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War on Waste Education Resources

These War On Waste teaching resources are designed to lead primary and secondary students through a deeper understanding of some of the big issues relating to waste in Australia and to support them in taking action to reduce the impact of waste on our environment.

What do your students think about waste? 

This series lets you bring the topic of waste management to a multitude of subjects, engaging students in the curriculum through topical content. 

About the series

Planet advocate and prankster Craig Reucassel takes a deep dive into Australia's waste crisis to sort the facts from the PR spin, tracking down everyday solutions to help all of us do our part in the war on waste. You can view the War on Waste series on ABC iview.

War On Waste - Tuning In To Numbers Around Plastic Waste

  • Mathematics
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Environmental
  • Sustainability
  • Design Thinking

War On Waste - The Trouble With E-Waste

  • Business and Economics
  • Design and Technologies

War On Waste - Start A Waste Warrior Team

War on waste - the impacts of single-use plastics, war on waste - plastic waste in the news, war on waste - plastic straws and our environment, war on waste - understanding plastic waste.

  • Year 7 - 10

War On Waste - Make A War On Waste Episode

War on waste - a circular economy for waste, war on waste - exploring microplastics, war on waste - the news about plastic waste, war on waste - the art of e-waste, professional learning, with thanks to our partners.

Cool Australia’s  War On Waste  lessons have been developed in partnership with  Lune Media  and with support from the  Australian Environmental Grantmakers Network .

war on waste essay

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The War on Waste and why it's important

I'M PASSIONATE about waste. So I beyond excited to watch Craig Reucassel's new ABC series War on Waste, the first episode of which aired last night.

Craig Reucassel in a scene from the TV series War on Waste. Supplied by ABC TV.

Don't miss out on the headlines from Opinion. Followed categories will be added to My News.

I'M PASSIONATE about waste.

Well, let me rephrase: I'm passionate about producing the least amount of waste that will go to landfill as I can.

Which is why I was beyond excited to watch Craig Reucassel's new ABC documentary series War on Waste, the first episode of which aired last night.

Since the program was announced I've been highly anticipating it's airing. And I was not disappointed.

The Chaser comedian has turned his focus to Australia's waste, and in the first episode he explored food waste: From what unused food products households chuck into the bin, to the gigantic amount good food that is dumped before it even reaches supermarket shelves in the first place.

Our world's plastic problem: How you can help

It was a highly enlightening program, I felt.

The message was clear: The amount of food waste we have in Australia alone is unacceptable.

Australia's waste is growing at twice the rate of its population and the country is now one of the worst in the developed world when it comes to generating rubbish.

One shocking moment came when Mr Reucassel revealed that up to 40% of bananas are thrown away by farmers because they were too long, too short, too bent, or too straight for supermarket standards.

Ridiculous, right?

Over the last eight or so months I've been learning about the zero waste lifestyle and have been adopting more and more strategies in my life to cut down on my waste.

5 things I'm doing to live a more sustainable life

From always carrying a reusable coffee mug, food container, napkin and spork with me in case I'm in need of a coffee hit or get peckish so I can avoid plastic single use products, to purchasing stainless steel straws so I can stay away from the plastic nasties that may end up in a seabird's belly, to shopping bulk using canvas produce bags and reusable containers in order to avoid food packaging (I did away with plastic shopping bags years ago, it only made sense to not be using those plastic fruit and veggie bags too), to even rethinking my cosmetics, beauty and personal care products.

And let me tell you - it's really not that hard to implement these small changes - that make a big difference - into your life. It's actually pretty easy.

My zero waste journey started when I saw a TED Talk by a young NYC woman called Lauren Singer, who runs a blog called Trash is for Tossers, and has all of her trash from the last three years tucked neatly into one tiny mason jar.

I then began reading books like the Zero Waste Home, by Bea Johnson, who also has a similar mason jar, as well as Plastic Free by Beth Terry.

After learning about the wastefulness of our earth's population, I have become acutely aware of any situation of wastefulness - while others may not even blink at the single use plastic bags at the supermarket, or the plastic straw they pop into their drink at the bar, or the non-recyclable takeaway coffee cups carried by those around of a morning, I cringe, and feel a deep feeling of sadness mixed with frustration.

