The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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types of conclusion in essay writing

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

types of conclusion in essay writing

By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?

The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience. 

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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.

Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?

Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.

When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.

What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?

Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.


Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:

  • “Wrap up” the entire paper;
  • Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do;
  • Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement;
  • Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic;
  • Leave something extra for your reader to think about;
  • Leave a powerful final impact on a reader.

Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.

When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:

  • A concluding sentence should only revisit the thesis statement, not restate it;
  • It should summarize the main ideas from the body of the paper;
  • It should demonstrate the significance and relevance of your work;
  • An essay’s conclusion should include a call for action and leave space for further study or development of the topic (if necessary).

How Long Should a Conclusion Be? 

Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).

Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:

A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”

If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.

Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion

Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.

One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.

Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”

Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.

Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”

Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.

Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”

What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.

Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:

  • A short, but memorable and attention-grabbing conclusion;
  • A relevant and memorable quote (only if it brings actual value);
  • A call to action;
  • A rhetorical question;
  • An illustrative story or provocative example;
  • A warning against a possibility or suggestion about the consequences of a discussed problem;
  • A joke (however, be careful with this as it may not always be deemed appropriate).

Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.

Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby


Conclusion Writing Don'ts 

Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :

  • Starting with some cliché concluding sentence starters. Many students find common phrases like “In conclusion,” “Therefore,” “In summary,” or similar statements to be pretty good conclusion starters. However, though such conclusion sentence starters may work in certain cases – for example, in speeches – they are overused, so it is recommended not to use them in writing to introduce your conclusion.
  • Putting the first mention of your thesis statement in the conclusion – it has to be presented in your introduction first.
  • Providing new arguments, subtopics, or ideas in the conclusion paragraph.
  • Including a slightly changed or unchanged thesis statement.
  • Providing arguments and evidence that belong in the body of the work.
  • Writing too long, hard to read, or confusing sentences.

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Conclusion Paragraph Outline

The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:

conclusion ouline

  • A conclusion starter:

The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.

  • Summary of the body paragraphs:

Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.

  • A concluding sentence:

Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.

These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:

  • Sentence 1: Starter
  • ~ Thesis: "Though taking care of a pet may be a bit challenging for small children. Parents should not restrict their kids from having a pet as it helps them grow into more responsible and compassionate people."
  • ~ Restated thesis for a conclusion: "I can say that taking care of a pet is good for every child."
  • Sentences 2-4: Summary
  • ~ "Studies have shown that pet owners generally have fewer health problems."
  • ~ "Owning a pet teaches a child to be more responsible."
  • ~ "Spending time with a pet reduces stress, feelings of loneliness, and anxiety."
  • Sentence 5: A concluding sentence
  • ~ "Pets can really change a child life for the better, so don't hesitate to endorse your kid's desire to own a pet."

This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.

How to Conclude Various Types of Essays

Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.

How to End an Argumentative Essay

Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.

Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:

  • Carefully read the whole essay before you begin;
  • Re-emphasize your ideas;
  • Discuss possible implications;
  • Don’t be afraid to appeal to the reader’s emotions.

How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.

How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay

The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.

How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself

If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.

How to End an Informative Essay

Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.

How to Conclude a Narrative Essay

In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.

In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:

  • Restate the goals of your experiment
  • Describe the methods you used
  • Include the results of the experiment and analyze the final data
  • End your conclusion with a clear statement on whether or not the experiment was successful (Did you reach the expected results?)

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:

  • Restate the Topic

Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.

  • Revisit the Thesis

Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.

  • Summarise Your Key Ideas

Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.

  • Showcase the Significance of Your Work

In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.

  • Make Suggestions for Future Studies

Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.

Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.

  • Answer the Right Questions

To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:

  • What is the goal of a research paper?
  • What are the possible solutions to the research question(s)?
  • How can your results be implemented in real life? (Is your research paper helpful to the community?)
  • Why is this study important and relevant?

Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:

  • Provide clear examples from real life to help readers better understand the further implementation of the stated solutions;
  • Keep your conclusion fresh, original, and creative.

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So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference

One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.

Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.

Strong Conclusion ‍

People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.

Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:

  • There is a bold opening statement that encompasses the two contrasting types of students we can see today.
  • There are two sentences that recall the thesis statement and cover the key arguments from the body of the essay.
  • Finally, the last sentence sums up the key message of the essay and leaves readers with something to think about.

Weak Conclusion

In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.

What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:

  • Unlike the first example, this paragraph is long and not specific enough. The author provides plenty of generalized phrases that are not backed up by actual arguments.
  • This piece is hard to read and understand and sentences have a confusing structure. Also, there are lots of repetitions and too many uses of the word “college”.
  • There is no summary of the key benefits.
  • The last two sentences that highlight the value of education contradict with the initial statement.
  • Finally, the last sentence doesn’t offer a strong conclusion and gives no thought to ponder upon.
  • In the body of your essay, you have hopefully already provided your reader(s) with plenty of information. Therefore, it is not wise to present new arguments or ideas in your conclusion.
  • To end your final paragraph right, find a clear and straightforward message that will have the most powerful impact on your audience.
  • Don’t use more than one quote in the final clause of your paper – the information from external sources (including quotes) belongs in the body of a paper.
  • Be authoritative when writing a conclusion. You should sound confident and convincing to leave a good impression. Sentences like “I’m not an expert, but…” will most likely make you seem less knowledgeable and/or credible.

Good Conclusion Examples

Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.

The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)

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The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.

This resource begins with a general description of essay writing and moves to a discussion of common essay genres students may encounter across the curriculum. The four genres of essays (description, narration, exposition, and argumentation) are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres, also known as the modes of discourse, have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these genres and students’ need to understand and produce these types of essays. We hope these resources will help.

The essay is a commonly assigned form of writing that every student will encounter while in academia. Therefore, it is wise for the student to become capable and comfortable with this type of writing early on in her training.

Essays can be a rewarding and challenging type of writing and are often assigned either to be done in class, which requires previous planning and practice (and a bit of creativity) on the part of the student, or as homework, which likewise demands a certain amount of preparation. Many poorly crafted essays have been produced on account of a lack of preparation and confidence. However, students can avoid the discomfort often associated with essay writing by understanding some common genres.

Before delving into its various genres, let’s begin with a basic definition of the essay.

What is an essay?

Though the word essay has come to be understood as a type of writing in Modern English, its origins provide us with some useful insights. The word comes into the English language through the French influence on Middle English; tracing it back further, we find that the French form of the word comes from the Latin verb exigere , which means "to examine, test, or (literally) to drive out." Through the excavation of this ancient word, we are able to unearth the essence of the academic essay: to encourage students to test or examine their ideas concerning a particular topic.

Essays are shorter pieces of writing that often require the student to hone a number of skills such as close reading, analysis, comparison and contrast, persuasion, conciseness, clarity, and exposition. As is evidenced by this list of attributes, there is much to be gained by the student who strives to succeed at essay writing.

The purpose of an essay is to encourage students to develop ideas and concepts in their writing with the direction of little more than their own thoughts (it may be helpful to view the essay as the converse of a research paper). Therefore, essays are (by nature) concise and require clarity in purpose and direction. This means that there is no room for the student’s thoughts to wander or stray from his or her purpose; the writing must be deliberate and interesting.

This handout should help students become familiar and comfortable with the process of essay composition through the introduction of some common essay genres.

This handout includes a brief introduction to the following genres of essay writing:

  • Expository essays
  • Descriptive essays
  • Narrative essays
  • Argumentative (Persuasive) essays

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  • Introduction to arguments
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  • When an arguer's conclusion is a recommendation for something, he or she often will provide one good reason to do that thing. One thing to be aware of here is the assumption that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks.
  • When an arguer's conclusion is a prediction , the arguer may be assuming that the current evidence will remain unchanged in the future.


  • It’s clear that this year’s candidate is stronger than last year’s candidate.
  • It’s clear that this year’s candidate understands the public’s wishes better than she did a year ago.
  • Last night, I took cough medicine and today I feel much better. So that cough medicine is really effective. ( Cause: cough medicine; effect: feeling better)
  • Jonathan gets good grades without trying very hard, and his teachers have said multiple times how much they like him. The only possible way that Jonathan maintains his good grades is because of how much his teachers like him. ( Cause: teachers liking Jonathan; effect: good grades)


  • The flower is beautiful .
  • This policy is very helpful .
  • The outcome will be important .


  • In treating this disease, then, physicians should favor Treatment X.
  • It’s likely that extending the warranty is the only way to gain new customers.


  • Obviously, the tennis match will be rescheduled.
  • Our homeless population may not be reduced by next year.

Simple Beliefs

  • It’s clear that the student cheated on the test.
  • The thief is probably still in the house somewhere.

Degrees of conclusion

Definite conclusions, indefinite conclusions.

  • Likelihood: likely, unlikely, possible, could, might
  • Quantity: some, most, more
  • Frequency: rarely, seldom, often, sometimes, usually
  • Proximity: almost, nearly

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Types of Essays in Academic Writing

Sumalatha G

Table of Contents

Essay writing is an integral part of academic progress, playing a crucial role in enhancing critical thinking and communication skills among students. There are various types of essays in academic writing , each with its unique purpose and requirements. Understanding these different essay types is essential for students to effectively convey their thoughts and ideas while demonstrating comprehension of the subject matter. In this article, let's learn more about the types and importance of essays in academic writing.

Understanding the Importance of Essay Types in Academic Writing

Essays serve as a medium for students to express their knowledge and opinions in a structured and coherent manner. They allow students to showcase their understanding of various concepts and ideas while adhering to the rules of academic writing. The different types of essays provide students with opportunities to explore different styles of essay writing and develop their analytical and communication skills.

When it comes to academic writing, essay types play a crucial role in shaping the content and style of the writing. Each essay type serves a specific purpose and requires a distinct approach. By understanding the different essay types, students can effectively convey their thoughts and ideas to their readers.

Academic writing encompasses a wide range of essay types, each serving a specific purpose and following distinct guidelines. Here's a brief overview of the major essay types commonly encountered in academic writing:

Expository Essays

Expository essays is one of the types of essays aim to provide clear and concise explanations of a topic or concept. They present information objectively, without personal opinions or biases. The focus is on organizing and conveying facts, ideas, or processes in a structured manner.

Key Features:

  • Informative and objective
  • Presents a balanced and unbiased view
  • Uses clear and concise language
  • Follows a logical structure, often with an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion

Argumentative Essays

Argumentative essays is one of the most prominent types of essays which aim to persuade the reader to adopt a particular stance on a debatable issue. They present a well-structured argument backed by evidence and reasoning. The goal is to convince the reader of the validity of the author's position.

  • Presents a clear thesis statement
  • Provides supporting evidence, such as facts, statistics, expert opinions, or examples
  • Uses logical reasoning and counterarguments to address opposing views
  • Maintains an objective and formal tone

Narrative essays

Narrative essays tell a story, recounting events or personal experiences in chronological order. They engage the reader by incorporating vivid descriptions, sensory details, and emotional language.

  • Strong opening hook to capture the reader's attention
  • Follows a clear narrative arc, including rising action, climax, and resolution
  • Conveys emotions and personal reflections

Comparative essays

Comparative essays analyze similarities and differences between two or more subjects. They highlight common themes, contrasting features, and unique characteristics. The goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subjects and their relationships.

  • Clear identification of the subjects and their key attributes
  • Organized comparison, often using a point-by-point or block format
  • Evidence-based analysis of similarities and differences
  • A balanced and objective approach

Cause-and-effect essays

Cause-and-effect essays investigate the relationships between events, actions, or phenomena. They explore the reasons behind occurrences and the consequences that follow. The purpose is to understand the underlying mechanisms and implications.

  • Clear identification of the cause and effect
  • Logical explanation of the causal relationship
  • Evidence-based support for the proposed connection
  • Consideration of alternative explanations or counterarguments

Problem-solution essays

Problem-solution essays identify a problem or issue and propose potential solutions. They analyze the causes and implications of the problem, evaluate different solutions, and recommend the most effective approach. The goal is to provide a practical and well-reasoned solution.

  • Clear definition of the problem and its scope
  • Analysis of the causes and consequences of the problem
  • Evaluation of different solution options, considering feasibility and effectiveness
  • Recommendation of the most viable solution with supporting arguments

Analytical essays

Analytical essays break down a complex topic or concept into its constituent parts and examine the relationships between them. They provide a deeper understanding of the subject's structure, nuances, and underlying principles. The purpose is to offer critical insights and interpretations.

  • In-depth examination of a topic or concept
  • Breakdown of the subject into its components or underlying principles
  • Analysis of relationships between different parts or aspects of the subject
  • Identification of patterns, themes, or underlying theories

The Structure and Format of Different Types of Essays

While each essay type has its unique structure and requirements, several elements are common across different types of essays.

Common Elements in Essay Structures

Most essays follow a similar structure, beginning with an introduction that provides background information and presents the thesis statement. The body paragraphs contain the main arguments, supported by evidence and examples. The conclusion summarizes the key points and restates the thesis, leaving the reader with a final thought or call to action.

Unique Formatting Requirements for Each Type of Essay

In addition to the common structural elements, each essay type may have specific formatting requirements. These may include the use of headings and subheadings, citation styles, and the inclusion of specific sections such as literature reviews or methodology explanations. It is crucial for students to familiarize themselves with the unique formatting guidelines for each essay type to ensure their work meets the expected standards.

By understanding the various types of essays and their distinct characteristics, students can adapt their essay writing style and approach to effectively communicate their ideas. Developing proficiency in each essay type equips students with valuable skills that extend beyond their academic journey, empowering them to articulate their thoughts clearly and persuasively in various professional and personal backdrops.

Wrapping up

In conclusion, the diverse range of types of essays in academic writing offers students opportunities to develop their critical thinking, persuasive writing, and storytelling abilities. Understanding the purpose and requirements of each essay type allows students to excel in conveying their knowledge and ideas effectively. Each essay type serves as a building block in the development of well-rounded academic writers. So, embrace the diversity of essay types, explore different writing styles, and tailor your approach accordingly to excel in the realm of academic writing.

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Essay Writing Guide

Types Of Essay

Nova A.

Explore Different Types of Essays, their Purpose, and Sub-types

11 min read

Published on: Sep 20, 2017

Last updated on: Dec 30, 2023

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Are you a college or high school student ready to start on a journey through the fascinating world of essay writing ? Brace yourself because you'll encounter a variety of essay types that will challenge your writing skills and creativity.

