. However, in determining the degree of realism in the play, just as important as the reality of the play’s context are the characters of the play.
Although derived from Tom’s memory, all of the major characters in The Glass Menagerie as well as their various idiosyncrasies are, to a great degree, realistic, through Tom’s real experiences with them. In fact, the play is loosely autobiographical, with several of the play’s major characters having roots in Williams’ own life. For example, the character of Tom Wingfield is based on Tennessee Williams’ himself (whose real name was actually Tom before he changed it). Tom, like Tennessee Williams as a young man, had very few friends and lived apart from society because he is seen as different (Tom is seen as different because of his poetic soul and his urge to express this poetry while Williams was seen differently because of his Southern background). While Williams aspired to be a writer, but was condemned to work in a St Louis shoe factory by his father, Tom aspires to be an actor but is trapped working in a St Louis shoe factory to support his mother and sister (as a result of his father abandoning them). Even the sense of guilt that consumes Tom after he abandons Laura has roots in Williams’ own life as it reflects the guilt that Williams himself felt when leaving his sister in a mental institution. Clearly, the character of Tom Wingfield portrayed in his own memory as well as his situation, feelings and ambitions have a very real basis, not only in his own life but also in the life of Tennessee Williams. Several other characters in the play are also built upon Tom’s real experiences with them.
This is a preview of the whole essay
Although The Glass Menagerie is a ‘memory play’, Tom’s memory of Amanda Wingfield is clearly based on reality. Amanda is also partly derived from Williams’ life, from his mother Edwina Dakin. Like Williams’ mother, Amanda sees herself as a Southern belle. Edwina Dakin, into her old age, dreamt fantastic dreams of a life in the Deep South that had never existed. Amanda also has ‘memories’ of her glamorous life at Blue Mountain, although it is unknown whether these are fabrications or not. Amanda has several other idiosyncrasies based on reality and Tom’s real experiences with her (although some of these characteristics may be exaggerated by memory), such as her constant domineering of her children and her inability to accept the truth about her situation (such as the fact that Laura is indeed ‘crippled’). Amanda, too, is a character based on reality rather than memory.
Laura Wingfield also has a basis of reality, as well as a connection to Tennessee Williams’ life. She
appears to be modeled upon Williams’ sister Rose. Laura’s nickname ‘Blue Roses’ is evidence of this connection. Laura is ‘crippled’ and has a brace on one leg, a fact clearly based on reality and not manufactured by Tom’s memory. This fact is also based on Rose, who was schizophrenic and had one of the first prefrontal lobotomies ever performed. The operation was unsuccessful and Rose did not fully recover, spending the rest of her life in a mental institution. The guilt felt by Tom when he abandoned Laura echoes that felt by Williams, as he was unable to help his sister. Many of Laura’s characteristics are also reflective of Rose, such as her gentle demeanor, shyness and inability to connect with those outside her family. Even the glass menagerie has roots in Williams’ life, as it was something that he and Rose had played with as children. Without a doubt, the character of Laura, like most of the characters in the ‘memory play’, is very realistic rather than derived from Tom’s memory, and strongly based on Williams’ sister Rose. The other two characters in The Glass Menagerie , although only having a very loose connection to the life of Tennessee Williams, (in contrast to Laura’s strong connection), have a very realistic basis in Tom’s life.
Tom’s father was quite obviously not conceived of his memory but very much a part of reality. Tom almost bitterly describes how his father was a ‘telephone man who fell in love with long distances’ and ‘skipped the light fantastic out of town’, abandoning his family. The character is not only a part of Tom’s own life but has a loose basis on Williams’ life as his father, Cornelius Coffin Williams, was a traveling salesman for a shoe company, whose long professional absences were a source of resentment for Williams. Tom’s father is clearly a very realistic character and of the little that is mentioned of him in the play, nothing of the character appears to be modified by Tom’s memory. Even more realistic than Tom’s father, however, is the character of Jim.
Amidst Tom’s description of The Glass Menagerie as a ‘memory play’, Jim O’Connor, the gentleman caller, is described as the ‘most realistic character in the play’ and an ‘emissary from a world of reality’. Tom clearly had not known him for long but his character is derived from Tom’s limited experience with him. He is outgoing, enthusiastic and believes in self-improvement, characteristics that Tom would not be very familiar with and therefore would be difficult for his memory to modify. These characteristics would therefore have to be quite realistic. The character is also connected to Williams’ own life (although this connection is obscure), being based on a disaster in his own household involving a gentleman caller. Clearly, each of the characters in the ‘memory play’ have a very realistic basis (although some of their characteristics may be exaggerated by memory), many of them having been inspired by Tennessee Williams’ own life. However, in assessing the degree to which The Glass Menagerie is realistic, we must examine the degree of realism in the very situation portrayed in the play.
The most realistic aspect of The Glass Menagerie is, without a doubt, the story told by the play. Although it may be altered frequently by the power of Tom’s memory, the basis of the story is truth. From the beginning of the play we are assured of its validity, as Tom ‘enters dressed as a merchant sailor’. Tom is wearing the attire of the Merchant Seamen, which we see, as the play draws to a close, is the profession which he was planning to take after he abandoned Amanda and Laura. We are further assured of the realistic basis of the play, as Tom tells us that he ‘gives us truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion’. Tom affirms that the play is indeed truth, although this truth may be presented in a manner which is altered by his memory. Quite obviously, there is a great degree of realism in the basis and content of The Glass Menagerie , especially in the characters, the social and historical background as well as the events themselves. In our evaluation of the play, however, we must also assess the degree to which the play is memory.