But it's not the consumer's fault - we've been doing things this way for years. These single-use plastic items, a convenience, are so ingrained in our world that not many people think twice about the impacts of them.

That's why I'm so grateful for a show like War on Waste airing on a free-to-air, national TV channel.

Get on board with Plastic Free July campaign

Not only was the host entertaining, but Mr Reucassel also appears to have done a lot of research on the issue even before embarking on this project.

He's real about the struggles of interviewing large corporations like Coles and Woolworths about waste, and uses a down-to-earth manner and language when discussing food wastage on a personal level - leaving the viewer not feeling guilty for their wasteful habits, but rather empowered to make a difference on a personal level.

The 'street challenge', where a group of residents were shown in the program undergoing their own project, led by Mr Reucassel, to lessen their food wastage, was an effective way to shine a light on how others can do the same, in a not-at-all boring and tedious way.

As a result I feel this program has the ability to make a big impact, if Australia decides to stand up and take note.

How to cut down on food waste:

Only buy what you need. If you only need two apples, don't feel the need to buy the packaged pack of six. Grab two loose ones instead (plus you cut down on plastic packaging this way too!)

Make a conscious effort to use what is currently in your fridge and pantry. Get inventive - make up a new recipe, instead of attacking a new recipe and buying a heap of new ingredients, leaving other foods to go to waste in your home. Who knows what you'll come up with!

Dispose of your food waste responsibly:

  • At home you could create a compost pile, or worm farm. There are lots of options depending on your situation, whether you live on a big property, suburban home, or city apartment. Have a google and see what you can come up with.
  • Make use of your local council's organics bins - see below for information about Northern Rivers Waste, which services the Lismore City Council area. See your own council's website to get further information about their specific green bin requirements if needed.

What can go in your Green bin:

  • Fruit and vegetable scraps
  • Grass clippings and leaves
  • Pruned garden waste, twigs and small branches
  • Soiled paper/cardboard, i.e. pizza boxes and paper towel
  • Meat and fish
  • Pasta, bread and rice
  • Shredded paper

What can't:

  • Large amounts of soil
  • Treated timber
  • Plastic bags or plant pots

Hints and Tips:

To prevent smells occurring in your organics bin from fruit and vegetable scraps, try the following:

  • Keep the bin in the shade.
  • Try layering your fruit and vegetable scraps with other green waste (lawn clippings, leaves etc).
  • Wrap vegetable scraps in newspaper.
  • Hose out your bin onto the garden or lawn after it is emptied.
  • Use compostable liners purchased through Council (or newspaper) to collect your kitchen scraps before placing them in the green bin.

Why China’s navy is most unprofessional in world

Why China’s navy is most unprofessional in world

Despite China’s belief that it can control all the seas, the belligerence and poor seamanship of its navy risks sparking an accident or conflict.

Albo’s photo op that is tone deaf

Albo’s photo op that is tone deaf

For Anthony Albanese, an unscripted moment was particularly awkward given the mounting criticism of his travel schedule – 18 overseas trips in 18 months.

Essay on Waste Management for Students and Teacher


500+ Essay on Waste Management

Essay on Waste Management -Waste management is essential in today’s society. Due to an increase in population, the generation of waste is getting doubled day by day. Moreover, the increase in waste is affecting the lives of many people.

Essay on Waste Management

For instance, people living in slums are very close to the waste disposal area. Therefore there are prone to various diseases. Hence, putting their lives in danger. In order to maintain a healthy life, proper hygiene and sanitation are necessary. Consequently, it is only possible with proper waste management .