Picture this: You're handed an assignment, a blank canvas on which to express your thoughts and ideas. But here's the catch – your teacher won't always specify the type of essay you should craft. It's up to you to solve the riddle hidden within the assignment question.

But fear not! 

In this blog, we'll discuss the four most common types of essays you're likely to encounter during your academic years. While these essays may share a common foundation and structure, each possesses its own unique characteristics. Let’s get started!

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Major Types of Essays In Academic Writing

When it comes to academic writing, understanding the different types of essays is essential. Each type serves a distinct purpose and requires a specific approach. Let's explore these essay types along with their descriptions and example prompts in the table below:

Understanding these major types of essays and the skills they assess will empower you to approach your academic writing with confidence. Depending on your assignment's requirements, you'll be better equipped to choose the appropriate essay type and showcase your writing abilities effectively. 

Each type offers a unique opportunity for you to express your ideas, and arguments and perfect your specific writing skills.

Here are the key types of essay formats explained in detail, along with examples to enhance your understanding.

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Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay is an essay type that presents a well-structured argument supported by evidence and reasoning. The primary goal is to engage the reader in a discussion, provide evidence, and logically demonstrate why a particular viewpoint is more valid.

In simple words, the writer must provide evidence and remain consistent in their stance. While argumentative essays present both sides of an issue, they strongly support one perspective. 

Characteristics of Argumentative Essay

  • Clear Thesis: It should have a clear thesis statement to state the writer's position.
  • Balanced Presentation: An argumentative essay addresses opposing views.
  • Evidence: It relies on credible and relevant evidence.
  • Logical Reasoning: The essay presents arguments coherently and logically.
  • Persuasive Techniques: It uses persuasive techniques like ethos, pathos, and logos effectively.
  • Introduction: The introduction introduces the topic and thesis, engaging the reader's interest.
  • Body: The body paragraphs present arguments with supporting evidence.
  • Counterargument: It addresses opposing viewpoints and refutes them.
  • Conclusion: The conclusion summarizes key points and reinforces the thesis, leaving a strong impression.

Argumentative Essay Example

Before beginning the writing process, it is better to go through some expertly crafted argumentative essay examples . This approach enables you to grasp the argumentative essay outline and writing style more effectively.

Descriptive Essay

A descriptive essay is a form of writing that aims to immerse readers in a sensory-rich experience. Unlike informational or persuasive essays, its primary goal is to vividly depict a person, place, object, event, or experience.   The descriptive essay must evoke the senses and emotions of the reader. In simple terms, the reader should see what you saw and feel what you felt. To make it better, you can use several literary devices such as;

  • Alliteration

All of them help in making the experience and your essay better.

Key Characteristics 

  • Sensory Detail: Descriptive essays appeal to the five senses to create a multisensory experience.
  • Vivid Imagery: They use figurative language and descriptive adjectives to bring the narrative to life.
  • Emotional Connection: These essays often aim to establish an emotional bond between the reader and the subject.
  • Structured Approach: They typically follow an introduction-body-conclusion structure.
  • Introduction: Introduces the subject and purpose, sometimes with a thesis statement.
  • Body Paragraphs: Focus on specific aspects or details using sensory language and vivid descriptions.
  • Conclusion: Summarizes the central theme and leaves a lasting impression.

Descriptive Essay Example

Creating a perfect descriptive essay for an assignment is not difficult if you go through some expert descriptive essay examples first. 

Need more examples? Read our Descriptive Essay Examples and Writing Tips blog to get inspired!

Expository Essay

An expository essay is a type of writing that provides clear and objective explanations of a topic without expressing personal opinions. It aims to inform and educate by presenting factual information and analysis.

Therefore, it is important that you make a focused outline and stick to it throughout the process. 

An expository essay incorporates a wide array of essays such as:

  • Cause and effect essays
  • Process essays
  • Analytical essays
  • Compare and contrast essays

Key Characteristics

  • Objective Presentation: Expository writing maintains an impartial tone, avoiding personal biases.
  • Informativeness: They focus on explaining complex ideas or processes in a straightforward manner.
  • Structured: These essays follow a clear structure with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Use of Evidence: They rely on credible evidence, facts, and examples to support the topic.
  • Introduction: Introduces the topic and often includes a thesis statement.
  • Body Paragraphs: Each paragraph focuses on a specific aspect and provides explanations and evidence.
  • Conclusion: Restates the main idea and summarizes key points.

Expository Essay Example

Looking for more sample essays? Check out our Expository Essay Examples blog and take inspiration from a range of expository essays!

Narrative Essay

A narrative essay is a type of academic writing that tells a story or recounts a personal experience. Unlike other essays, its primary purpose is to engage and entertain the reader through storytelling.

  • Narrative Structure: Follows a chronological sequence with an introduction, body, climax, and conclusion.
  • First-Person Perspective: Typically written from the first-person point of view (e.g., "I" and "we") , sharing personal experiences and emotions.
  • Vivid Description: Relies on descriptive language and imagery to create a clear picture of events, characters, and settings.
  • Emotional Connection: Aims to establish an emotional bond with the reader by conveying the writer's thoughts and feelings.
  • Introduction: Sets the stage and introduces the central theme or problem.
  • Body: Presents events or experiences in chronological order with sensory details.
  • Climax: Often includes a central event or turning point.
  • Conclusion: Reflects on the narrative, offering insights, lessons, or resolution.

Narrative Essay Example

Wondering how to get your story into an interesting narrative? Learn the best way to write a perfect narrative essay with the help of expert narrative essay examples. 

For more examples visit our blog on narrative essay examples .

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Other Essay Types

In addition to the major types of essays discussed earlier, there are several other specialized types that cater to specific audiences. These essays provide diverse avenues for writers to communicate their ideas effectively. 

We will go through these essay types here.

Persuasive Essay

A persuasive essay is another type of academic essay. In this essay type, the writer utilizes logic and reasoning to show one’s idea is more convincing than another idea. 

In writing a persuasive essay, the main aim is to persuade the reader to accept a certain point of view. The presented argument or claim must use solid evidence and sound reasoning by stating facts, examples, and quotes. 

Persuasive Essay Example

Since persuasive essays are the most common type of essay, it is essential to get familiar with their writing style. For that, here is an interesting persuasive essay example that you can explore for your better understanding. 

Read our persuasive essay examples blog for more samples!

Analytical Essay

An analytical essay is a type of academic essay in which the writer analyzes a topic bit by bit. Writing an analytical essay is not about convincing readers of your point of view. But wanting readers to agree with what you have written. 

So, there is no need to use strong persuasive language in an analytical essay. Rather you should aim to provide enough analysis to make sure your argument is clear to the readers. 

Analytical Essay Example

Let’s take a look at a sample analytical essay: 

Read our analytical essay examples blog if you are looking for more sample essays!

Reflective Essay

A reflective essay type of essay requires you to examine your personal experiences through self-reflection. In the process of writing a reflective essay, you provide insight into what you have gained from those experiences. 

What makes reflective essays different from other essay types is the fact that it examine the past experience from the present. Reflective essays take the reader through a journey of self-growth. 

Reflective Essay Example

The following reflective essay example will help you get a clear idea of how to structure your analytical essay. 

Rhetorical Analysis Essay

It is a form of a textual analysis essay in which the student examines and analyzes a persuasive text. It is like an essay, speech, or visual art and analyzes the rhetorical devices used in it. Writing a rhetorical analysis essay is different from writing other essays because it will be more than adding facts only.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example

Here is a rhetorical analysis essay example that will help you learn better. 

Check out our rhetorical analysis essay examples blog for more samples!

Literary Analysis Essay

A literary analysis essay is based on close reading and analysis of a work of literature like poetry and novel. It identifies different literary factors like themes, setting,  characters, setting, and the kind of language used in it. A literary analysis essay has the same 5 paragraphs as any other essay but the main subject and topic are different.

Literary Analysis Essay Example

Need help with your literary analysis essay? Below is a sample essay to help you understand better.

Summing it Up! Now you know what are the different types of essays in academic writing that you are most likely to get assigned. However, if you still find it difficult to compose your essay, leave your piece of writing to our experts. 

Whether you need an argumentative essay, narrative essay,  descriptive essay, or expository essay we are here to help. Our expertise extends to all types of essays, ensuring that your academic writing needs are met with precision and excellence.

Request 'write my essay' today and let our professional writing service help you write A+ grade essays within your specified timeline! 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the most important element in any essay.

A thesis statement is the most important part of any essay. Other than the research itself, the thesis statement is the most important part of an essay or research paper. A thesis statement summarizes the main point and essence of the argument.

What type of essay is most common at university?

Usually, university students get argumentative kinds of essays. No matter what kind of essay you write, you will need to develop an argument.

Here are some kinds of essays and the kind of arguments added to them. 

  • Analysis and interpretation of literary texts are discussed in literary analysis essays. 
  • The importance of a particular event or theory is analyzed in a history argumentative essay. 
  • A political theory is examined in a political argumentative essay. 

Besides, there are a number of different kinds of argumentative and analysis essays.

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  • Essay Writing



In the simplest terms, an essay is a short piece of writing which is set around a specific topic or subject. The piece of writing will give information surrounding the topic but will also display the opinions and thoughts of the author. Oftentimes, an essay is used in an academic sense by way of examination to determine whether a student has understood their studies and as a way of testing their knowledge on a specific subject. An essay is also used in education as a way of encouraging a student to develop their writing skills.

Moreover; an essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essays, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays. Argumentative and expository essays are focused on conveying information and making clear points, while narrative and descriptive essays are about exercising creativity and writing in an interesting way. At the university level, argumentative essays are the most common type. 

Types of Essay Writing

When it comes to writing an essay, there is not simply one type, there are, quite a few types of essay, and each of them has its purpose and function which are as follows:

Narrative Essays

A narrative essay details a story, oftentimes from a particular point of view. When writing a narrative essay, you should include a set of characters, a location, a good plot, and a climax to the story. It is vital that when writing this type of essay you use fine details which will allow the reader to feel the emotion and use their senses but also give the story the chance to make a point. 

Descriptive Essay

A descriptive essay will describe something in great detail. The subject can be anything from people and places to objects and events but the main point is to go into depth. You might describe the item’s color, where it came from, what it looks like, smells like, tastes like, or how it feels. It is very important to allow the reader to sense what you are writing about and allow them to feel some sort of emotion whilst reading. That being said, the information should be concise and easy to understand, the use of imagery is widely used in this style of essay. 

Expository Essay

An expository essay is used as a way to look into a problem and therefore compare it and explore it. For the expository essay, there is a little bit of storytelling involved but this type of essay goes beyond that. The main idea is that it should explain an idea giving information and explanation. Your expository essay should be simple and easy to understand as well as give a variety of viewpoints on the subject that is being discussed. Often this type of essay is used as a way to detail a subject which is usually more difficult for people to understand, clearly and concisely.

Argumentative Essay

When writing an argumentative essay, you will be attempting to convince your reader about an opinion or point of view. The idea is to show the reader whether the topic is true or false along with giving your own opinion. You must use facts and data to back up any claims made within the essay. 

Format of Essay Writing

Now there is no rigid format of an essay. It is a creative process so it should not be confined within boundaries. However, there is a basic structure that is generally followed while writing essays.

This is the first paragraph of your essay. This is where the writer introduces his topic for the very first time. You can give a very brief synopsis of your essay in the introductory paragraph. Generally, it is not very long, about 4-6 lines. 

This is the main crux of your essays. The body is the meat of your essay sandwiched between the introduction and the conclusion. So the most vital content of the essay will be here. This need not be confined to one paragraph. It can extend to two or more paragraphs according to the content.

This is the last paragraph of the essay. Sometimes a conclusion will just mirror the introductory paragraph but make sure the words and syntax are different. A conclusion is also a great place, to sum up, a story or an argument. You can round up your essay by providing some morals or wrapping up a story. Make sure you complete your essays with the conclusion, leave no hanging threads.

Writing Tips

Give your essays an interesting and appropriate title. It will help draw the attention of the reader and pique their curiosity

 Keep it between 300-500 words. This is the ideal length, you can take creative license to increase or decrease it

 Keep your language simple and crisp. Unnecessary complicated and difficult words break the flow of the sentence.

 Do not make grammar mistakes, use correct punctuation and spelling five-paragraph. If this is not done it will distract the reader from the content

  Before beginning the essay, organize your thoughts and plot a rough draft. This way you can ensure the story will flow and not be an unorganized mess.

Understand the Topic Thoroughly-Sometimes we jump to a conclusion just by reading the topic once and later we realize that the topic was different than what we wrote about.  Read the topic as many times as it takes for you to align your opinion and understanding about the topic.

Make Pointers-It is a daunting task to write an essay inflow as sometimes we tend to lose our way of explaining and get off-topic, missing important details. Thinking about all points you want to discuss and then writing them down somewhere helps in covering everything you hoped to convey in your essay.

Develop a Plan and Do The Math-Essays have word limits and you have to plan your content in such a way that it is accurate, well-described, and meets the word limit given. Keep a track of your words while writing so that you always have an idea of how much to write more or less. 

Essays are the most important means of learning the structure of writing and presenting them to the reader.


FAQs on Essay Writing

1. Writing an Essay in a format is important?

Yes, it is important because it makes your content more streamlined and understandable by the reader. A set format gives a reader a clear picture of what you are trying to explain. It also organises your own thoughts while composing an essay as we tend to think and write in a haphazard manner. The format gives a structure to the writeup.

2. How does Essay writing improve our English?

Essay writing is a very important part of your English earning curriculum, as you understand how to describe anything in your words or how to put your point of view without losing its meaning

3.  How do you write a good essay?

Start by writing a thorough plan. Ensure your essay has a clear structure and overall argument. Try to back up each point you make with a quotation. Answer the question in your introduction and conclusion but remember to be creative too.

4.  What is the format of writing an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. This basic essay format will help you to write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

5.  How many paragraphs does an essay have?

The basic format for an essay is known as the five paragraph essay – but an essay may have as many paragraphs as needed. A five-paragraph essay contains five paragraphs. However, the essay itself consists of three sections: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Below we'll explore the basics of writing an essay.

6.  Can you use the word you in an essay?

In academic or college writing, most formal essays and research reports use third-person pronouns and do not use “I” or “you.” An essay is the writer's analysis of a topic.  “You” has no place in an essay since the essay is the writer's thoughts and not the reader's thoughts.