Although the basis and content of The Glass Menagerie is realistic, it is essentially a ‘memory play’ and the way in which it is presented is ‘sentimental’ and ‘not realistic’. As stated by the opening stage directions, ‘memory takes a lot of poetic license’ and is ‘seated predominantly in the heart’. Therefore, ‘it omits some details, others are exaggerated’. The play is very much shaped by Tom’s sub-conscious, resulting in a number of peculiarities. Firstly, because the events of The Glass Menagerie are filtered through Tom’s perception, the audience feels as Tom would have felt and sees things as Tom would see them. Resultantly, certain attributes of other characters are exaggerated. This is most evident in the character of Amanda Wingfield. For example, from the beginning of the play, as the Wingfield family dines, Amanda’s irritating and meddlesome nature is amplified, as she complains that he shouldn’t ‘push with his fingers’, he does not chew enough and he ‘smokes too much’. It is difficult to determine whether she was really this unpleasant in actual fact, but in Tom’s perception she was and this is exaggerated in his memory. This is again exemplified strongly in the sixth scene as Amanda and Laura prepare for the gentleman caller’s coming. The conversation between Amanda and Laura is one which Tom would not have even witnessed (as he was not present), therefore the conversation would have been filled in by his own memory and Amanda’s aggravating nature would be clearly amplified. This is evident on a number of occasions throughout the conversation, especially when she tells Laura, her own daughter, ‘to be painfully honest, your chest is flat’. Evidently, having been filtered through Tom’s perception, the vexatious nature of Amanda Wingfield is exaggerated greatly throughout The Glass Menagerie . This emphasis on memory in the interpretation of characters serves to highlight these characters’ most important idiosyncrasies. However, the exaggeration of character’s attributes is not the only result of the events being interpreted by Tom’s memory.
As The Glass Menagerie is shaped by the memory of Tom Wingfield, who has a ‘poet’s weakness for symbols’, the ‘memory play’ exaggerates a number of symbolic events throughout. A strong example of this is in the fourth scene, when Laura slips at the fire escape as she leaves the apartment; an event which is symbolic of the fact that she cannot survive in the outside world. It is difficult to tell whether this event was fact or simply a symbol created by Tom’s sub-conscious. This emphasis on symbolism is again most evident when Tom is describing ‘Malvolio the Magician’ and exclaims ‘it don’t take much intelligence to get yourself into a nailed-up coffin, Laura, but who in hell ever got himself out of one without removing one nail?’ After this comment, the picture of his father’s grinning face lights up ‘as if in answer’; symbolic of his abandonment of the Wingfields ‘without removing one nail’ (because Tom was left to provide for them). Clearly, in reality, the picture would not light up, and this symbol is a fabrication of Tom’s memory. Quite obviously, the play is built on memory rather than reality to a great degree in emphasizing important symbols, in order to convey important values to the audience. There are a number of other aspects of the play that are also greatly modified, or even created, by Tom’s memory.
The most obvious peculiarity arising from the play’s modification by Tom’s memory is the fact that ‘eating is indicated by gestures without food or utensils’, an aspect of memory which is most certainly ‘not realistic’. Throughout this ‘memory play’, the audience will observe several oddities such as ‘Tom laying his imaginary fork down’ and ‘raising his imaginary cup in both hands to blow it’. This not only adds to the atmosphere of memory in the play, but also seems to draw attention away from what the characters are doing, so that the audience can focus on the dialogue and important events in the play. The absence of food and utensils, like several other peculiarities in The Glass Menagerie , adds a great deal to the memory aspects of the play.
Another major aspect of The Glass Menagerie which, for the most part, is a product of Tom’s memory, is the screen device in operation throughout the play (although some productions of the play omit the screen device). During the action throughout the play, a screen device, positioned on a section of wall between the front room and dining room areas on the set, displays various images and words, projected from behind, in order to highlight certain motifs and symbols. These images and words are simply creations of Tom’s sub-conscious, putting emphasis on important ideas as well as some of his thoughts at the time. For instance, when Amanda speaks of ‘one Sunday afternoon at Blue Mountain’ when she received ‘seventeen gentleman callers’, an image of ‘Amanda as a girl on a porch, greeting callers’ is displayed on the screen. The projected image gives force to Amanda’s words, showing the audience a visual representation alongside her speech and is symbolic of the fact that although she can remember this life at Blue Mountain, it is in the past, frozen and lifeless, and cannot help her in the present. Another important example of the use of the screen device is when Jim first meets Amanda and she begins to act quite flirtatious (as she would have in her youth). The projector displays the image of Amanda as a girl, signifying the fact that in her excitement she is reverting to her youthful self (in an inappropriate manner). The screen device definitely adds a great deal of impact to the play in conveying important ideas and is clearly derived from Tom’s memory rather than from reality (obviously there would not have been a screen device in reality).
One of the major effects of the events of The Glass Menagerie being interpreted by Tom’s memory is the unusual use of lighting throughout. The most notable use of lighting is the fact that the play is ‘dimly lit’. This appears to be due to the fact that dim lights prevent details from being seen and it is details, rather than significant objects and events, that fade from the memory first. Therefore the dim lighting serves to enhance the atmosphere of memory in the play, as well as to keep the audience focused on significant objects rather than details.
The unconventional use of lighting is again exemplified with the shafts of light which focus on selected areas or actors in order to signify the importance of their words or actions, which is quite obviously not realistic. What is curious about The Glass Menagerie , however, is that although in some scenes, such as in Tom’s speeches, the light is concentrated on the speaker, there are several occasions in which the focus of light is in contradistinction to what is the apparent centre. This is exemplified in the scene when Jim is at supper with the Wingfields and Laura lies on a couch. Although there is a conversation at the supper table, a ‘new floor lamp with its shade of rose-coloured silk gives a soft, becoming light to her (Laura’s) face, bringing out a fragile, unearthly prettiness which usually escapes attention’, thereby focusing the audience’s attention to Laura, whose feelings are clearly most important in the scene.
Yet another unrealistic effect of lighting in the play is the constant use of the rainbow effect of separated light, such as when Tom arrives from the movies with a rainbow-coloured scarf and rainbow colours are emitted by the dance hall into the dusk. Tom recognizes the illusory quality of rainbows as he claims the pleasures offered by the Paradise Dance Hall were ‘like a chandelier which flooded the world with brief deceptive rainbows’. Consequently, a number of rainbows are incorporated into the play by his sub-conscious, symbolic of his false hopes for escape. Clearly, the lighting in the play is ‘not realistic’ and even ‘sentimental’ and is used by Tom’s memory to increase the atmosphere of memory, put emphasis on certain areas and actors, and as a symbol. Just as important as the utilization of lighting in this ‘memory play’, however, is the music which pervades each scene.