7.  What does bridge mean in an essay?

A bridge sentence is a special kind of topic sentence. In addition to signaling what the new paragraph is about, it shows how that follows from what the old paragraph said. The key to constructing good bridges is briefly pointing back to what you just finished saying.

Did you know the word ‘essay’ is derived from a Latin word ‘exagium’, which roughly translates to presenting one’s case? So essays are a short piece of writing representing one’s side of the argument or one’s experiences, stories, etc. Essays are very personalized. So let us learn about types of essays, format, and tips for essay-writing.

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types of conclusion in essay writing

An essay is generally a short piece of writing outlining the writer’s perspective or story . It is often considered synonymous with a story or a paper or an article. Essays can be formal as well as informal. Formal essays are generally academic in nature and tackle serious topics. We will be focusing on informal essays which are more personal and often have humorous elements.

Browse more Topics under Writing

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Get 500+ Essay Topics and Ideas for College and School Students here .

Image result for essay

(Source: thewritelife)

Types of Essays

The type of essay will depend on what the writer wants to convey to his reader. There are broadly four types of essays. Let us see.

  • Narrative Essays: This is when the writer is narrating an incident or story through the essay. So these are in the first person. The aim when writing narrative essays is to involve the reader in them as if they were right there when it was happening. So make them as vivid and real as possible. One way to make this possible is to follow the principle of ‘show, don’t tell’. So you must involve the reader in the story.
  • Descriptive Essays : Here the writer will describe a place, an object, an event or maybe even a memory. But it is not just plainly describing things. The writer must paint a picture through his words. One clever way to do that is to evoke the senses of the reader. Do not only rely on sight but also involve the other senses of smell, touch, sound etc. A descriptive essay when done well will make the reader feel the emotions the writer was feeling at the moment.
  • Expository Essays: In such an essay a writer presents a balanced study of a topic. To write such an essay, the writer must have real and extensive knowledge about the subject. There is no scope for the writer’s feelings or emotions in an expository essay. It is completely based on facts, statistics, examples etc. There are sub-types here like contrast essays, cause and effect essays etc.
  • Persuasive Essays : Here the purpose of the essay is to get the reader to your side of the argument. A persuasive essay is not just a presentation of facts but an attempt to convince the reader of the writer’s point of view. Both sides of the argument have to presented in these essays. But the ultimate aim is to persuade the readers that the writer’s argument carries more weight.

Learn more about Letter Writing here in detail .

Format of an Essay

Now there is no rigid format of an essay. It is a creative process so it should not be confined within boundaries. However, there is a basic structure that is generally followed while writing essays. So let us take a look at the general structure of an essay.


This is the first paragraph of your essay. This is where the writer introduces his topic for the very first time. You can give a very brief synopsis of your essay in the introductory paragraph. Some paragraph writing skills can be a help here. Generally, it is not very long, about 4-6 lines.

types of conclusion in essay writing

There is plenty of scopes to get creative in the introduction of essays. This will ensure that you hook the reader, i.e. draw and keep his attention. So to do so you can start with a quote or a proverb . Sometimes you can even start with a definition. Another interesting strategy to engage with your reader is to start with a question.

This is the main crux of your essays. The body is the meat of your essay sandwiched between the introduction and the conclusion. So the most vital and important content of the essay will be here. This need not be confined to one paragraph. It can extend to two or more paragraphs according to the content.

Usually, we have a lot of information to provide in the body. And the mistakes writers generally make is to go about it in a haphazard manner which leaves the reader confused. So it is important to organize your thoughts and content. Write the information in a systematic flow so that the reader can comprehend. So, for example, you were narrating an incident . The best manner to do this would be to go in a chronological order.

Learn more about Story Writing here in detail .

This is the last paragraph of the essay. Sometimes a conclusion will just mirror the introductory paragraph but make sure the words and syntax are different. A conclusion is also a great place to sum up a story or an argument. You can round up your essay by providing some moral or wrapping up a story. Make sure you complete your essays with the conclusion, leave no hanging threads.

Tips for Essay Writing

  • Give your essays an interesting and appropriate title. It will help draw the attention of the reader and pique their curiosity
  • Keep it between 300-500 words. This is the ideal length, you can take creative license to increase or decrease it
  • Keep your language simple and crisp. Unnecessary complicated and difficult words break the flow of the sentence.
  • Do not make grammar mistakes , use correct punctuation and spellings . If this is not done it will distract the reader from the content
  • Before beginning the essay organize your thought and plot a rough draft . This way you can ensure the story will flow and not be an unorganized mess.

Solved Question for You

Q: What is a thesis statement of essays?

Ans: The thesis statement is a clear, one-sentence explanation of your position that leaves no doubt in the readers’ mind about which side you are on from the beginning of your essay.

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The Beginner's Guide to Writing an Essay | Steps & Examples

An academic essay is a focused piece of writing that develops an idea or argument using evidence, analysis, and interpretation.

There are many types of essays you might write as a student. The content and length of an essay depends on your level, subject of study, and course requirements. However, most essays at university level are argumentative — they aim to persuade the reader of a particular position or perspective on a topic.

The essay writing process consists of three main stages:

  • Preparation: Decide on your topic, do your research, and create an essay outline.
  • Writing : Set out your argument in the introduction, develop it with evidence in the main body, and wrap it up with a conclusion.
  • Revision:  Check your essay on the content, organization, grammar, spelling, and formatting of your essay.

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Table of contents

Essay writing process, preparation for writing an essay, writing the introduction, writing the main body, writing the conclusion, essay checklist, lecture slides, frequently asked questions about writing an essay.

The writing process of preparation, writing, and revisions applies to every essay or paper, but the time and effort spent on each stage depends on the type of essay .

For example, if you’ve been assigned a five-paragraph expository essay for a high school class, you’ll probably spend the most time on the writing stage; for a college-level argumentative essay , on the other hand, you’ll need to spend more time researching your topic and developing an original argument before you start writing.

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Before you start writing, you should make sure you have a clear idea of what you want to say and how you’re going to say it. There are a few key steps you can follow to make sure you’re prepared:

  • Understand your assignment: What is the goal of this essay? What is the length and deadline of the assignment? Is there anything you need to clarify with your teacher or professor?
  • Define a topic: If you’re allowed to choose your own topic , try to pick something that you already know a bit about and that will hold your interest.
  • Do your research: Read  primary and secondary sources and take notes to help you work out your position and angle on the topic. You’ll use these as evidence for your points.
  • Come up with a thesis:  The thesis is the central point or argument that you want to make. A clear thesis is essential for a focused essay—you should keep referring back to it as you write.
  • Create an outline: Map out the rough structure of your essay in an outline . This makes it easier to start writing and keeps you on track as you go.

Once you’ve got a clear idea of what you want to discuss, in what order, and what evidence you’ll use, you’re ready to start writing.

The introduction sets the tone for your essay. It should grab the reader’s interest and inform them of what to expect. The introduction generally comprises 10–20% of the text.

1. Hook your reader

The first sentence of the introduction should pique your reader’s interest and curiosity. This sentence is sometimes called the hook. It might be an intriguing question, a surprising fact, or a bold statement emphasizing the relevance of the topic.

Let’s say we’re writing an essay about the development of Braille (the raised-dot reading and writing system used by visually impaired people). Our hook can make a strong statement about the topic:

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability.

2. Provide background on your topic

Next, it’s important to give context that will help your reader understand your argument. This might involve providing background information, giving an overview of important academic work or debates on the topic, and explaining difficult terms. Don’t provide too much detail in the introduction—you can elaborate in the body of your essay.

3. Present the thesis statement

Next, you should formulate your thesis statement— the central argument you’re going to make. The thesis statement provides focus and signals your position on the topic. It is usually one or two sentences long. The thesis statement for our essay on Braille could look like this:

As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness.

4. Map the structure

In longer essays, you can end the introduction by briefly describing what will be covered in each part of the essay. This guides the reader through your structure and gives a preview of how your argument will develop.

The invention of Braille marked a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by blind and visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Write your essay introduction

The body of your essay is where you make arguments supporting your thesis, provide evidence, and develop your ideas. Its purpose is to present, interpret, and analyze the information and sources you have gathered to support your argument.

Length of the body text

The length of the body depends on the type of essay. On average, the body comprises 60–80% of your essay. For a high school essay, this could be just three paragraphs, but for a graduate school essay of 6,000 words, the body could take up 8–10 pages.

Paragraph structure

To give your essay a clear structure , it is important to organize it into paragraphs . Each paragraph should be centered around one main point or idea.

That idea is introduced in a  topic sentence . The topic sentence should generally lead on from the previous paragraph and introduce the point to be made in this paragraph. Transition words can be used to create clear connections between sentences.

After the topic sentence, present evidence such as data, examples, or quotes from relevant sources. Be sure to interpret and explain the evidence, and show how it helps develop your overall argument.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

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The conclusion is the final paragraph of an essay. It should generally take up no more than 10–15% of the text . A strong essay conclusion :

  • Returns to your thesis
  • Ties together your main points
  • Shows why your argument matters

A great conclusion should finish with a memorable or impactful sentence that leaves the reader with a strong final impression.

What not to include in a conclusion

To make your essay’s conclusion as strong as possible, there are a few things you should avoid. The most common mistakes are:

  • Including new arguments or evidence
  • Undermining your arguments (e.g. “This is just one approach of many”)
  • Using concluding phrases like “To sum up…” or “In conclusion…”

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

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Checklist: Essay

My essay follows the requirements of the assignment (topic and length ).

My introduction sparks the reader’s interest and provides any necessary background information on the topic.

My introduction contains a thesis statement that states the focus and position of the essay.

I use paragraphs to structure the essay.

I use topic sentences to introduce each paragraph.

Each paragraph has a single focus and a clear connection to the thesis statement.

I make clear transitions between paragraphs and ideas.

My conclusion doesn’t just repeat my points, but draws connections between arguments.

I don’t introduce new arguments or evidence in the conclusion.

I have given an in-text citation for every quote or piece of information I got from another source.

I have included a reference page at the end of my essay, listing full details of all my sources.

My citations and references are correctly formatted according to the required citation style .

My essay has an interesting and informative title.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (e.g. font, page numbers, line spacing).

Your essay meets all the most important requirements. Our editors can give it a final check to help you submit with confidence.

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An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

  • An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
  • Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
  • A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

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Types of Essays

Feb 22, 2024

Essays can vary widely in their purpose, style, and content. Here are some common types of essays:

  • Descriptive
  • Argumentative
  • Cause and effect essays
  • Compare and contrast essays
  • Definition essays
  • Critical analysis
  • Critical essays
  • Rhetorical analysis
  • Literary analysis
  • Five-paragraph essay

Let’s explain each of them.

1. Descriptive Essay

“A descriptive essay is a type of essay that aims to create a vivid and detailed picture of a person, place, object, event, or experience for the reader.”

Read more at Purdue University .

Key Elements of Descriptive Essay:

  • Detailed description: It should efficiently describe all the details about the person, place, event, or object that is being described. 
  • Sensory details: It is essential to have a touch of all five senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing) for an immersive reader experience. 
  • Organization: Format the essay in a spatial or chronological order to guide the readers smoothly. 
  • Figurative language: Must contain figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, and personification to add depth to the essay.
  • Emotional connection or impact: A descriptive essay aims to evoke emotions or convey a particular mood or atmosphere.
  • Strong intro & conclusion : Always starts with a hook and ends with a strong yet concise overview of the entire essay to leave a long-lasting impression. 

Examples of Descriptive Essays:  

Essay 1: “ The Necklace " by Guy de Maupassant is a perfect example of a descriptive essay. It discusses the story of a middle-class woman named “ Mathilde Loisel ” who longs for a wealthy lifestyle. 

Essay 2: “ The Old Man and the Sea " by Ernest Hemingway : It is a descriptive novel about a Cuban fisherman named “ Santiago ” who thinks he is too unlucky as he hasn’t caught a single for around 84 days. But in the end, he catches a “ big shark ” on his own.

2. Narrative Essay:

“A narrative essay is a piece of art that focuses on storytelling and describing a personal experience, fictional events, or even historical narratives.”

Get more info about narrative essay at .

Key Elements of Narrative Essay:

  • Plot: It should have a clear yet engaging plot that includes the sequence of events that make up the story.
  • Characters: Must contain characters that can either refer to the writer or other individuals that are involved in the story. 
  • Settings: The essay should establish a vivid yet immersive setting that reflects the atmosphere and mood of your story.
  • Conflict: A conflict either internet or external is essential in a narrative essay. This is because it creates drives the arguments/story forward.
  • Storytelling: Use a clear and engaging narrative arc with a beginning, middle, and end that propels the reader forward.
  • Theme: It should efficiently explore a deeper meaning or theme. This could be about human nature, relationships, societal issues, or any other thought-provoking concept.
  • Sensory details: The narrative essay must engage the reader's senses through vivid descriptions of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures. 

Examples of Narrative Essays:

Essay 1: “ The Lottery " by Shirley Jackson can be taken as an excellent example of a narrative essay. It describes a small town gathering to hold a yearly lottery festival. But instead of winning money, the " winner " gets stoned by the whole community. That's the shocking twist in "The Lottery," where a seemingly normal tradition masks a disturbing hidden practice

Essay 2: “ The Things They Carried " by Tim O'Brien. Here the writer describes the emotional and psychological impact of the Vietnam War on young American soldiers.

3. Argumentative Essay

“An argumentative essay is one that efficiently explains the opinions about both sides of an issue. It aims to persuade the reader to agree with a particular viewpoint by presenting evidence, reasoning, and counterarguments.”

Check Argumentative Essay guide by University of Toledo

Key Elements of Argumentative Essay:

  • Clear thesis statement: The essay should start with a clear and concise thesis statement that presents the writer's position on the topic and the main arguments they will use to support it.
  • Evidence support: It should contain facts, statistics, expert opinions, research, and examples to back up the claims and strengthen the argument. 
  • Counterarguments: Briefly mention and refute opposing arguments to demonstrate the strength of your own.
  • Logical structure: All the arguments should be structured properly so that readers can easily go through them. 
  • Formal language: Academic tone and style are maintained, avoiding informal language and emotional appeals.

 Examples of Argumentative Essays:

Essay 1: “ Should Everyone Go to College? ” is an example of an argumentative essay in which the writer has efficiently described the arguments to address the main question. 

Essay 2: “ Performance Enhancements Through Biotechnology Has No Place in Sports ” discusses that athletes use performance-enhancing substances especially biotechnologies like gene therapy. 

4. Persuasive Essay

“A persuasive essay aims to persuade the reader to adopt your point of view on a particular issue through arguments and evidence.”

Visit 11trees to get more info. 

Key Elements of Persuasive Essay

  • Compelling thesis statement: It states the specific opinion or belief that the writer wants the reader to adopt engagingly and attractively.
  • Credible evidence & sources : Should contain accurate statistics, and expert opinions to strengthen your claims and build trust with the reader.
  • Appeal to emotions: The essay must evoke feelings like concern, hope, fear, or excitement to influence the reader's perspective.
  • Formal or informal language: Can have a more relaxed and engaging tone compared to the formal style of argumentative essays.
  • Proper structure or format: To persuade and engage the readers, the persuasive essay should be formatted or structured properly. 
  • Call to action: Although this is not necessary, many persuasive essays contain Call-to-action (CTA) encouraging the readers to take some kind of action. 

Examples of Persuasive Essays:

Essay 1: “ Why Students Should Eat Breakfast Every day . ” In this essay sample, the writer has tried to convince the students about the importance of breakfast every day by addressing multiple reasons. 

Essay 2: “ How Does Outdoor Exercises Impact Our Health & Well Being ” is another good example of a persuasive essay. The writer has provided four reasons about how outdoor exercises can contribute to better health. 

5. Cause and Effect Essays

“A cause-and-effect essay explores the connections between events or situations. It aims to explain how a specific cause leads to a particular effect or, conversely, how an effect can be traced back to its various causes.”

You check detailed instructions and guides on “Cause and Effect Essays” at Excelsior University .

Key Elements of Cause & Effect Essays:

  • Type: The essay either can be “ Cause focused ’’ or “ Effect focused ” or both. 
  • Thesis statement: This should start with a clear thesis statement that efficiently presents the main cause-and-effect relationship being explored.
  • Evidence and examples: The essay should provide evidence and examples to support the cause-and-effect relationship being discussed.
  • Logical organization: It should be organized in such a logical way that makes the relationship between causes and effects clear to the reader.
  • Inclusion of transitional words: The essay must contain transitional words and phrases because these will give the readers a feel that each cause and effect is properly connected with each other. 
  • Analysis & Interpretation: Include analysis and interpretation to efficiently explain the causes and effects that are being described. 
  • Conclusion: Should have a concise conclusion explaining causes and effects while referring to the thesis statement. 

Examples of Cause-and-Effect Essays:

Essay 1: “ The Effect of Divorce on Children .” This was written by a student in which he/she has discussed both positive and negative consequences of divorce on children. 

Essay 2: “ The Causes of Air Pollution ” is another good example in which the writer has explained some of the major causes or sources of air pollution. 

6. Compare and Contrast Essays

“A compare and contrast essay analyzes two or more subjects, highlighting their similarities and differences to provide a deeper understanding of each.”

Visit Del Mar College for more information. 

Key Elements of Compare & Contrast Essays:

  • Focus: It is always written on two subjects that can be meaningfully compared and contrasted, avoiding vague or unrelated topics.
  • Clear thesis statement: Always start with a clear thesis statement that identifies the subjects being compared and contrasted and presents the main points of comparison or contrast.
  • Strong structure: The essay should compare or contrast both subjects using a strong structure like point-by-point or subject-by-subject. 
  • Evidence & examples: Must contain evidence and examples to support the comparisons and contrasts.
  • Fairness & balance: The essay should acknowledge both the similarities and differences of the subjects, instead of just favoring one. 
  • Use of transitional words & phrases: The inclusion of transition words and phrases will make it easier for the readers to efficiently go through the analysis. 
  • Effective conclusion: It must have a conclusion that efficiently summarizes the main points of comparison or contrast while also reinforcing the thesis statement.

Example of Compare and Contrast Essays:

Essay 1: “ The Senate & the House of Representatives (Page 4) ” is a perfect example of a compare and contrast essay as it efficiently highlights both the differences and similarities between “ Senate ” and “ The House of Representatives. ”

7. Definition Essays

“A definition essay is a type of essay that defines and explains the meaning of a particular term, concept, or idea.”

For more:

Key Elements of Definition Essays:

  • Clear and concise definition: It provides a simple yet short definition for the term, idea, or topic that is being addressed. 
  • Explanation & interpretation: The essay must explain or interpret the main topic in complete detail, providing insights into its origin, history, usage, and significance.
  • Examples & illustrations: Examples and illustrations can help to clarify and reinforce the definition of the chosen topic.
  • Structure or organization: It should follow a logical and clear structure, typically beginning with a definition, exploring different aspects, and concluding with a final thought.
  • Language & delivery: A definition essay is always written in a clear and engaging writing style, instead of technical or complex language. 

Examples of Definition Essays:

Essay 1: “ What is trust ” is an example of a definition essay in which the writer has efficiently described the meaning and the concept behind the word “ Trust .”

Essay 2: “ Definition of Cultural Romance ” is another excellent example of a definition essay.

8. Process Essay

“A process essay explains the step-by-step explanation of how something is done or how something works. It provides a clear and informative guide for readers who want to understand or undertake the process themselves.”

Read more about process essays at Lumen Learning .

Key Elements of Process Essay:

  • A clear purpose: It is always written on a topic that has well-defined steps that can be logically explained to the audience. 
  • Break-down of step-by-step instructions: Obviously, the essay should explain step-by-step instructions for completing the process being described.
  • A list of materials, equipment, or ingredients: It should highlight the use of necessary materials, equipment, or ingredients for the efficient completion of the task. 
  • Use of clear and concise: Using clear & concise is necessary during the step-by-step procedure for ease of understanding of the readers. 
  • Chronological order: Each step mentioned in a process essay should relate to the previous one. 
  • Visuals: Depending on the process complexity, the essay can include visuals such as tables, charts, and diagrams for ease of understanding. 
  • Conclusion: The conclusion should concisely wrap the entire essay while sticking to the main idea. 

Examples of Process Essay:

Essay 1: “ How to live a Happy Life ” in this process essay example, the writer has explained multiple that readers can consider following to live a happy life. 

9. Reflective Essay

“A reflective essay is an academic essay where you explore a past experience, event, or situation and analyze how it impacted your thoughts, feelings, and overall understanding of yourself and the world.”

More help on “what is Reflective Essay and how to write” at Australian College of Applied Professions

Key Elements of Reflective Essay:

  • Meaningful personal experience: Reflective essays always revolve around personal experiences, thoughts, and emotions.
  • Compelling thesis statement : It always starts with compelling yet emotional thesis statements to engage the readers. 
  • Description of the experience: Provides a detailed description of the experience being reflected upon, including the context, setting, and events that occurred.
  • Deep analysis & interpretation: A reflective essay goes beyond superficial descriptions. It efficiently explores and explains the thoughts, feelings, and motivations before, during, and after the experience.
  • Connection to universal themes: It is necessary to connect your personal experiences to broader theoretical concepts or academic frameworks.
  • Organization: The essay follows a logical structure (intro, main body, conclusion) to guide the readers. 
  • Meaningful conclusion: The conclusion of a reflective essay should offer a concluding thought, reflection, or insight that encapsulates the overall learning and personal journey.

Example of Reflective Essay:

Essay 1: “ Fieldwork Experience ” can be a good example of a reflective essay. Because it describes both the negative and positive experiences, emotions, and feelings of a person who belongs to fieldwork. 

10. Critical Analysis Essay

“A critical analysis essay examines and evaluates someone else's work, such as a book, an essay, a film, or a piece of art.”

More info is available at Thompson River University .

Key Elements of Critical Analysis Essay:

  • A strong thesis statement: A critical analysis essay efficiently presents a focused argument about the work's strengths, weaknesses, effectiveness, or impact in the thesis statement. 
  • In-depth analysis: The essay requires in-depth analysis and evaluation of the work being analyzed.
  • Evidence & Examples: All the analysis or arguments in it should be supported by evidence or examples for maximum credibility. 
  • Use of formal & engaging language: It is written in a formal and engaging to show both the writer’s professionalism and keep the readers engaged. 
  • Insightful conclusion: The conclusion should efficiently relate all the key points in a concise while making the final statement/verdict. 

Example of Critical Analysis Essay:

Essay 1: “ Oklahoma Movie Critical Analysis ” discusses every detail about the movie from ticket price to the experience of buying a ticket inside the cinema, movie scenes, and many more. 

11. Critical Essays

“There is only a minor difference between a critical essay and a critical analysis essay. A critical essay is a form of academic writing that analyzes and evaluates a text, artwork, film, or any other kind of creative work.”

Read more at Literary Devices .

Key Elements of Critical Essays:

  • Thesis statement: Always start with a clear thesis statement that presents the main argument or interpretation of the work being analyzed.
  • Based on deep analysis: The essay is written by performing an in-depth analysis of the work using critical thinking abilities to make it broader. 
  • Engagement with secondary sources: Depending on the type of work, a critical essay may involve engaging with secondary sources such as literary criticism, scholarly articles, or theoretical frameworks.
  • Critical perspective: The essay must require a critical perspective, which involves questioning, challenging, and evaluating the assumptions, biases, and intentions of the work being analyzed. 
  • Evidence & Reasoning: All the claims or arguments should be supported with specific examples from the work, expert opinions, historical references, or other relevant evidence. 
  • Conclusion: End up with a short conclusion, summarizing all the main points discussed in the critical essay. 

Example of Critical Essay:

Essay 1: “ Critical Essay on Tess of the d’Urbervilles ” can be a good example of a critical essay.

12. Expository Essay

“An expository essay aims to explain, inform, or describe a particular topic, idea, or concept.”

Find more info here

Key Elements of Expository Essay:

  • Fully focused thesis statement: An expository essay efficiently states the intended outcome: what the reader will learn by the end of your essay.
  • Follow a certain tone: The essays are written in an informative and objective tone, presenting factual information and avoiding personal opinions or biases.
  • Contains transition words: Loaded with words like “ Then ,” “ Next ,” etc. so that a logical connection is created between the sentences. 
  • Simple organization: The essay follows a simple sequential structure so that readers can be guided easily toward the end. 
  • Conclusion: The essay should conclude by summarizing the main points and restating the thesis statement.

Examples of Expository Essay:

Essay 1: “ Understanding Mental Health and Its Impact on Individuals and Society ” has efficiently discussed the definition, explanation, causes, and impacts of mental health on both individuals and society. 

13. Review Essay

“A review essay evaluates and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of a particular work, such as a book, film, artwork, or academic paper.”

Get more info at Best Essays

Key Elements of Review Essay:

  • Introduction: Efficiently describes the main thesis or argument of the review essay. It should also offer necessary background information about the subject.
  • Analysis: The review essay should also evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the work through evidence and examples. 
  • Critique: It should explain the reviewer's opinion or perspective on the work while also highlighting notable aspects that contribute to the work's value or significance.
  • Maintain a neutral yet critical tone: The essay should acknowledge different perspectives while expressing the writer’s own informed opinion.
  • Conclusion: It must have a short conclusion that summarizes the entire information discussed in the essay within a few sentences. 

Example of Review Essay:

Essay 1: “ Place-Based Learning Geographies of Writing & How Place Still Matters in Writing Studies ” is an excellent example of a review essay. As it efficiently evaluates how the location of writing affects the student’s abilities. 

14. Rhetorical Analysis Essay

“A rhetorical analysis essay examines how authors or speakers use rhetorical devices and strategies to achieve their intended purpose and persuade their audience.”

Learn more about Rhetorical Analysis Essay (a guide by

Key Elements Rhetorical Analysis Essay:

  • Impactful introduction: It must start with an introduction that provides context for the rhetorical analysis.
  • Identification of Rhetorical Strategies: The essay should identify and analyze the rhetorical strategies used in the text, such as ethos (appeals to credibility), pathos (appeals to emotions), and logos (appeals to logic).
  • Evaluation of effectiveness: The essay should evaluate the effectiveness of the author's rhetorical strategies in achieving their intended purpose.
  • Textual Evidence : The analysis needed to be supported by textual evidence from the text being analyzed.
  • Contextualization: Analysis should be situated within the broader context of the text, as well as its historical, cultural, and social context.
  • Clear organization: Must organized logically, typically structuring it with an introduction, body paragraphs analyzing specific aspects of the rhetoric, and a concluding reflection.
  • Conclusion: Briefly summarize your key points and restate your thesis in a new light.

Example of Rhetorical Analysis Essay:

Essay 1: “ Rhetorical Strategies in Grose's "Cleaning: The Final Feminist Frontier ” discussed how the author “ Grose ” used rhetorical strategies to efficiently convey the intended message. 

15. Analytical Essay

“An analytical essay takes a subject and examines it critically, dissecting its components and exploring its deeper meaning, significance, or impact.”

Key Elements of Analytical Essay:

  • Clear & focused thesis statement: It should have a statement that succinctly summarizes your central argument about the subject's meaning, significance, or unique qualities.
  • In-depth analysis: The analytical essay needed to be based on in-depth analysis and interpretation of the topic being analyzed.
  • Inclusion of evidence: All the analysis in the essay should be supported with credible evidence or examples. 
  • Objective & informed perspective: The essay should maintain a neutral and objective tone, avoiding personal opinions or biases.

Find more about “writing an analytical essay” at Habib University .

Example of Analytical Essay:

Essay 1: “ Critical Thinking & Writing for Nursing Students ” in this analytical essay example, the nursing students are introduced to both critical and reflective thinking, so that they can become successful in their nursing careers. 

16. Literary Analysis Essay

“A literary analysis essay is a type of analytical essay that focuses specifically on analyzing a piece of literature, such as a novel, short story, poem, or play.”

Key Elements of Literary Analysis Essay:

  • Strong introduction: It presents a specific and arguable claim about the work's meaning, technique, or impact.
  • Analysis of literary elements: The essay should analyze the literary elements used in the work, such as plot, character, setting, theme, symbolism, and imagery.
  • Evidence & reasoning: Support the author's claims with specific textual evidence (quotes, examples, descriptions) and relevant critical analysis.
  • Engaging with multiple perspectives: The essay should acknowledge and discuss differing interpretations of the work.
  • Engagement with secondary sources: Depending on the requirements of the assignment, literary analysis essays may involve engaging with secondary sources such as literary criticism, scholarly articles, or theoretical frameworks.
  • Conclusion: The conclusion should offer reflections on the significance of the analysis and its implications for understanding the work being analyzed.

How to write a Literary analysis essay, key points and precautions: Bucks County Community College .