According to Tom Wingfield at the beginning of the play, ‘in memory, everything seems to happen to music’. Due to the play’s origins in memory, music is utilized throughout the play, and is most certainly a peculiarity arising from memory rather than reality (as common sense will tell us that people do not enter a room to theme music). Most importantly, a single recurring tune, ‘The Glass Menagerie’, is often used at points of high drama, usually in scenes involving Laura, adding to the ‘sentimental’ atmosphere of the play. An excellent example of the use of ‘The Glass Menagerie’ theme music is when Amanda inquires on how many gentleman callers Laura will be receiving, to which Laura reveals that she is expecting none. Amanda is startled, exclaiming ‘you must be joking’ and “it can’t be true!’, as Laura, whose feelings are obviously hurt, ‘nervously echoes her laugh’. The ‘Glass Menagerie’ tune plays ‘faintly’, adding to the emotional significance of the scene and increasing the reader’s sympathy for Laura. This use of music is also exemplified in the scene in which Jim kisses Laura as the ‘music swells tumultuously’. A product of Tom’s poetic sub-conscious, the music intensifies the drama, thereby increasing the shock of Jim’s revelation that he is already going steady with another woman. Without a doubt, one of the distinctive features of The Glass Menagerie ’s origins in memory is the incorporation of music in order to heighten drama and convey feelings.
One of the most important peculiarities arising from the play being drawn from memory, is that time loses its usual sequence and structure. The first four scenes of The Glass Menagerie occur over the space of a few days in the winter season, while the following three take place on two successive evenings during the following spring. The audience, however, does not receive a sense of the time that passes. In memory, time has little meaning as our minds race between the recent and distant past. For example, Tom exists in the ‘present’ in the play while the events taking place occurred in the past. The focus of the play continuously alternates between the two. Our sense of time is clouded even further as Amanda constantly reminisces of the past. Clearly, time loses meaning in this ‘memory play’. This implication of memory seems to draw away attention from the time and sequence of the events unfolding in the play, thereby increasing the focus on the events themselves.
Perhaps the most important symbol in determining the degree to which the play is memory, as well as the purpose of these memory aspects in ‘dealing with reality’ and ‘interpreting experience’ in The Glass Menagerie , is Tom’s final speech. During the speech, the descending fourth wall puts a powerful but permeable barrier between Tom and his family. Amanda and Laura Wingfield are behind Tom in the physical space of the stage as well as in time. However, Tom cannot escape the memory of his family and they are clearly visible to the audience. This scene, while conveying the idea of Tom’s inability to truly escape his family, is also symbolic of just how integral the memory aspects are in The Glass Menagerie . It is only in memory that such a juxtaposition, of Tom’s final speech with the inaudible scene in which Amanda speaks to her daughter, is possible. A play constrained by the conventions of realism would not be able to present such an effective juxtaposition. This is indicative of the essentiality of memory in the play’s production. The memory aspects of the play, although ‘sentimental’ and ‘not realistic’, do not compromise the realism or truth being conveyed by the production itself, but simply provides a creative and often exaggerative method of imparting this truth.
Ultimately, in order to evaluate the degree to which The Glass Menagerie is memory and the degree to which it is reality, we must determine how the two interact in the distinct aim of finding ‘a more penetrating and vivid expression of things as they are’. It is impossible to dispute that the very core of the play is realism, in its characters, in the social and historical background and in the situation portrayed, while the presentation of the play is ‘sentimental’ and ‘not realistic’ through dim lighting, exaggerated symbolism, and other memory aspects. The play is quite obviously constructed, to a great degree, of both memory and reality. However, the various unrealistic features of memory in no way compromise the truth of the play, but simply work towards intensifying the focus on the important aspects of reality. Essentially, the main effect of memory in the play is to enhance the sense of reality surrounding its content. After all, The Glass Menagerie , as Tom says, is committed to giving its audience ‘truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion’.
By Vinay Menon
- Word Count 3996
- Page Count 5
- Subject English
To what extent is the glass menagerie about glass? Discuss.
"The Glass Menagerie" by Tennessee Williams - "A Memory Play"
What kind of Play is The Glass Menagerie?
The Glass Menagerie is described by its author as "a memory play" Discuss t...
Home Essay Examples Literature The Glass Menagerie
The Glass Menagerie: The Theme Of A Play And Its Actuality Today
- Category Literature
- Subcategory Plays
- Topic The Glass Menagerie
The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams is an American classic that keeps the audience engaged in the story with its dramatic portrayal of family relationships, the dream of escape, and the way people come to terms with abandonment. As the first memory play The Glass Menagerie shaped theatre history and has inspired many playwrights with its message and unique writing style. This coming of age play has carved its way into the hearts of many and remains just as relevant today.
Tennessee Williams, born Thomas Lanier Williams III, was born on March 26, 1911 in Columbus, Mississippi. His life growing up greatly influenced his writing, from his family relationships to each place he lived. He grew up almost solely raised by his mother, as his father was a salesperson who preferred his work to raising his family. He described his birthplace in Mississippi as pleasant, happy, and carefree but that soon changed after his family packed up and moved to St. Louis, Missouri. Not used to urban life, Williams became introverted, choosing to stay in rather than go play outside, and this is when he first started writing (Biography.com).
Our writers can write you a new plagiarism-free essay on any topic
The Glass Menagerie is noted as Williams most auto biological work, mirroring his life in multiple ways. The narrator of the story is based on himself, even named Tom after Williams birth name. Much like Williams, Tom loves literature, poetry, and daydreams of escaping his life but is grounded by his mother, sister, and his warehouse job the very things that he dreams of escaping. There isn’t a father figure in The Glass Menagerie, just like there wasn’t for most of William’s life. Rather there is a matriarch with Amanda raising her children by herself. Amanda is modeled after Williams own mother, Edwina. She is vivacious, and headstrong, but also a faded Southern belle trapped in the past. One of William’s sisters is also represented in the play. Laura is written after William’s older sister, Rose, who suffered from a mental illness that isolated her from the outside world and rather chose to surround herself with glass ornaments. Williams also took inspiration from his surroundings growing up for his stories, placing the play in an apartment in St. Louis, much like the one that he lived in when his family moved to St. Louis (Puchko).