Example of Literary Analysis Essay:

Essay 1: “ The Old Man & The Sea (Page 2) ” in this example, the writer has done an in-depth analysis of the famous novel written by Ernest Hemingway .

17. Five-Paragraph Essay

“Five-paragraph essay is a widely known essay type that is usually taught to primary school students. It is based on a 5Ws rule (What, Who, When, Why, and Where sometimes “how” as well).”

Key Elements of Five Paragraph Essay:

  • Introduction (1 paragraph): It should have an introduction that provides background information on the topic and presents the main thesis or argument.
  • Main body (3 paragraphs): The main body should describe or address the main topic in detail using evidence and examples. 
  • Conclusion (1 paragraph): The conclusion should describe the summary of the main points made in the body paragraphs and a restatement of the thesis statement. 

University of Maryland Global Campus has described how you can write a perfect five-paragraph essay. 

Example of a paragraph Essay:

Essay 1: “ The Benefits of Regular Exercise ” explained the advantages of working out regularly within five paragraphs. 

Difference Between Essay Types, its Key Points and its Users

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types of conclusion in essay writing

  • Mastering the Art of Essay Writing in Canadian…

Mastering the Art of Essay Writing in Canadian Universities: Strategies for Success

types of conclusion in essay writing

Writing essays is an important skill needed to succeed academically in Canadian colleges. Any student who wants to get good grades needs to learn the art of essay writing. Colleges in Canada require writers to be good at research. They need to have good critical thinking capabilities. Above all, students must maintain high academic standards. You can improve your success in writing by understanding what universities in Canada require. Remember your skills develop one step at a time daily. Whenever you need help, do not hesitate to ask.

types of conclusion in essay writing

Understand the process of writing essays  

It is good to understand the structure required by universities in Canada. However, understanding the process to follow is critical. The entire process might seem difficult but get help whenever needed. The team of educators in Canadian universities will be more than willing to help.

They understand how to teach essay writing in a fun way to improve understanding rate. One of the ways to help you understand the process is to study. Use different resources to learn the processes. Once you get it right, the rest of the steps will flow smoothly. The process follows several important steps. 

Part of the essay writing process may involve seeking help from expert writers. There are several advantages to hiring experts to write your essays. They have deep experience and understand the processes. Expert writers know what Canadian universities expect in essay writing. It is easy to get an essay writing service Canada online. You just need to connect online and open the writer’s website. When you pay for an essay, you get a paper written according to guidelines. You rest with confidence knowing that you will submit your essay on time. You no longer worry about dealing with plagiarism issues because the paper is original.  

Understanding essay guidelines in Canadian universities  

Colleges in Canada require students to observe the highest academic standards. Educators expect that students will show a high level of skills. They must be good at research and critical thinking. The writers must show good analytical skills and understanding of the essay content. It is necessary to understand the college-specific requirements. The citation and formatting styles in one region could be different in another.  

Understanding the guidelines for your college and the expectations is important. The universities require students to be sensitive to culture. Lecturers expect to see a sense of inclusivity in their arguments. The colleges expect the text to be written in clear language. The texts should be free from errors. Canadian universities may require an interdisciplinary approach to writing . Upholding integrity is a critical aspect of writing in Canada.    

The pre-writing processes  

The pre-writing processes include several phases. In this phase, a student understands what they are needed to do.   They get the necessary information that ensures their essay flows smoothly. The processes may include the following.  

●       Understanding the question . Most colleges in Canada give students a question to think about. It is necessary to understand this question/prompt.

●       Brainstorming . This process helps you understand what type of topic you should choose. It allows you to know the sources to use.

●       Choosing sources . You cannot achieve the right essay quality if you use the wrong sources. If you choose the right topic, you will have no trouble choosing the right sources.

●       Doing research . The next step under the prewriting phase is research. Under this step, you consolidate all the points needed. Consolidate the evidence to help support the points.

●       Creating an outline . After research, take time to reorganize the facts and points. Drop information that does not look relevant to the essay. Use the points that remain to create an outline.

types of conclusion in essay writing

Understanding the essay structure  

Educators in Canadian schools take time to teach about writing structure. The understanding of different students differs in many ways. Due to these, educators have developed strategies about how to teach essay writing to weak students. They give them more opportunities to write. The educators help them understand the structure of writing. Success in writing essays in Canada requires a good understanding of structure. The following components are crucial in structure.  


The introduction provides a background for the essay. Laying background information allows the audience to understand what the text is about. This section is further divided into sections. The first section is the hook that aims to attract attention from readers. The writer includes a thesis statement. It introduces the main argument of the essay.

  The body discusses the substance of the essay. In Canada, the body of an essay is broken down into segments. The first part is the topic sentence that introduces the main argument. The next sentence provides examples that support the argument. Professors in Canada are very keen to look for supporting evidence. It is necessary to have a smooth transition between paragraphs. 

The conclusion  

The conclusion restates the thesis and provides an overview of the main points. Give the reader a point to think about to emphasize the importance of the arguments.  

Comparing different types of essays  

In Canada, students should be ready to deal with different types of essays. Lecturers do not focus on a single type of writing skill. As a strategy on how to teach essay writing, they assign students a wide range of essays. Once you receive the prompt or question, try and understand what type of essay you have been assigned.  

Descriptive essay . A descriptive paper uses an emotional language approach to discuss a subject. The paper evokes emotions by providing a distinct and immersive description of the subject.  

Persuasive writing . Persuasive writing is also referred to as argumentative text. The writer takes an approach that persuades the reader to agree with their point. They must use points that counter every argument the reader might have.  

Narrative writing . An essay that requires narrative writing offers a series of arguments that attract the reader. They understand the view of a writer and narrate that view.  

Comparing and contrasting . Comparison essays argue on a point and then discuss its contrasting side. Their goal is to argue or compare similarities and contrasts. By examining contrasts and similarities, a writer encourages critical thinking in readers.

  Important essay writing tips for students in Canadian universities  

●       Avoid getting late for submission . Late submissions may attract penalties. Some lecturers in Canada may deduct marks or cancel the paper.

●       Plan your time well . If you want to beat deadlines, manage time well and start early.

●       Avoid hard topics . Tough topics take time to complete and you could be late. It is harder to get points for such topics.

●       Know the reader . Know who will read your paper and write directly to them. Be sure to resonate with them.

●       Cite well . Use the right citation style and know how to cite.

●       Refine your paper . Paper refinement includes several things. It includes reading the first and second time. Check errors with grammar tools and use plagiarism tools. Do formatting correctly by ensuring you use the right fonts. Follow the rules of spacing, paragraphs, and structure flow.  

To sum it up  

Universities in Canada follow strict writing guidelines. The educators expect students to focus on quality and originality. Strategies for essay writing success include taking time to understand the prompt. Know the initial writing processes such as picking a topic, researching, and creating an outline. Understand the structure to follow when writing. Write the submission date in your calendar to make sure you don’t miss it. Ensure you follow the detailed guidelines given by the university.

types of conclusion in essay writing

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Top 5 Essay Writing Services: Help with Your College Papers

T his article comprehensively compares the top five essay writing services, highlighting their unique features and pricing structures.

  • 🌟 (4.9/5) delivers exceptional writing services at budget-friendly prices.
  • 🌟 (4.9/5) stands out for its dependable, prompt delivery of high-quality work.
  • 🌟 (4.8/5) specializes in creating intricate academic essays with expertise.
  • 🌟 (4.8/5) offers essays uniquely customized to meet UK academic standards.
  • 🌟 (4.7/5) features free academic papers catering to diverse needs.

In recent years, the advent of online essay writing services has marked a significant shift in how students and professionals approach their writing needs. These services offer a convenient solution for those seeking assistance with academic papers, business documents, and various forms of written content. This article delves into an overview of the top five essay writing services that have gained prominence due to their quality, reliability, and range of offerings. We will review,,,, and, each known for their unique features and service standards. Review

Reviewed by: James I. Rose

Website Link:

Ratings : 4.9/5

Prices : from $12.46

Promo Codes : k6nh3b (10% Discount on the first order) is generally rated highly across various review platforms. Customers often commend it for its quality of writing and customer service. The average rating hovers around 4.9 out of 5, reflecting solid customer satisfaction.

The pricing structure at is competitive and caters to a wide range of budgets. Prices vary depending on the type of paper, academic level, number of pages, and deadline urgency. Their website has a transparent pricing model, allowing customers to get an instant quote based on their specific requirements.

Promo Codes periodically offers promo codes and discounts, especially for first-time users or during certain seasons. These promotions can significantly reduce the cost of services, making them more accessible to a broader audience.

Pros & Cons

  • High-quality writing standards.
  • A diverse range of services, including essays, research papers, and thesis writing.
  • Responsive customer support is available 24/7.
  • User-friendly website with easy navigation.
  • Flexible deadlines with the option for urgent orders.
  • Prices might be slightly higher than some competitors, especially for urgent deadlines.
  • Limited availability of writers in certain niche subjects.
  • Occasional inconsistency in writing style, depending on the writer assigned. Review

Reviewed by: Teresa E. Wallace

Website Link:

Prices : $12.95

Promo Codes : cyt89rfd (10% Discount on the first order) has garnered a reputable standing in the realm of essay writing services. With an average rating of around 4.9 out of 5, it is praised for its consistent quality and reliability. Customers frequently highlight the service's adherence to deadlines and the professionalism of its writers. offers a tiered pricing system based on the paper's academic level, the assignment's complexity, and the deadline's urgency. The service is recognized for being moderately priced, offering a balance between cost and quality. Detailed pricing information is available on their website, providing transparency and allowing customers to make informed decisions.

The service regularly features various promotional offers and discounts, especially beneficial for first-time customers and large orders. These discounts are often seasonal and can be found on their website or through subscribing to their newsletter.

  • High-quality and well-researched papers.
  • A broad spectrum of writing services covering various subjects and academic levels.
  • Reliable customer support with quick response times.
  • User-friendly interface and easy order process.
  • Commitment to meeting deadlines, including urgent orders.
  • Prices can be on the higher side compared to some other services, particularly for urgent deadlines.
  • There are limited options for revisions in some cases.
  • There are fewer free features than some competitors, which could add to the overall cost. Review

Reviewed by: Richard G. Morgan

Website Link:

Ratings : 4.7/5

Prices : $14.59

Promo Codes : u9tgdm (10% Discount on the first order) has earned a commendable reputation for its specialized and personalized approach to essay writing. With an average rating of 4.7 out of 5, it is often recognized for its customer-centric services and attention to detail. Reviews frequently highlight the quality of research and originality of the content provided by their writers.

The pricing at varies depending on the type of assignment, academic level, number of pages, and deadline urgency. Their pricing model is known for being transparent and fair, providing good value for the level of personalized service offered. The website features a pricing calculator, giving customers a precise estimate before placing an order. offers various promotional discounts for new customers and larger or repeat orders. These promo codes can be accessed through their website or by signing up for their email notifications.

  • High-quality, custom-written papers with a strong emphasis on research.
  • Wide range of services, including niche and specialized subjects.
  • Excellent customer service with personalized attention.
  • Clear and straightforward ordering process.
  • Strong commitment to meeting deadlines and accommodating urgent requests.
  • Pricing can be slightly higher than average, reflecting the personalized service.
  • Limited availability of writers for very specialized or uncommon topics.
  • Some users may need more options for budget-friendly services. Review

Reviewed by: Margaret D. Howard

Website Link: stands out mainly for its focus on UK-based academic writing standards. It holds an impressive average rating of 4.7 out of 5, with many customers praising its adherence to UK educational norms and writing styles. The service is frequently commended for its exceptional English language proficiency and understanding of UK-specific academic requirements.

The pricing structure of is tailored to a range of academic needs and budgets. Costs vary based on the type of paper, educational level, number of words, and deadline. They are known for being transparent about their pricing, providing customers with a clear understanding of what they are paying for. The website features an easy-to-use price calculator for instant quotes.

Promo Codes: offers various promotional codes and discounts, particularly for first-time users or during specific periods like the start of a new academic year. Regular customers can also benefit from loyalty discounts. These promotional offers can be found on their website or through a subscription to their email list.

  • Specialization in UK academic standards and formats.
  • High-quality, well-researched papers with attention to detail.
  • Reliable customer service with a focus on client satisfaction.
  • Timely delivery, even for tight deadlines.
  • User-friendly website with an efficient ordering process.
  • Pricing may be higher than other international services, especially for urgent deadlines.
  • Limited services for non-UK academic styles.
  • Some users may find the options for subject areas more limited than global competitors. Review

Reviewed by: Nancy J. Matthews

Website Link:

Ratings : 4.5/5

Prices : $11.31

Promo Codes : custom10 (10% Discount on the first order) has established itself as a versatile and reliable essay-writing service with a global client base. It boasts an average rating of around 4.5 out of 5, earning praise for its wide range of services and user-friendly platform. Customers often commend its ability to handle diverse writing tasks, from standard essays to complex research papers.

The pricing model at is designed to accommodate various budgets and academic levels. Prices depend on factors like the type of paper, educational level, number of pages, and deadline. Their competitive pricing makes it a preferred choice for students and professionals alike. The website features a pricing calculator, allowing immediate and transparent price estimations. regularly offers promotional codes and discounts, appealing to students and first-time users. These discounts can make their services more accessible and budget-friendly. Information about ongoing promotions can typically be found on their website or through a subscription to their newsletter.

  • A broad spectrum of writing services catering to various academic and professional needs.
  • Competitive pricing, offering good value for the quality of services provided.
  • Timely delivery of services, including options for urgent deadlines.
  • Responsive and helpful customer support.
  • Variation in writing quality depends on the specific writer assigned to the project.
  • Additional charges for top-tier writers or advanced service options.
  • Some users have reported a need for revisions to meet specific academic standards.

Comparative Analysis of the Top 5 Essay Writing Services

  • Quality of Writing :
  • and are highly rated for their quality. They are ideal for those prioritizing top-notch research and writing skills.
  • BookWormLab .com excels in customized and research-intensive papers, making it suitable for specialized or niche topics.
  • is the go-to for those needing UK-specific academic writing.
  • offers a broad spectrum of services with a good balance of quality and versatility.
  • Pricing Structure :
  • and are competitive, appealing to a wide range of budgets.
  • and are slightly higher priced, reflecting their specialized services and adherence to specific academic norms.
  • also leans towards the higher end, justified by its personalized approach and high-quality output.
  • Promotional Offers :
  • All services offer various promotions, with and frequently providing substantial discounts, making them more accessible for budget-conscious users.
  • , , and offer seasonal and first-time user discounts.
  • Turnaround Time :
  • and are known for their quick turnaround, which is suitable for urgent deadlines.
  • also handles tight deadlines efficiently, especially for UK-based assignments.
  • and , while reliable, might be better suited for projects where turnaround time is less critical.
  • Customer Service and User Experience :
  • and stand out for their excellent customer service and personalized attention.
  • , , and provide a user-friendly experience with responsive support, though with varying degrees of personalization.