On December 26th, 1944, The Glass Menagerie premiered at the Civic Theatre in Chicago, Illinois. Not only was this the premiere of the play but also Tennessee Williams as a playwright. Uncertainty was in the air following the plays pre-production, but that was dissipated after the debut night. Critics raved over the show, with overly positive reviews and the audience loved the show. After 10 weeks in Chicago, The Glass Menagerie was moved to New York where it opened on Broadway at the Playhouse Theatre on March 31st, 1945 with the entirety of the original cast. There it was also received incredibly well, with reviews such as “Hardly anything happens in it and it is as quiet as quiet can be—yet, when one leaves the Playhouse and meets reality on the 48th St. sidewalk, one realizes that some kind of hypnotism has been at work (The New York Daily News).” After its total run of 563 performances at the Playhouse Theatre, the show came to a close.
The play has been revived numerous times with the latest revival opening on March 9th, 2017 at the Belasco theatre. The show was not received well and closed on March 21st, 2017 after only 85 performances. This is very unusual as the actress playing Amanda, Sally Field, was in the running for the Tony award Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Play and it is uncommon for a show with a Tony nominee to close before the awards ceremony. Its scheduled close was for July 2nd, 2017 but with ticket sales were too low to keep the show running the fully prepared length. Sally Field did not win the Tony either, with it going to Laurie Metcalf for her role as Nora in A Doll’s House, Part II (Chow, Paulson).
The explicit theme in The Glass Menagerie would be how living in a dream world is harmful and the difficulty in accepting reality. Every one of the Wingfields is living in their own fantasy world, and they clash with each other in some form during the play. Laura’s form of escape comes from her glass menagerie, choosing to surround herself with objects like herself. The glass animals are fragile but also beautiful, just like how Laura is. Toms dreams are the most grounded in reality comparatively, being able to cope with the real world but dreaming of escaping his life and his warehouse job. Tom dreams of adventure make it to where he turns to literature, movies and alcohol to have even a sliver of the adventure he dreams of. Tom even slips some money that he is supposed to pay the electric bill to pay his dues for the Merchant Marines. Amanda’s dreams are the most complicated compared to her children as they are tied to her past and the real-world values that she holds from adolescence. This way of living is chaining her down, as these values are what blocks her from seeing the truth in her life, and how she is no longer the Southern belle that she was growing up, that Laura is unusual, and that in a lot of ways Tom is too much like his father. These dreams also get in the way of her realising that she is partially responsible for their sorrows that her children are going through, and that she can not put all the blame on their absent father. Her coping mechanism is meager compared to her children as her dreams are not imaginatory escape but rather a distortion of her reality. The implicit theme stems from the unreliability of memory, from the lack of realism, to its on the nose symbolism. With Tom being the narrator and his memory, this is all how he recalls these events taking place, but no one’s memory is one hundred percent the truth, so as soon as Tom says that its a memory play we know that he’s an unreliable character. Tom isn’t the only character chained to their memories though. His mother Amanda refuses to move on from her past, consistently bringing up her experiences growing up and expecting for her life to be as it was back then.
Symbolism is abundant throughout The Glass Menagerie, from the menagerie itself to Laura’s nickname Blue Roses that Jim gave her. The most obvious would be the unicorn that is Laura’s favorite. It is not like the rest of the horses because of its own and this uniqueness makes it stand out. It is not until the horn breaks that its like the other horses finally, and although Laura says she’s happy that it’s now like the rest, with it being her favorite the audience can infer that this is sad for her. The unicorn is a symbol on Laura and how shes peculiar to society. Laura is also a unicorn in a herd of horses, with her being unusual, lonely, and can’t fit into the world around her. Her leg is the same for the unicorns horn, the thing that makes her stand out in this world. The figure being broken is also similar to what happens to Laura but on a smaller scale. When Jim kisses her she is experiencing the normality the rest of the world experiences, but just as the unicorn horn had to shatter in order for it to be normal, the way that normality is suddenly forces upon her makes it to where Laura’s world had to shatter for it to become normal. The actual menagerie is another symbol, representing Laura as a whole. Glass menageries are fragile but also beautiful in their own way, and when there’s the right light the transparent glass turns into a rainbow of colors. Just as how Laura is odd and boring to strangers but when you know her you see just how colorful she truly is. The other symbol for Laura would be the nickname that Jim gave her in high school “Blue Roses.” Blue roses are not naturally occurring in nature, but are alluring to people. This is also a way that Williams could bring his sister, Rose, more into the play, as Laura was based off of her.
The Glass Menagerie is an episodic plot, with the story being seperated in 7 sections that each have their own climax point. The Glass Menagerie is also a memory play, therefore making it non realistic as memories can be unreliable. The narrator Tom tells the audience this himself in his opening monologue. This play also uses a term Williams himself coined called Plastic Theatre. Plastic Theatre is ”the use of props, noises and/or stage directions to convey a blatant parallel with the characters’ states of mind on stage (Philips).” Williams first used this in The Glass Menagerie production notes to help the productions use the spectacle of the show to take it from a realism show to nonrealism, with the appearance that this was Tom’s memory. From wanting it dimly lit, one recurring tune for the sound, to going into great lengths on what the stage is supposed to appear like Williams clearly maps out how to properly do this show. This show was groundbreaking as it expanded on what theatre could be. It took domestic realism and reinvented it, adding elements of expressionism and introduced the method of memory. This was revolutionary for theatre at the time and changed theatre history forever.
This play is still just as important today as it was when it was written for many reasons. The themes in this story are still just as relevant today, with dealing with the dream of escape to the shackles that memory can have on a person. These are issues people have always dealt with and will continue to. The characters while they may seem over the top at times are still people we see in today’s society, from children being raised by single parents and how that affects them to how disabilities make people feel like they don’t fit in with society. These are all still issues that are prevalent in America and this play brings to light those people that society seems to forget about. The Glass Menagerie is just as prevalent today as it was as it was written and is still an important show.
The Glass Menagerie is a wonderful and deeply unique play, from its character dynamics to the spectacle of the show, this show is a beautiful dramatic piece that has audiences coming back year after year. It changed theatre history with its revolutionary style while still being a piece that the audience can see themselves in. The Glass Menagerie is sure to delight many more audiences in the future.
We have 98 writers available online to start working on your essay just NOW!
By clicking "Send essay" you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.
By clicking "Receive essay" you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.
We can edit this one and make it plagiarism-free in no time
- Literature Period
Monday 5 February 2018
Discuss the glass menagerie as a memory play, the glass menagerie as a memory play.
You Can also Read:
Amanda wingfield’s obsession with the past responsible for the doomed present in the glass menagerie, what does williams say about the role of the poet in the glass menagerie, significance of the title of the play the glass menagerie, 16 comments:.
You are welcome
Helped a lot. Thank you.
Its my pleasure
Great job 👍
Very much helpful thank u
really helped thank you!
It helps me a lot.
Helped a lot. Thank you so much
Thanks a lot 😊😊
Thanks a lot 👍 it's really very helpful
Its too much helpful. Again i thanks from the core of my heart.
Thank you so much!
Its good analysis
Theme of Memory in Williams’ “The Glass Menagerie”
The Glass Menagerie is a memory play written by Tennessee Williams and set in St. Louis in 1937, whose actions are based on the narrator’s memories, Tom Wingfield. Tom is a protagonist and a narrator who presents the analysis of past events directly to the audience, and he takes part in the play’s actions to demonstrate the recollections of his experience. The play consists of various themes that help build the story and portray its meaning effectively to the audience, including memory, family duty, individual aspiration, escapism, and gender roles. Themes are vital elements in any literal work that allows readers to connect themselves with the narrative. Themes provide literal work’s meaning, flow, and background of the play presenting the author’s observation of the critical facts about humankind. The theme of memory is dominant in The Glass Menagerie, which has been used in different ways to demonstrate emotions, means of escape and unhappiness, and nostalgia.
In the play, the theme of memory is used as an emotional lens to provide the audience with knowledge to know the lives and behaviors of the characters through Tom’s memories. Memories change with time, which may alter the way things are done, influenced by the emotional responses of an individual. Tom portrays Laura’s fragility in a manner that cannot be argued as true or false since memories are subject to time, place, emotions, and an individual’s perception of past events. At the beginning of Scene 1, Tom says, “The scene is memory and is therefore nonrealistic. Memory takes a lot of poetic license. It omits some details; others are exaggerated, according to the emotional value of the articles it touches, for memory is seated predominantly in the heart. The interior is therefore rather dim and poetic (Williams 1).” Therefore, the narrator informs the audience that events in the play can be exaggerated or altered to convey the intended meaning, entertain, communicate cultural knowledge, and express emotions and personal circumstances.
The theme of memory is used to escape unhappiness in The Glass Menagerie, where the present characters’ lives are affected by memories. In the play, the memory becomes a hindrance to Amanda’s current circumstances, plagued by the near-perfect past youth events that remind him of the differences between the two different time zones (Bhawar 2168). The narrator is embittered by his father’s abandonment, which affects the present life of adventure, new places, excitement, and new experiences. Tom is haunted by the memories of working at the warehouse and living at home, restricted from the life he always wanted, which brings guilt and unhappiness.
The past affectionate feeling is demonstrated in the play and its ending, which presents an inevitable presence of nostalgia, and the ability to shape people’s lives. Memories trigger people’s emotions, which can highly affect how things are presently performed (Bhawar 2167). At the end of scene seven, Tom reveals that memories of Laura still haunt him even though he left her behind.
People’s past events cannot be destroyed as memories are a powerful tool to shape an individual’s present life. In the play, the character’s actions are shaped by the past events of Tom’s memories, but their alteration is clear evidence that the feelings brought together with memories can be changed. People can decide to feel differently concerning a particular memory, and from this, they can choose to build their story, enduring progress, and happiness.
Bhawar, Pradnya. “Conflict Between Reality and Illusion in Tennessee Williams’ Play The Glass Menagerie”. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences , vol. 5, no. 6, 2020, pp. 2166-2170. AI Publications .
Williams, Tennessee. The glass menagerie . New Directions Publishing, 2011. 1-116. Web.
The Glass Menagerie : a Memory Play
Tennessee williams mental illness.
The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams is a celebrated and cherished play that has affected generations. Written in 1945, the play very well may have been an outlet for Williams to accept what had happened to his own sister. Rose Williams had been lobotomized due to schizophrenia, affecting her brother greatly. While Williams’ family may be real, his characters are over dramatic and eccentric. The characters of Amanda, Tom, and Laura make up an extremely dysfunctional family living together in a 1930’s Saint Louis. By the end of the play, each character has affected themselves and each other. The characters spend the majority of their lives inventing someone who will make the rest of their family members happy, and when these facades crumble,
The Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams, born Thomas Lanier Williams, wrote The Glass Menagerie, a play which premiered in Chicago in 1944. This award winning play, autobiographical in nature, represented a time in which Williams felt the obligation of his responsibilities in regards to the care of his family. Robert DiYanni, Adjunct Professor of Humanities at New York University, rated it as, “One of his best-loved plays...a portrayal of loneliness among characters who confuse fantasy and reality” (DiYanni 1156). Alternatively, The Glass Menagerie, a play set in the era of the Great Depression and written from the narrator’s memory, was meant to teach us the how our relationships with one another can alter our futures, for better or worse. Everything about this particular play was a direct and clear symbolization of Williams ' life growing up. Williams uses characterization to depict several people from his real life in this play; his sister, himself, his overbearing mother, absent father, and a childhood best friend. Williams does a splendid job transforming his personal life into a working piece of art. In Tennessee Williams ' play, The Glass Menagerie, his character, Laura, is central to the structure and focus of the story due to her individual ties to all of the supporting characters throughout the seven scene play.
Subtext In The Crucible
Williams’s play is a tragedy, and one of quietude. He once expressed that “Glass Menagerie is my first quiet play, and perhaps my last.” It is a play of profound sadness, and through relationships between characters, portrays the “cries of the heart.” There is no cry more powerful that the cry and inner desperation of the heart. Williams’s has very little social context, but rather focuses on the conflicts within a domestic family. Such a focus is powerful, and the playwright expresses this power and importance implicitly through the estranged relationship between Amanda and Tom Wingfield.
Essay on the Symbolism of the Menagerie in The Glass Menagerie
- 3 Works Cited
Tennessee Williams' play, The Glass Menagerie, describes three separate characters, their dreams, and the harsh realities they face in a modern world. The Glass Menagerie exposes the lost dreams of a southern family and their desperate struggle to escape reality. Williams' use of symbols adds depth to the play. The glass menagerie itself is a symbol Williams uses to represent the broken lives of Amanda, Laura and Tom Wingfield and their inability to live in the present.