Best Service for Specific Needs:

  • Budget-Friendly : and
  • Quick Turnaround : and
  • High-Quality and Specialized Needs : and for UK-specific needs.
  • Overall Versatility : for a wide range of services.

This comparison underscores that while each service has its strengths, the best choice depends on the specific requirements and priorities of the user, be it budget, quality, specialization, or urgency.

In summary, each of the top five essay writing services -,,,, and - offers unique strengths and caters to different needs. and are notable for their quality and quick turnaround, making them ideal for urgent and high-standard requirements. excels in providing customized, research-intensive work, while is the go-to for those seeking UK-specific academic writing. offers versatility and competitive pricing suitable for various needs and budgets.

This article comprehensively compares the top five essay writing services, highlighting their unique features and pricin

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The Day I Put $50,000 in a Shoe Box and Handed It to a Stranger

I never thought i was the kind of person to fall for a scam..

Portrait of Charlotte Cowles

On a Tuesday evening this past October, I put $50,000 in cash in a shoe box, taped it shut as instructed, and carried it to the sidewalk in front of my apartment, my phone clasped to my ear. “Don’t let anyone hurt me,” I told the man on the line, feeling pathetic.

“You won’t be hurt,” he answered. “Just keep doing exactly as I say.”

Three minutes later, a white Mercedes SUV pulled up to the curb. “The back window will open,” said the man on the phone. “Do not look at the driver or talk to him. Put the box through the window, say ‘thank you,’ and go back inside.”

The man on the phone knew my home address, my Social Security number, the names of my family members, and that my 2-year-old son was playing in our living room. He told me my home was being watched, my laptop had been hacked, and we were in imminent danger. “I can help you, but only if you cooperate,” he said. His first orders: I could not tell anyone about our conversation, not even my spouse, or talk to the police or a lawyer.

Now I know this was all a scam — a cruel and violating one but painfully obvious in retrospect. Here’s what I can’t figure out: Why didn’t I just hang up and call 911? Why didn’t I text my husband, or my brother (a lawyer), or my best friend (also a lawyer), or my parents, or one of the many other people who would have helped me? Why did I hand over all that money — the contents of my savings account, strictly for emergencies — without a bigger fight?

Spring Fashion Issue

We want moore.


When I’ve told people this story, most of them say the same thing: You don’t seem like the type of person this would happen to. What they mean is that I’m not senile, or hysterical, or a rube. But these stereotypes are actually false. Younger adults — Gen Z, millennials, and Gen X — are 34 percent more likely to report losing money to fraud compared with those over 60, according to a recent report from the Federal Trade Commission. Another study found that well-educated people or those with good jobs were just as vulnerable to scams as everyone else.

Still, how could I have been such easy prey? Scam victims tend to be single, lonely, and economically insecure with low financial literacy. I am none of those things. I’m closer to the opposite. I’m a journalist who had a weekly column in the “Business” section of the New York Times. I’ve written a personal-finance column for this magazine for the past seven years. I interview money experts all the time and take their advice seriously. I’m married and talk to my friends, family, and colleagues every day.

And while this is harder to quantify — how do I even put it? — I’m not someone who loses her head. My mother-in-law has described me as even-keeled; my own mom has called me “maddeningly rational.” I am listed as an emergency contact for several friends — and their kids. I vote, floss, cook, and exercise. In other words, I’m not a person who panics under pressure and falls for a conspiracy involving drug smuggling, money laundering, and CIA officers at my door. Until, suddenly, I was.

That morning — it was October 31 — I dressed my toddler in a pizza costume for Halloween and kissed him good-bye before school. I wrote some work emails. At about 12:30 p.m., my phone buzzed. The caller ID said it was Amazon. I answered. A polite woman with a vague accent told me she was calling from Amazon customer service to check some unusual activity on my account. The call was being recorded for quality assurance. Had I recently spent $8,000 on MacBooks and iPads?

I had not. I checked my Amazon account. My order history showed diapers and groceries, no iPads. The woman, who said her name was Krista, told me the purchases had been made under my business account. “I don’t have a business account,” I said. “Hmm,” she said. “Our system shows that you have two.”

Krista and I concurred that I was the victim of identity theft, and she said she would flag the fraudulent accounts and freeze their activity. She provided me with a case-ID number for future reference and recommended that I check my credit cards. I did, and everything looked normal. I thanked her for her help.

Then Krista explained that Amazon had been having a lot of problems with identity theft and false accounts lately. It had become so pervasive that the company was working with a liaison at the Federal Trade Commission and was referring defrauded customers to him. Could she connect me?

“Um, sure?” I said.

Krista transferred the call to a man who identified himself as Calvin Mitchell. He said he was an investigator with the FTC, gave me his badge number, and had me write down his direct phone line in case I needed to contact him again. He also told me our call was being recorded. He asked me to verify the spelling of my name. Then he read me the last four digits of my Social Security number, my home address, and my date of birth to confirm that they were correct. The fact that he had my Social Security number threw me. I was getting nervous.

“I’m glad we’re speaking,” said Calvin. “Your personal information is linked to a case that we’ve been working on for a while now, and it’s quite serious.”

He told me that 22 bank accounts, nine vehicles, and four properties were registered to my name. The bank accounts had wired more than $3 million overseas, mostly to Jamaica and Iraq. Did I know anything about this? “No,” I said. Did I know someone named Stella Suk-Yee Kwong? “I don’t think so,” I said. He texted me a photo of her ID, which he claimed had been found in a car rented under my name that was abandoned on the southern border of Texas with blood and drugs in the trunk. A home in New Mexico affiliated with the car rental had subsequently been raided, he added, and authorities found more drugs, cash, and bank statements registered to my name and Social Security number. He texted me a drug-bust photo of bags of pills and money stacked on a table. He told me that there were warrants out for my arrest in Maryland and Texas and that I was being charged with cybercrimes, money laundering, and drug trafficking.

My head swam. I Googled my name along with “warrant” and “money laundering,” but nothing came up. Were arrest warrants public? I wasn’t sure. Google led me to, which asked for my credit-card information — nope. “I’m in deep shit,” I texted my husband. “My identity was stolen and it seems really bad.”

Calvin wanted to know if I knew anyone who might be the culprit or if I had any connections to Iraq or Jamaica. “No,” I said. “This is the first I’m hearing about any of this, and it’s a lot to take in.” He asked if I had ever used public or unsecured Wi-Fi. “I don’t know. Maybe?” I said. “I used the airport Wi-Fi recently.”

“Ah,” he said. “That’s unfortunate. It’s how many of these breaches start.” I was embarrassed, like I’d left my fly unzipped. How could I have been so thoughtless? But also — didn’t everyone use the airport Wi-Fi?

Calvin told me to listen carefully. “The first thing you must do is not tell anyone what is going on. Everyone around you is a suspect.”

I almost laughed. I told him I was quite sure that my husband, who works for an affordable-housing nonprofit and makes meticulous spreadsheets for our child-care expenses, was not a secret drug smuggler. “I believe you, but even so, your communications are probably under surveillance,” Calvin said. “You cannot talk to him about this.” I quickly deleted the text messages I had sent my husband a few minutes earlier. “These are sophisticated criminals with a lot of money at stake,” he continued. “You should assume you are in danger and being watched. You cannot take any chances.”

I felt suspended between two worlds — the one I knew and the one this man was describing. If I had nothing to do with any of these allegations, how much could they truly affect me? I thought of an old This American Life episode about a woman whose Social Security card was stolen. No matter how many times she closed her bank accounts and opened new ones, her identity thief kept draining them, destroying her credit and her sanity. (It turned out to be her boyfriend.) I remembered another story about a man who got stuck on a no-fly list after his personal information was used by a terrorist group. It dawned on me that being connected to major federal offenses, even falsely, could really fuck up my life.

Calvin wanted to know how much money I currently had in my bank accounts. I told him that I had two — checking and savings — with a combined balance of a little over $80,000. As a freelancer in a volatile industry, I keep a sizable emergency fund, and I also set aside cash to pay my taxes at the end of the year, since they aren’t withheld from my paychecks.

His voice took on a more urgent tone. “You must have worked very hard to save all that money,” he said. “Do not share your bank-account information with anyone. I am going to help you keep your money safe.” He said that he would transfer me to his colleague at the CIA who was the lead investigator on my case and gave me a nine-digit case number for my records. (I Googled the number. Nothing.) He said the CIA agent would tell me what to do next, and he wished me luck.

types of conclusion in essay writing

If it was a scam , I couldn’t see the angle. It had occurred to me that the whole story might be made up or an elaborate mistake. But no one had asked me for money or told me to buy crypto; they’d only encouraged me not to share my banking information. They hadn’t asked for my personal details; they already knew them. I hadn’t been told to click on anything.

Still, I had not seen a shred of evidence. I checked my bank accounts, credit cards, and credit score; nothing looked out of the ordinary. I knew I should probably talk to a lawyer or maybe call the police, though I was doubtful that they would help. What was I going to say — “My identity was stolen, and I think I’m somehow in danger”? I had no proof. I was also annoyed that my workday had been hijacked. It was 2 p.m., and I had already pushed back one deadline and postponed two work calls. I had to get myself out of this.

The next man who got on the line had a deeper voice and a slight British accent flecked with something I couldn’t identify. He told me his name was Michael Sarano and that he worked for the CIA on cases involving the FTC. He gave me his badge number. “I’m going to need more than that,” I said. “I have no reason to believe that any of what you’re saying is real.”

“I completely understand,” he said calmly. He told me to go to the FTC home page and look up the main phone number. “Now hang up the phone, and I will call you from that number right now.” I did as he said. The FTC number flashed on my screen, and I picked up. “How do I know you’re not just spoofing this?” I asked.

“It’s a government number,” he said, almost indignant. “It cannot be spoofed.” I wasn’t sure if this was true and tried Googling it, but Michael was already onto his next point. He told me the call was being recorded, so I put him on speaker and began recording on my end, too. He wanted to know if I had told anyone what was going on.

I admitted that I had texted my husband. “You must reassure him that everything is fine,” Michael said. “In many cases like this, we have to investigate the spouse as well, and the less he knows, the less he is implicated. From now on, you have to follow protocol if you want us to help you.”

“I don’t think I should lie to my husband,” I said, feeling stupid.

“You are being investigated for major federal crimes,” he said. “By keeping your husband out of this, you are protecting him.” He then repeated the point Calvin had made about my phone and computer being hacked and monitored by the criminals who had stolen my identity.

By that point, my husband had sent me a series of concerned texts. “Don’t worry. It will be okay,” I wrote back. It felt gross to imagine a third party reading along.

Michael snowed me with the same stories Calvin had. They were consistent: the car on the Texas border, the property in New Mexico, the drugs, the bank accounts. He asked if I shared my residence with anyone besides my husband and son. Then he asked more questions about my family members, including my parents, my brother, and my sister-in-law. He knew their names and where they lived. I told him they had nothing to do with this. In fact, I was now sure I wanted to consult a lawyer.

“If you talk to an attorney, I cannot help you anymore,” Michael said sternly. “You will be considered noncooperative. Your home will be raided, and your assets will be seized. You may be arrested. It’s your choice.” This seemed ludicrous. I pictured officers tramping in, taking my laptop, going through our bookshelves, questioning our neighbors, scaring my son. It was a nonstarter.

“Can I just come to your office and sort this out in person?” I said. “It’s getting late, and I need to take my son trick-or-treating soon.”

“My office is in Langley,” he said. “We don’t have enough time. We need to act immediately. I’m going to talk you through the process. It’s going to sound crazy, but we must follow protocol if we’re going to catch the people behind this.”

He explained that the CIA would need to freeze all the assets in my name, including my actual bank accounts. In the eyes of the law, there was no difference between the “real” and the fraudulent ones, he said. They would also deactivate my compromised Social Security number and get me a new one. Then, by monitoring any activity under my old Social Security number and accounts, they would catch the criminals who were using my identity and I would get my life back. But until then, I would need to use only cash for my day-to-day expenses.

It was far-fetched. Ridiculous. But also not completely out of the realm of possibility. “Do I have any other options?” I asked.

“Unfortunately, no,” he said. “You must follow my directions very carefully. We do not have much time.”

He asked me how much cash I thought I would need to support myself for a year if necessary. My assets could be frozen for up to two years if the investigation dragged on, he added. There could be a trial; I might need to testify. These things take time. “I don’t know, $50,000?” I said. I wondered how I would receive paychecks without a bank account. Would I have to take time off from work? I did some mental calculations of how much my husband could float us and for how long.

“Okay,” he said. “You need to go to the bank and get that cash out now. You cannot tell them what it is for. In one of my last cases, the identity thief was someone who worked at the bank.”

Michael told me to keep the phone on speaker so we would remain in contact. “It’s important that I monitor where this money goes from now on. Remember, all of your assets are part of this investigation,” he said. Then he told me that one of his colleagues would meet me at my apartment at 5 p.m. to guide me through the next steps.

“You can’t send a complete stranger to my home,” I said, my voice rising. “My 2-year-old son will be here.”

“Let me worry about that,” he said. “It’s my job. But if you don’t cooperate, I cannot keep you safe. It is your choice.”

It’s impossible to explain why I accepted this logic. But I had been given marching orders and a deadline. My son would be home soon, and I had to fix this mess. I put on sneakers in case I needed to run. I brought a backpack for the cash. I felt both terrified and absurd.

It was jarring to see trick-or-treaters in my Brooklyn neighborhood, people going about their lives. The air was crisp, and dead leaves swirled on the ground. I was on high alert for anyone who might be following me. At one point, a man in sunglasses and a hoodie trailed me for a few blocks. At Michael’s suggestion, I ducked into a parking garage until he passed.