The Glass Managerie Act 1 Scene 2 Analysis
Amanda is similar to Gatsby and Hannah by living in the past through Laura. Amanda talks so much about her favorite flower the Jonquel because she relates it back to her glory days when she had lots of gentlemen callers. When Tom arrives with Jim, the gentleman caller for Laura, she realizes that he is the boy that she had loved from way back. Amanda puts on a facade of the family to impress Jim. Amanda try's to get Laura married, to help cover some of her own
A Dolls House' and 'The Glass Menagerie
Along with the character transformation in “A Doll’s House”, Tom, from “The Glass Menagerie”, also goes through some character changes. Throughout the entire play, Tom was working in a warehouse trying to support his family. While working there, he was struggling with his dreams of becoming a merchant marine. Towards the end of the play, when Tom introduces his friend Jim O’Connor to his sister Laura, his mother hopes that this could be a man that Laura could settle down with and someday marry. When Amanda finds out that Jim is already engaged, she blames Tom. She is furious that Tom brought a gentleman caller over
The Glass Menagerie Essay
If I could change the outcome of the story, I would have allowed Laura and Jim O’Connor to get married. I would have made this change because then Amanda’s problem would have been solved, and Laura would have had financial support in the future. Another reason I would have made this change is because Jim O’Connor would have been the ideal man for Laura because he connected with her. He saw past her awkward fondness of a glass animal set. He also got Laura to take pride in herself.
In The Glass Menagerie, Tennessee Williams beautifully encapsulates man’s desire to escape from uncomfortable emotional and physical situations. Whether he’s showing a young man trapped in a factory job he hates, an aging single mother who mourns for her life as Southern belle, or a young lady who fears that she’ll spend her life alone, he clearly demonstrates these desires and fears for his audience. Williams shows us through the actions of his characters how humans handle a wide variety of uncomfortable situations, and how these situations dramatically influence one’s ability to thrive. The playwright doesn’t seem to believe in the idea of “bloom where you’re planted”, and the desire to escape becomes a major theme of the play, demonstrated across multiple characters in a wide variety of ways. Creative individuals often do not thrive in noncreative, industrial environments. Williams demonstrates this clearly in this “memory play”, which carries many autobiographical element. Tom Wingfield represents his own character, Williams himself, and also serves as a narrator, making him quite the complex character. Williams’s uses Tom to show how an emotionally complex, creative individual can quickly feel trapped and tied down in a factory job, longing to get out, see the world, and pursue a job with more creative elements. Tom’s escapism, drinking, and evening theatrical adventures all reflect the life of the playwright himself, as Williams was known to struggle with alcoholism
“The Glass Menagerie” by Tennessee Williams is a play about desire to escape and this concept is conveyed through a variety of techniques and ideas shown in this play of exploration by the playwright, Tom Wingfield. First, Jim tries to escape his engagement by having a romantic night with Laura. Then, Tom’s father escapes for the same reasons Tom did. Thirdly, according to Roger Boxill from ‘The Glass Menagerie’ Amanda escapes by reminiscing “Blue Mountain ... And the seventeen gentleman callers.” Fourthly, Laura escapes with romance, going for walks, her “Glass Menagerie, stomach pain, and the broken horn from the unicorn. Finally, Tom escapes by traveling, going to the movies, drinking, and hanging out on the fire escape looking at the moon. Symbolism is also used in many literary works to for shadow or emphasizes an event that is about to happen or already has happened in the story. Hence the title ‘The Glass Menagerie’ in the play foreshadows/emphasizes the event happening or about to happen. The action of “The Glass Menagerie” takes place in the Wingfield family’s apartment in St. Louis, 1937. The events of the play are framed by memory Tom Wingfield is the play’s narrator, and usually smokes and stands on the fire escape as he delivers his monologues.
The Glass Menagerie
The theme of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie is conflict. The play contains both internal and external conflict. The absence of Tom's father forces external turmoil and conflict between Tom the protagonist, and his mother the antagonist. The internal conflict is seen within Tom through his constant references to leaving home and his selfishness. The play is about a young aspiring poet named Tom, who works at a shoe warehouse. Tom is unhappy with is life at home mainly because of his overbearing, over protective mother named Amanda. Tom also has a sister within the play named Laura who chooses to isolate herself from the rest of society. During the play Tom's relationship with his mother is filled with very harsh and abrasive
Differences Between The Play And The Glass Menagerie
The Glass Menagerie is a memory play written by Tennessee Williams in 1944 which tells about the life a family of three. This play is an incredible piece because it is based off the life of Tennessee Williams himself; the main characters are Amanda, the mother, Tom, the son, and Laura, the daughter. In Paul Newman’s depiction of the play which has been converted into a film, the film perfectly uses acts out every aspect of the play. Tennessee Williams keeps the audience attentive in his play, that’s why the film was successful. Williams accomplishes this through the character’s glass menageries, Laura’s emergence out of her shell and heartbreak, and the ending.
Literary Analysis of The Glass Menagerie by Tenessee Williams
- 7 Works Cited
The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams had ordinary people in an ordinary life that closely resembled the influences of Williams’ personal life while having reoccurring themes and motifs throughout the story. The play has been done by many with some variations in the scripts and setting while still clinging to the basic ideas of the original play.
Essay on The Glass Menagerie: An Analysis
Written in 1944, Tennessee Williams wrote a play during World War II when people were barely making ends meet. Centering on the Wingfield family, the story consisted of five characters: Amanda Wingfield (the mother), Laura Wingfield (the daughter), Tom Wingfield (son, narrator, Laura’s older brother), Jim Connor (Tom and Laura’s old acquaintance from high school) and Mr. Wingfield (father to Tom and Laura, and Amanda’s husband)- who abandoned the family long before the start of the play. The title, “The Glass Menagerie”, represented a collection of glass animals on display in the Wingfields’ home. At one point or another, these animals then represented each character when they couldn’t accept reality. The theme of this play were about the
Essay on Tom in The Glass Menagerie
Tennessee Williams gives us no indication that Tom's escape from his father, Amanda, Laura, and Jim ever happens - what is most compelling about the play is that Tom passes to the reader and the audience the responsibility of making meaning out of his life.
Themes And Conflicts In The Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams
Set in St. Louis Missouri prior to World War II, Tennessee Williams reflects back on his deeply tragic and dysfunctional familial experiences in, “The Glass Menagerie”. Williams brilliantly incorporates real aspects of society to reveal how they contributed to the nonreal aspects and the conflicts which affected his family. The real aspects of the play which had a significant impact on the lower middle-class families such as the Wingfields included, the economic hardships surrounding the Great Depression, the fall of the American south, society’s intolerance towards homosexuality, and many threats abroad. Although Williams play was merely a series of hazy memories, the nonreal aspects combined with the major societal conflicts contribute
Writing help, paraphrasing tool, the memory play “the glass menagerie” created by tennessee williams.
- Memory , Tennessee Williams , The Glass Menagerie
How it works
Tolerating the truth can be troublesome when life is cruel. Although no one would want to experience sorrow, suffering, or struggle at some point in people’s lives they are faced with these type of encounters, but it is all apart of life. Life is brimming with encounters, that people either appreciate or hate. When you push away or endeavor to dodge sentiments of trouble and torment, you likewise lessen your capacity to experience happiness.
Their widowed mother, Amanda Wingfield was initially from a refined Southern family, before meeting Tom and Laura’s father. As her children grew up she began urging them about fulfilling their futures, especially Laura who was hardly capable of being a romantic. She was worried that Laura, who also wears a brace on her impaired leg, would not draw in any men of honor guests. She began to create her own future for Laura and decided to enlist her in a business school, ensuring that she will make her very own and the family’s fortune through a business profession. Weeks after the fact, in any case, Amanda finds out that Laura decided to drop out and go through her days meandering the city alone. Amanda felt that Laura’s last hope would be to get married. One day Tom brings over a coworker of his, Jim O’Connor. Amanda learns about Jim and is thrilled when she discovers that he is a determined man with his mind set on professional success.
Among the most noticeable and pressing topics of The Glass Menagerie is the trouble the characters have in tolerating and identifying with the real world. Every individual from the Wingfield family can’t beat this trouble, and each, therefore, pulls back into a private universe of figment where the person finds the solace and implying that this present reality does not appear to offer. Of the three Wingfields, reality has by a long shot the weakest handle on Laura. The private world in which she lives is populated by glass creatures—protests that, similar to Laura’s inward life, are fantastically whimsical and perilously fragile. In contrast to his sister, Tom is fit for working in reality, as we find in his holding down an occupation and conversing with outsiders. Yet, at last, he has no more inspiration than Laura does to seek after expert achievement, sentimental connections, or even customary companionships, and he wants to withdraw into the dreams given by writing and motion pictures and the daze given by inebriation. Amanda’s relationship to the truth is the most perplexing in the play. In contrast to her kids, she is inclined toward true qualities and aches for social and budgetary achievement. However her connection to these qualities is actually what keeps her from seeing various facts about her life. She can’t acknowledge that she is or ought to be something besides the spoiled beauty she was raised to be, that Laura is impossible to miss, that Tom is anything but a maturing specialist, and that she herself may be somehow or another in charge of the distresses and blemishes of her kids. Amanda’s retreat into fantasy is from numerous points of view more woeful than her children’s, on the grounds that it’s anything but an obstinate inventive development yet a contemplative bending of the real world.
In spite of the fact that the Wingfields are recognized and bound together by the feeble connections they keep up with the real world, the deceptions to which they surrender are not just familial characteristics. The outside world is similarly as helpless to fantasy as the Wingfields. The youngsters at the Paradise Dance Hall waltz under the fleeting figment made by a glass ball—another form of Laura’s glass creatures. Tom opines to Jim that alternate watchers at the films he goes to are substituting on-screen experience for genuine experience, discovering satisfaction in dream as opposed to reality. Indeed, even Jim, who speaks to the “universe of the truth,” is banking his future on open talking and the TV and radio ventures—which are all methods for the production of dreams and the influence of others that these hallucinations are valid. The Glass Menagerie distinguishes the triumph of reality by figment as a colossal and developing part of the human condition in now is the ideal time.
The deadline is too short to read someone else's essay
Cite this page.
The memory play “The Glass Menagerie” created by Tennessee Williams. (2021, Mar 20). Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/examples/the-memory-play-the-glass-menagerie-created-by-tennessee-williams/
"The memory play “The Glass Menagerie” created by Tennessee Williams." PapersOwl.com , 20 Mar 2021, https://papersowl.com/examples/the-memory-play-the-glass-menagerie-created-by-tennessee-williams/
PapersOwl.com. (2021). The memory play “The Glass Menagerie” created by Tennessee Williams . [Online]. Available at: https://papersowl.com/examples/the-memory-play-the-glass-menagerie-created-by-tennessee-williams/ [Accessed: 5 Dec. 2023]
"The memory play “The Glass Menagerie” created by Tennessee Williams." PapersOwl.com, Mar 20, 2021. Accessed December 5, 2023. https://papersowl.com/examples/the-memory-play-the-glass-menagerie-created-by-tennessee-williams/
"The memory play “The Glass Menagerie” created by Tennessee Williams," PapersOwl.com , 20-Mar-2021. [Online]. Available: https://papersowl.com/examples/the-memory-play-the-glass-menagerie-created-by-tennessee-williams/. [Accessed: 5-Dec-2023]
PapersOwl.com. (2021). The memory play “The Glass Menagerie” created by Tennessee Williams . [Online]. Available at: https://papersowl.com/examples/the-memory-play-the-glass-menagerie-created-by-tennessee-williams/ [Accessed: 5-Dec-2023]
Don't let plagiarism ruin your grade
Make sure your essay is plagiarism-free or hire a writer to get a unique paper crafted to your needs.
Leave your email and we will send a sample to you., not finding what you need, search for essay samples now.
Having doubts about how to write your paper correctly?
Our writers will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+!
Please check your inbox.
Don't use plagiarized sources
Where do you want us to send this sample, attention this is just a sample..
You can order an original essay written according to your instructions.
Trusted by over 1 million students worldwide
1. Tell Us Your Requirements
2. Pick your perfect writer
3. Get Your Paper and Pay
Hi! I'm Amy, your personal assistant!
Don't know where to start? Give me your paper requirements and I connect you to an academic expert.
“The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams Essay (Review)
Introduction, summary of the play.
Tennessee Williams, a prominent playwright of his own epoch was born on 26 March 1911 in Columbus where he lived with his family consisting of his grandfather who was a religious man in the church, his father who was a salesman who travels a lot working in trade, his mother who was an aggressive woman and his sister Rose who was suffering from a mental disease. He also had a brother whose name was Dakin but he was away from that relationship.