When I reached the bank, I told the guard I needed to make a large cash withdrawal and she sent me upstairs. Michael was on speakerphone in my pocket. I asked the teller for $50,000. The woman behind the thick glass window raised her eyebrows, disappeared into a back room, came back with a large metal box of $100 bills, and counted them out with a machine. Then she pushed the stacks of bills through the slot along with a sheet of paper warning me against scams. I thanked her and left.

Michael was bursting with praise. “You did a great job,” he said. “I have to go for a moment to see about the details of your case; I’m going to have you speak to my colleague if you have any questions.” He put a woman on the line. She was younger, with an accent I couldn’t identify. She told me to go home and await further instructions.

As I walked back to my apartment, something jolted me out of my trance, and I became furious. No government agency would establish this as “protocol.” It was preposterous. “I need to speak with Michael,” I told the woman on the phone. He got on right away. “I don’t even believe that you’re a CIA agent,” I said. “What you’re asking me to do is completely unreasonable.”

He sighed. “I’m sending you a photo of my badge right now,” he said. “I don’t know what else to tell you. You can trust me, and I will help you. Or you can hang up and put yourself and your family in danger. Do you really want to take that risk with a young child?”

My Two Cents

How to protect yourself against scams, what charlotte cowles wishes she’d known..

I waited for a stoplight at a busy intersection. I could see my apartment window from where I stood. My son was playing inside with a neighbor’s daughter and their nanny. A picture of Michael’s badge appeared on my phone. I had no way of verifying it; it could easily have been Photoshopped. “I don’t trust you at all,” I said to Michael. “But it doesn’t seem like I have any other choice.”

When I got home, Michael told me to get a box, put the cash in it, take a picture of it, then tape it shut. I found a floral-printed shoe box that had once contained a pair of slippers I’d bought for myself — a frivolous purchase that now seemed mortifying. Michael told me to label it with my name, my case number, my address, a locker number he read to me, and my signature. Then he directed me to take another picture of the labeled box and text it to him.

“My colleague will be there soon. He is an undercover CIA agent, and he will secure the money for you,” he said. What exactly would that entail? I asked. “Tonight, we will close down your Social Security number, and you will lose access to your bank accounts,” he explained. “Tomorrow, you’ll need to go to the Social Security office and get a new Social Security number. We’ll secure this money for you in a government locker and hand-deliver a Treasury check for the same amount. You can cash the check and use it for your expenses until the investigation is over.”

“Why can’t I just use this cash?” I asked. “Why do you have to take it and give me a check?”

“Because all of your assets under your current identity are part of the investigation,” he said. “You are being charged with money laundering. If we secure this cash and then issue you a government check under your new Social Security number, that will be considered clean money.”

“I’ll need to see your colleague’s badge,” I said. “I’m not just going to give $50,000 of my money to someone I don’t know.”

“Undercover agents don’t carry badges,” he said, as if I’d asked the CIA to bring me a Happy Meal. “They’re undercover. Remember, you are probably being watched. The criminals cannot know that a CIA agent is there.”

In a twisted way, this made some amount of sense to me. Or maybe I had lost my grip on reality so completely that I was willing to resign myself to this new version of it. Most important, I didn’t know what else to do. Even if Michael wasn’t working for the CIA (which struck me as more and more likely), he was sending a man to our address. I felt a sickening dread that he might ask to come inside. If giving him this money would make him go away, I was ready to do it. I’d been on the phone for nearly five hours. I wanted to take my son trick-or-treating. I was exhausted.

Michael seemed to sense that I was flagging and asked if I’d had lunch. I hadn’t. He told me to eat something but keep him on the line; his agent was on the way to my address but running late. “You can meet him outside if that would make you more comfortable,” Michael said, and I felt relieved. While I gnawed on a granola bar at my desk, he got chatty and asked about my job. I told him I was going to Washington, D.C., later that week. “Oh, great. You could come to my office in Langley,” he said. “Where are you staying?”

A little after 6 p.m., Michael told me to go downstairs. His colleague was arriving. My husband had just come home from work and was reading to our son. “What’s going on? Is everything okay?” he asked as I put my coat on. I motioned to the phone and shushed him. Then I whispered, “I have to go downstairs and meet a guy who’s helping with the identity-theft case. I’ll explain more later.” He frowned and silently mouthed, “What?” I told him I had to go.

I met the SUV at the curb and put the money in the back seat. It was 6:06 p.m. Even if I’d tried to see who was driving, the windows were tinted and it was dusk. He maybe wore a baseball cap. When I turned around, I could see the backlit faces of my husband and son watching from our apartment nine stories above.

As I walked back inside, Michael texted me a photo of a Treasury check made out to me for $50,000 and told me a hard copy would be hand-delivered to me in the morning. He was working on setting up my appointment with the Social Security office. “You will receive a confirmation text shortly,” he said. “Stay on the line until you do.” I felt oddly comforted by this. An appointment would give me something legitimate, an actual connection to a government agency.

I took my son trick-or-treating, my phone on speaker in my pocket. I felt numb, almost in a fugue state, smiling and chatting with my neighbors and their kids. At one point, I checked to see if Michael was still there; his female colleague answered and said he’d be back soon. Then, when we got home and I checked again, the line was dead. I panicked and called back. The woman answered. “Michael is busy,” she said. “He’ll call you in the morning.”

I was confused. Did this mean I didn’t have a Social Security number at all anymore? I pictured myself floating, identity-less. “Do I have an appointment at the Social Security office?” I asked.

“Michael will call you tomorrow,” she repeated. “He hasn’t been able to secure your appointment yet. The Social Security office is closed now.”

I went into my bedroom and shut the door, feeling my face grow hot. I had a physical sensation of scales falling from my eyes; the room shimmered around me, spots raining from the ceiling. I saw the whole day peel away, like the layers of an onion — Michael, the FTC officer, the Amazon call — revealing my real life, raw and exposed, at the center. “Oh my God,” I said, my hands tingling. “You are lying to me. Michael was lying. You just took my money and I’m never getting it back.” That wasn’t true, the woman said. She understood that I was upset. She was sorry. Everything would be fine. “You’re a fucking liar,” I hissed, and hung up.

Through choking sobs, I told my husband what had happened. “Why didn’t you tell me?” he asked, incredulous. “I would have stopped you.” That I’d been trying to protect him suddenly seemed so idiotic I couldn’t even say it out loud. Our son looked on, confused. “Mama’s sad,” he announced, clinging to my leg. We put him to bed and then I called my parents and my brother. At their urging, I called 911. Around 10:30 p.m., three police officers came over and took my statement. I struggled to recount what I’d done; it seemed like a bad dream. I felt like a fool.

“No government agency will ever ask you for money,” one cop informed me, as if I’d never heard it before. I wanted to scream, “I know. ” Instead, I said, “It didn’t really feel like he was asking.”

The police told me not to worry; the scammers wouldn’t be back. “They got what they wanted,” another officer said, as though it would reassure me. I gave them the photos and recordings I had. They promised to check traffic cameras for the car that had taken the money.

When I woke up the next morning, a few seconds passed before I remembered the previous day. I was my old self, in my old bed, milky dawn light on the walls. Then it all came crashing back, a fresh humiliation, and I curled into the fetal position. I felt violated, unreliable; I couldn’t trust myself. Were my tendencies toward people-pleasing, rule following, and conflict aversion far worse than I’d ever thought, even pathological? I imagined other people’s reactions. She’s always been a little careless. She seems unhinged. I considered keeping the whole thing a secret. I worried it would harm my professional reputation. I still do.

In the days that followed, I kept revisiting the fake world of that afternoon, slipping through a portal into an alternate life. I would get paranoid that someone was reading my texts, watching me as I took my son to school, or using my Social Security number to wire money and rent cars. It was a relief that I wasn’t actually in trouble with the law, but then again — I’d lost $50,000 and I wasn’t getting it back. I checked my accounts and credit cards obsessively. I called my bank. They gave me instructions to freeze my credit, file reports with the FBI and FTC, and run anti-virus software on my laptop to check for malware, which I did. I cried a lot. My husband felt helpless; he still doesn’t like to talk about it. Instead, he researched new locks for our doors and looked into security cameras. One night I shook him awake, convinced that someone was trying to break in. “It’s only the wind,” he said. “We’re safe.”

Fifty thousand dollars is a lot of money. It took me years to save, stashing away a few thousand every time I got paid for a big project. Part of it was money I had received from my grandfather, an inheritance he took great pains to set up for his grandchildren before his death. Sometimes I imagine how I would have spent it if I had to get rid of it in a day. I could have paid for over a year’s worth of child care up front. I could have put it toward the master’s degree I’ve always wanted. I could have housed multiple families for months. Perhaps, inadvertently, I am; I occasionally wonder what the scammers did with it.

Because I had set it aside for emergencies and taxes, it was money I tried to pretend I didn’t have — it wasn’t for spending. Initially, I was afraid that I wouldn’t be able to afford my taxes this year, but then my accountant told me I could write off losses due to theft. So from a financial standpoint, I’ll survive, as long as I don’t have another emergency — a real one — anytime soon.

When I did tell friends what had happened, it seemed like everyone had a horror story. One friend’s dad, a criminal-defense attorney, had been scammed out of $1.2 million. Another person I know, a real-estate developer, was duped into wiring $450,000 to someone posing as one of his contractors. Someone else knew a Wall Street executive who had been conned into draining her 401(k) by some guy she met at a bar.

I felt a guilty sense of consolation whenever I heard about a scam involving someone I respected. If this could happen to them, maybe I wasn’t such a moron. As a journalist, it’s my instinct to research and talk to experts, so I dove into books and podcasts about scams, desperate to make sense of my own. I had known that fraud was on the rise but was shocked to learn the numbers — financial losses ballooned by more than 30 percent in 2022. I read that self-laceration is typical; half of victims blame themselves for being gullible, and most experience serious anxiety, depression, or other stress-related health problems afterward. I heard about victim support groups. I went to therapy.

When I discovered that Katie Gatti Tassin, a personal-finance expert who writes the popular Money With Katie newsletter, lost $8,000 five years ago to a grandmotherly-sounding woman pretending to call from Tassin’s credit union, I called her to ask how she’d coped. “Everyone was so patronizing,” she told me. “The response was basically ‘It’s your fault that this happened.’”

If I had to pinpoint a moment that made me think my scammers were legitimate, it was probably when they read me my Social Security number. Now I know that all kinds of personal information — your email address, your kids’ names and birthdays, even your pets’ names — are commonly sold on the dark web. Of course, the scammers could also have learned about my son from a 30-second perusal of my Instagram feed.

It was my brother, the lawyer, who pointed out that what I had experienced sounded a lot like a coerced confession. “I read enough transcripts of bad interrogations in law school to understand that anyone can be convinced that they have a very narrow set of terrible options,” he said. When I posed this theory to Saul Kassin, a psychology professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice who studies coerced confessions, he agreed. “If someone is trying to get you to be compliant, they do it incrementally, in a series of small steps that take you farther and farther from what you know to be true,” he said. “It’s not about breaking the will. They were altering the sense of reality.” And when you haven’t done anything wrong, the risk of cooperating feels minimal, he added. An innocent person thinks everything will get sorted out. It also mattered that I was kept on the phone for so long. People start to break down cognitively after a few hours of interrogation. “At that point, they’re not thinking straight. They feel the need to put an end to the situation at all costs,” Kassin said.

I wondered how often scammers are caught and about the guy who’d driven the car to my apartment. But when I asked experts, they doubted he’d be a meaningful lead. One pointed out that he might have been a courier who was told to come pick up a box.

I still don’t believe that what happened to me could happen to anyone, but I’m starting to realize that I’m not uniquely fallible. Several friends felt strongly that if the scammers hadn’t mentioned my son, I would never have fallen for this. They’re right that I’d be willing to do — or pay — anything to protect him. Either way, I have to accept that someone waged psychological warfare on me, and I lost. For now, I just don’t answer my phone.

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Exams Know-how

Problem Solutio...

Problem Solution Essay IELTS: Sample Topic Questions



Mastering the issue solution essay is critical for doing well on the International English Language Testing System ( IELTS ). This essay evaluates the linguistic skills and the ability to analyze complex problems and provide effective solutions. To succeed in the exam, one must grasp its structure and arrangement. This article will look at a range of problem solution essays from the IELTS examination, including environmental concerns, societal difficulties, and technical obstacles. By deconstructing these issues and proposing alternative answers, we hope to give readers the abilities and knowledge they need to approach problem-solving essays successfully. Let us dig into the domain of Problem Solution Essay IELTS and linguistic clarity required by the IELTS exam.

Understanding Problem Solution Essay IELTS

The Problem Solution Essay IELTS is essential, as it tests language competency and analytical and problem-solving ability. This essay style encourages applicants to identify essential concerns, provide possible remedies, and assess their efficacy. Mastering this essay style is critical for earning a good grade since it indicates a candidate's ability to handle real-world issues with clarity and coherence. Understanding the framework and subtleties of issue solution essays gives test takers the tools to excel in this exam section. Join  Yocket today to engage in a vibrant exchange of ideas and experiences, empowering your IELTS preparation journey.

IELTS Food Vocabulary

Sample Topic Questions for Problem Solution Essays IELTS

Here are a few sample of Problem Solution Essay Topics:

Environmental Issues

  • What are the primary sources of air pollution in metropolitan areas?
  • How do vehicle emissions contribute to metropolis air pollution?
  • How can industrial operations exacerbate air quality issues?
  • How do building and infrastructure development affect air quality in metropolitan areas?
  • What are the health effects of extended exposure to air pollutants?
  • How do air pollutants impact ecosystems and biodiversity?
  • What are the economic fees of air pollution-associated illnesses and environmental degradation?
  • What steps may be made to promote sustainable travel while lowering vehicle emissions?
  • How can society move to renewable energy to reduce air pollution?
  • What laws and regulations are needed to enforce emission restrictions and monitor pollution levels properly?

Social Problems

  • What constitutes several brand new maximum tremendous societal problems?
  • How does homelessness affect people and communities?
  • Which variables contribute to the continuation of urban poverty?
  • How does unemployment impact social well-being and financial stability?
  • What are the implications of uneven access to schooling and healthcare?
  • How does prejudice against race, gender, or religion emerge in society?
  • What barriers do marginalized groups experience while seeking jobs and social services?
  • How does substance addiction impact people, families, and communities?
  • How does psychological stigma impede people from getting help?
  • How can societies foster social inclusion while addressing systemic inequalities?