From the very beginning, he had a talent in writing, he began to write poetry while he was in high school, he published his early writings and so he got lots of admiration and prizes, then he joined the University of Iowa, working menial jobs and traveling from city to city. He continued to work on drama. During the Second World War he worked as a scriptwriter, but he despised it. He decided to submit his own work entitled “The Glass Menageries” It becomes one of the most beloved plays of that time.
His famous play «The Glass Menageries” acquired William most of his fame. It was a kind of personal or autobiographical play.
One important key to the play is that it’s highly connected with William’s own life. The character of Amanda is related to his own mother, and the physically handicapped Laura is based on his sister Rose. In addition during Williams lift he felt guilty to leave his ill sister to live far from her brother and to die. The same happens in the play the hero Tom feels as if he is betraying his sister by leaving home.
More over the character of Tom is based on the character of Williams whose first name was Thomas. Although Williams’s first professionally produced play, Battle of Angels, closed in 1940 because of poor reviews and a censorship controversy, his early amateur productions of Candles to the Sun and Fugitive Kind were well-received by audiences in St. Louis. By 1945 he had completed and opened on Broadway The Glass Menagerie, perhaps his best-known play, which won that year’s New York Critics Circle,Donaldson, and Sidney Howard Memorial awards.
Williams ‘ The Glass Menagerie is considered as a memory play as its actions are drawn from the memories of its narrator, the hero of the play” Tom”. Tom’s character in somehow fits the character of the author himself” Williams” who wrote the play as an autobiography.
Tennessee Williams claimed that all of his major plays fell in the kind of a “memory play” format he described in his production notes for The Glass Menagerie. The memory play consists of a three-part structure:
- a character experiences something profound;
- that experience happens what Williams terms an “arrest of time,” a situation in which time literally loops upon itself; and
- the character must re-live that profound experience (caught in a sort of mobius loop of time) until she or he makes sense of it.
The overarching theme for his plays, he claimed, is the negative impact that conventional society has upon the “sensitive nonconformist individual.”
“On those occasions they call me – Ell Diablo! Oh, I could tell you things to make you sleepless! My enemies plan to dynamite this place. They’re going to blow us all sky-high some night! I’ll be glad, very happy, and so will you! You’ll go up, up on a broomstick, over Blue Mountain with seventeen gentlemen callers!” Tom says this to Amanda in a fit of rage.
“But the most wonderfullest trick of all was the coffin trick…. There is a trick that would come in handy for me-get me out of this 2 by 4 situation.” Tom says this to Laura after coming back drunk from the movies and magic show.
“Laura! Why, Laura, you are sick, darling! Tom, help your sister into the living room, dear!… I told her that it was just too warm this evening, but – Is Laura all right now?” Amanda tells this to Laura, Jim and Tom at the dinner.
“You know what I judge to be the trouble with you? Inferiority complex! Know what that is? That’s what they call it when someone low-rates himself! I understand it because I had it, too. Although my case was not so aggravated as yours seems to be.” Jim tells this to Laura when they are alone together after the dinner.
The play talks about the life of a middle –class family located in the south of USA. It is consists of Amanda, the mother , Tom and Laura. Unfortunately the father left he home several years ago. Laura was a handicapped girl, so she is always disappointed that nobody admire her and she will never got married. Tom was a careless guy, he didn’t care about his family especially his ill sister. He left his work to find himself in movies literature and always he returns home late at night drunk. Amanda and her son decided to help Laura to get out from her disappointment, they call a casual fried “Jim” for dinner, they intended to get Laura and the caller alone.
At the beginning she refused to sit with him but later as the dinner ended they had a chance to be alone, soon she began to get out from her shyness shell. After they spend a good time together dancing she realized that Jim is engaged. He left to meet her girlfriend. Amanda sees him off warmly but, after he is gone, turns on Tom, who had not known that Jim was engaged. Amanda accuses Tom of being an inattentive, selfish dreamer and then throws herself into comforting Laura. From the fire escape outside of their apartment, Tom watches the two women and explains that, not long after Jim’s visit, he gets fired from his job and leaves Amanda and Laura behind. Years later, though he travels far, he finds that he is unable to leave behind guilty memories of Laura.
“The Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams”. Anti Essays. 2008. Web.
J. Devlin, Albert. Conversations with Tennessee Williams. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi, 1986.
Tennessee Williams, Harold Bloom (editor). Comprehensive Research and Study Guide Bloom’s Major Dramatists. Pennsylvania: Broomall, 2000.
- Chicago (A-D)
- Chicago (N-B)
IvyPanda. (2022, June 13). “The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-glass-menagerie-the-play-by-tennessee-williams/
"“The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams." IvyPanda , 13 June 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/the-glass-menagerie-the-play-by-tennessee-williams/.
IvyPanda . (2022) '“The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams'. 13 June.
IvyPanda . 2022. "“The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams." June 13, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-glass-menagerie-the-play-by-tennessee-williams/.
1. IvyPanda . "“The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams." June 13, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-glass-menagerie-the-play-by-tennessee-williams/.
IvyPanda . "“The Glass Menagerie” the Play by Tennessee Williams." June 13, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-glass-menagerie-the-play-by-tennessee-williams/.
- The Narrative of "The Glass Menagerie" by Tennessee Williams
- The Glass Menagerie: How Laura's Relationship with Jim Changed the Tone of the Play
- The Motif of Alienation in Tennessee Williams’s Play The Glass Menagerie
- Character Sketch of Laura in “The Glass Menagerie” by Tennessee Williams
- Tennessee Williams: “Glass Menagerie” and Autor's Life
- Tennessee Williams' "The Glass Menagerie" and Critique
- The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams Review
- The Glass Menagerie
- Family Concept in "The Glass Menagerie" by Tennessee Williams
- "The Glass Menagerie" by Tennessee Williams: Play Analysis
- "Shakespearean Tragedy as Chivalric Romance" by Davis
- Moral Paradox in Wilde’s “Importance of Being Earnest”
- Inheritance and Legacy: August Wilson's "The Piano Lesson"
- Emotions and Outward Actions in Shakespeare’s "Macbeth"
- France and England Relations in Shakespeare's "Henry V"