Health and Lifestyle

  • What are the number one reasons for lifestyle-related health troubles in contemporary society?
  • How do eating regimens and vitamins affect your trendy health and well-being?
  • How can physical exercise contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases?
  • How can stress damage mental health and lead to lifestyle-related illnesses?
  • What sociocultural influences impact smoking and alcohol drinking habits?
  • What effect does healthcare service accessibility have on a person's health outcomes?
  • What are the hurdles to addressing mental health concerns and raising awareness?
  • What role does socioeconomic status play in influencing health inequalities and lifestyle choices?
  • What measures may be used to encourage healthy habits and avoid disease?
  • How can communities help individuals make beneficial lifestyle changes?

Technological Challenges

  • What are the rising technological issues confronting society today?
  • How does the fast growth of artificial intelligence affect career opportunities?
  • What are the moral consequences of using biometrics and surveillance technologies?
  • What consequences does cyberbullying have on human beings's intellectual health and well-being?
  • What are the dangers of disinformation and deceptive records online?
  • In what ways does the digital divide increase disparities in information and technological access?
  • What steps may be taken to preserve data privacy and personal information online?
  • How can climate change and environmental damage stem from technology?
  • What obstacles do governments confront when regulating emergent technologies like blockchain and cryptocurrency?
  • How can civilizations adapt to technological breakthroughs while minimizing their negative consequences for individuals and communities?

Tips for Writing Problem Solution Essays IELTS

Here are some helpful suggestions for writing Problem Solution Essay Topics:

Tip 1: Understand the Question

Carefully examine the essay prompt to determine the problem and the precise answers requested. Before you begin writing the essay, understand what is being requested.

Tip 2: Brainstorm Ideas

Spend some time brainstorming potential solutions to the challenge described in the assignment. Consider a variety of viewpoints and techniques to solve the issue successfully.

Tip 3: Structure Your Writing

Separate your writing into clean, cohesive paragraphs. Problem-answer essays often start with creation, then body paragraphs that discover the problem and possible solutions, and conclude with a precis of the principle factors.

Tip 4: Introduction

Start your article with a short advent that describes the subject and gives the historical past. Clearly explain the problem and briefly describe the remedies, an excellent way to be presented for the duration of the essay.

Tip 5: Body Paragraphs

Write one paragraph for each recommended solution. Present each solution clearly, with supporting information or examples to demonstrate its usefulness. Use transition words to provide a seamless flow between paragraphs.

Tip 6: Evaluate Solutions

Provide a critical examination of each offered solution. Discuss its viability, possible effect, and any disadvantages or restrictions. Wherever possible, compare and contrast various options.

Tip 7: Provide Evidence

Use pertinent data, such as case studies, statistics, or professional judgment, to support your claims. It enriches your writing and shows a deep comprehension of the subject.

Tip 8: Employ Formal Language

Throughout your article, have a formal tone using proper syntax and terminology. Avoid slang and too informal phrasing.

Tip 9: Conclude Effectively

Summarize the fundamental ideas of your essay in the conclusion. Restate the issue and stress the significance of executing the recommended remedies. Avoid including fresh information in the end.

Tip 10: Proofread

Proofread and revise your essay to ensure there are no grammatical or spelling problems and that your writing is clear. Make any required changes to ensure your essay is well-written and cohesive.

By mastering these principles, you may show off your analytical abilities and valuable solutions in your IELTS problem-solution essay. Are you looking for more help? Check out Yocket for professional advice and study tools to help you prepare!

IELTS Score For Different Countries: Latest Guide

IELTS Sample Problem Solution Essay Topics

With an improved reliance on automobiles, many cities suffer widespread visitor congestion and environmental troubles. What steps can be taken to remedy this problem?

IELTS Problem Solution Essay

The growing reliance on vehicles has had a negative effect on cities, resulting in debilitating site visitor congestion and expanded pollution tiers. To deal with these crucial challenges, a multifaceted technique must be used.

To start, enhancing public transit infrastructure is a critical approach. Cities can also inspire commuters to use general delivery instead of personal motors by investing in extending and upgrading bus and subway networks. Further techniques to improve visitor flow and discourage automobile usage include implementing special bus lanes and visitor pricing plans.

In addition to enhancing public transit, encouraging exchange types of mobility is critical. Congestion is lessened, and a more fit, extra sustainable urban environment is promoted by encouraging foot and bicycling by constructing motorcycle lanes and pedestrian-pleasant infrastructure. Furthermore, boosting carpooling and ridesharing programs can considerably reduce the number of cars on the street, easing the congestion of site visitors.

Adopting strict environmental legislation is crucial in fighting pollutants and fixing transportation infrastructure. Implementing emission regulations for automobiles and industry and investing in renewable electricity alternatives can help lessen air pollution and the lousy fitness effects caused by vehicle emissions.

Furthermore, promoting a societal exchange closer to sustainable transportation behaviors is essential. Educating the public about the detrimental outcomes of excessive driving on the environment and human health can foster a feeling of duty in human beings and encourage them to regulate their conduct.

In precis, improving public transportation infrastructure, encouraging opportunity transportation, implementing environmental laws, and fostering a sustainable mindset among many of the population are all essential additives of a comprehensive method to reduce site visitor congestion and pollution in urban regions. By implementing those steps, cities can create cleaner, greener, and more liveable metropolitan surroundings.

With the growth of fast fashion, the style enterprise is under fire for its environmental and ethical implications. What efforts can be applied to mitigate the harmful effects of quick fashion?

The growth of fast style has fueled unheard-of consumerism, resulting in detrimental environmental and ethical consequences for the fashion enterprise. Concentrated attempts must be made to regulate the existing fashion paradigm to address these critically demanding situations.

One viable solution is to promote sustainable style methods. Encouraging clients to select ethically synthetic, ecologically friendly clothing labels can lessen the fashion industry's environmental effects. Furthermore, enacting laws that praise environmentally friendly materials, ethical labor requirements, and different sustainable production methods can promote a more excellent conscientious method to introduce garb.

Aside from selling sustainable fashion, increasing customer attention is essential. Educating customers about rapid style's environmental and social outcomes through educational tasks and evident labeling may help them make extra knowledgeable purchasing decisions. Furthermore, organizing a tradition of aware consumerism and assisting thoughtful dressers in restoring clothes, upcycling, and swapping can help lessen the demand for immediate fashion and create a sustainable style enterprise.

Furthermore, regulatory measures can play an essential role in mitigating the damaging consequences of rapid fashion. The environmental harm produced using the style industry can be lessened by implementing stronger laws governing pollutant control and waste control in fashion manufacturing facilities. Furthermore, shielding garment people's rights and enhancing their fashionable dwelling may be finished by imposing legal labor guidelines and advocating for fair pay and working conditions.

In the end, addressing the environmental and ethical issues created with a speedy style necessitates a multidimensional method consisting of sustainable manufacturing strategies, customer schooling, and legal guidelines and guidelines. The style of commercial enterprise may additionally flow toward a greater ethical and sustainable destiny by imposing those fixes, shielding the welfare of humans and the surroundings.

In conclusion, understanding the problem solution essay topics for the IELTS exam is critical for success and a good score. Understanding the framework, brainstorming alternatives, and successfully arranging your essay allow you to approach complicated challenges and give realistic answers. Remember to support your points with proof, critically assess solutions, and write your essay formally. With careful practice and preparation, you can successfully tackle any issue and essay subject that may arise on the IELTS exam. Consider using sites such as Yocket  to help you prepare more. Yocket's professional assistance and extensive study tools may help you flourish in your IELTS endeavors and reach your target score.

FAQ's on Problem Solution Essay IELTS

What is the IELTS examination?

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is a standardized exam used to decide the language competency of a non-local English audio system. It is widely diagnosed using universities, businesses, and immigration officers internationally.

What are the numerous modules of the IELTS exam?

The IELTS exam has four sections: listening, studying, writing, and talking. Different language skills, including writing capability, spoken English competence, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension, are assessed in every module.

How are IELTS exams graded?

The IELTS exam is evaluated on a scale of 0 to 9. Each module is assessed separately, and the total band score is derived by averaging the results from all four modules. Band scores are rounded to the closest half-band (6.5, 7.0, or 7.5).

What is the best way to be ready for the IELTS?

Preparing for the IELTS exam includes being familiar with the take-a-look-at-layout, practicing sample questions, and strengthening your English language abilities. You may join IELTS coaching instructions, get an entry to review materials from reputable IELTS websites, and take sample assessments to record your progress.

Where can I take the IELTS examination?

The IELTS examination gives an authorized look at facilities in cities globally. The official IELTS or authorized take-a-look-at-center websites offer a listing of take-a-look-at facilities and permit you to sign up for the examination online.

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Guest Essay

The Most Important Writing Exercise I’ve Ever Assigned

An illustration of several houses. One person walks away from a house with a second person isolated in a window.

By Rachel Kadish

Ms. Kadish is the author of the novel “The Weight of Ink.”

“Write down a phrase you find abhorrent — something you yourself would never say.”

My students looked startled, but they cooperated. They knew I wouldn’t collect this exercise; what they wrote would be private unless they chose to share it. All that was required of them was participation.

In silence they jotted down a few words. So far, so good. We hadn’t yet reached the hard request: Spend 10 minutes writing a monologue in the first person that’s spoken by a fictitious character who makes the upsetting statement. This portion typically elicits nervous glances. When that happens, I remind students that their statement doesn’t represent them and that speaking as if they’re someone else is a basic skill of fiction writers. The troubling statement, I explain, must appear in the monologue, and it shouldn’t be minimized, nor should students feel the need to forgive or account for it. What’s required is simply that somewhere in the monologue there be an instant — even a fleeting phrase — in which we can feel empathy for the speaker. Perhaps she’s sick with worry over an ill grandchild. Perhaps he’s haunted by a love he let slip away. Perhaps she’s sleepless over how to keep her business afloat and her employees paid. Done right, the exercise delivers a one-two punch: repugnance for a behavior or worldview coupled with recognition of shared humanity.

For more than two decades, I’ve taught versions of this fiction-writing exercise. I’ve used it in universities, middle schools and private workshops, with 7-year-olds and 70-year-olds. But in recent years openness to this exercise and to the imaginative leap it’s designed to teach has shrunk to a pinprick. As our country’s public conversation has gotten angrier, I’ve noticed that students’ approach to the exercise has become more brittle, regardless of whether students lean right or left.

Each semester, I wonder whether the aperture through which we allow empathy has so drastically narrowed as to foreclose a full view of our fellow human beings. Maybe there are times so contentious or so painful that people simply withdraw to their own silos. I’ve certainly felt that inward pull myself. There are times when a leap into someone else’s perspective feels impossible.

But leaping is the job of the writer, and there’s no point it doing it halfway. Good fiction pulls off a magic trick of absurd power: It makes us care. Responding to the travails of invented characters — Ahab or Amaranta, Sethe or Stevens, Zooey or Zorba — we might tear up or laugh, or our hearts might pound. As readers, we become invested in these people, which is very different from agreeing with or even liking them. In the best literature, characters are so vivid, complicated, contradictory and even maddening that we’ll follow them far from our preconceptions; sometimes we don’t return.

Unflinching empathy, which is the muscle the lesson is designed to exercise, is a prerequisite for literature strong enough to wrestle with the real world. On the page it allows us to spot signs of humanity; off the page it can teach us to start a conversation with the strangest of strangers, to thrive alongside difference. It can even affect those life-or-death choices we make instinctively in a crisis. This kind of empathy has nothing to do with being nice, and it’s not for the faint of heart.

Even within the safety of the page, it’s tempting to dodge empathy’s challenge, instead demonizing villains and idealizing heroes, but that’s when the needle on art’s moral compass goes inert. Then we’re navigating blind: confident that we know what the bad people look like and that they’re not us — and therefore we’re at no risk of error.

Our best writers, in contrast, portray humans in their full complexity. This is what Gish Jen is doing in the short story “Who’s Irish?” and Rohinton Mistry in the novel “A Fine Balance.” Line by line, these writers illuminate the inner worlds of characters who cause harm — which is not the same as forgiving them. No one would ever say that Toni Morrison forgives the character Cholly Breedlove, who rapes his daughter in “The Bluest Eye.” What Ms. Morrison accomplishes instead is the boldest act of moral and emotional understanding I’ve ever seen on the page.

In the classroom exercise, the upsetting phrases my students scribble might be personal (“You’ll never be a writer,” “You’re ugly”) or religious or political. Once a student wrote a phrase condemning abortion as another student across the table wrote a phrase defending it. Sometimes there are stereotypes, slurs — whatever the students choose to grapple with. Of course, it’s disturbing to step into the shoes of someone whose words or deeds repel us. Writing these monologues, my graduate students, who know what “first person” means, will dodge and write in third, with the distanced “he said” instead of “I said.”

But if they can withstand the challenges of first person, sometimes something happens. They emerge shaken and eager to expand on what they’ve written. I look up from tidying my notes to discover students lingering after dismissal with that alert expression that says the exercise made them feel something they needed to feel.

Over the years, as my students’ statements became more political and as jargon (“deplorables,” “snowflakes”) supplanted the language of personal experience, I adapted the exercise. Worrying that I’d been too sanguine about possible pitfalls, I made it entirely silent, so no student would have to hear another’s troubling statement or fear being judged for their own. Any students who wanted to share their monologues with me could stay after class rather than read to the group. Later, I added another caveat: If your troubling statement is so offensive, you can’t imagine the person who says it as a full human being, choose something less troubling. Next, I narrowed the parameters: No politics. The pandemic’s virtual classes made risk taking harder; I moved the exercise deeper into the semester so students would feel more at ease.

After one session, a student stayed behind in the virtual meeting room. She’d failed to include empathy in her monologue about a character whose politics she abhorred. Her omission bothered her. I was impressed by her honesty. She’d constructed a caricature and recognized it. Most of us don’t.

For years, I’ve quietly completed the exercise alongside my students. Some days nothing sparks. When it goes well, though, the experience is disquieting. The hard part, it turns out, isn’t the empathy itself but what follows: the annihilating notion that people whose fears or joys or humor I appreciate may themselves be indifferent to all my cherished conceptions of the world.

Then the 10-minute timer sounds, and I haul myself back to the business of the classroom — shaken by the vastness of the world but more curious about the people in it. I put my trust in that curiosity. What better choice does any of us have? And in the sanctuary of my classroom I keep trying, handing along what literature handed me: the small, sturdy magic trick any of us can work, as long as we’re willing to risk it.

Rachel Kadish is the author of the novel “The Weight of Ink.”

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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