The Meaning of Waste Management

Waste management is the managing of waste by disposal and recycling of it. Moreover, waste management needs proper techniques keeping in mind the environmental situations. For instance, there are various methods and techniques by which the waste is disposed of. Some of them are Landfills, Recycling , Composting, etc. Furthermore, these methods are much useful in disposing of the waste without causing any harm to the environment.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Methods for Waste Management

Recycling – Above all the most important method is the recycling of waste. This method does not need any resources. Therefore this is much useful in the management of waste . Recycling is the reusing of things that are scrapped of. Moreover, recycling is further converting waste into useful resources.

war on waste essay

Landfills – Landfills is the most common method for waste management. The garbage gets buried in large pits in the ground and then covered by the layer of mud. As a result, the garbage gets decomposed inside the pits over the years. In conclusion, in this method elimination of the odor and area taken by the waste takes place.

Composting – Composting is the converting of organic waste into fertilizers. This method increases the fertility of the soil. As a result, it is helpful in more growth in plants. Furthermore it the useful conversion of waste management that is benefiting the environment.

Advantages of Waste Management

There are various advantages of waste management. Some of them are below:

Decrease bad odor – Waste produces a lot of bad odor which is harmful to the environment. Moreover, Bad odor is responsible for various diseases in children. As a result, it hampers their growth. So waste management eliminates all these problems in an efficient way.

Reduces pollution – Waste is the major cause of environmental degradation. For instance, the waste from industries and households pollute our rivers. Therefore waste management is essential. So that the environment may not get polluted. Furthermore, it increases the hygiene of the city so that people may get a better environment to live in.

Reduces the production of waste -Recycling of the products helps in reducing waste. Furthermore, it generates new products which are again useful. Moreover, recycling reduces the use of new products. So the companies will decrease their production rate.

It generates employment – The waste management system needs workers. These workers can do various jobs from collecting to the disposing of waste. Therefore it creates opportunities for the people that do not have any job. Furthermore, this will help them in contributing to society.

Produces Energy – Many waste products can be further used to produce energy. For instance, some products can generate heat by burning. Furthermore, some organic products are useful in fertilizers. Therefore it can increase the fertility of the soil.


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The War On Plastic Bags

D1d1- evaluate the impact of organisations in improving human health.

The national government put in place the 5p Plastic bag charge, to try to and improve human health. This law has been very beneficial for human health. It is known that plastic bags take over 500 years to break down in landfills and as a result of that these landfills can cause air pollution and land pollution, which can effect individual’s repository system and other illnesses. By having this law in place landfills are not filled up with so much plastic bag rubbish and as a result can be helping improve human health. More reusable bags.

Human Lack Of Respect For The Environment

People must start using reusable bags and bottles in order to decrease the amount of waste that is filling the planet. Plastic bags take between fifteen and one thousand

Plastic Bags

The author proves the falsehood of the long known assumption that plastic is a threat to our planet. By citing the research done by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the author convinces his readers that not only are plastic bags not harmful as people think, but also beneficial. This surprises his audience and shows them how exaggerated the cries of environmentalists, which gets the readers wondering what else have they falsely believed in and what other information are paper-bags advocates hiding from them, and that pulls them into the argument and intrigues them further. Additionally, Summers lists the harmful consequences of using reusable bags by presenting research results and observations. This alarms the audience and raises concern in their

What Are the Main Problems Associated with Using Plastic Bags? Identify Solutions to Reduce These Problems.

Each year there is an increase in demands for plastic bags, and therefore more are shipped, creating further environmental pollution concerns. This increase in demand has lead to the phenomenal upsurge in the use and misuse of plastic bags globally, both in developed and developing countries. Statistics show that 4 to 5 trillion plastic bags are produced per annum, whereby North America and Western Europe account for nearly 80% (Geographical, 2005; Reusable Bags, 2005). Cheeseman (2007) states that approximately “380 billion plastic shopping bags are used in the United States annually”; in turn, only 0.6% of this is recycled.

The Proximal Ban Of Plastic Bags In California

Due to the proximal ban of plastic bags in California, Adam B. Summers argues the reasons why they should not be banned in his article, “Bag Ban Bad for Freedom and Environment”. In order to build his argument, Summers includes an effective use of factual data and evidence, relating to the audience, and appealing to the audience’s emotion.

Should Plastic Bags Be Banned In The United States?

According to, all the plastic humans added up thrown away added up can circle the Earth four times. This is around 500 billion plastic bags, and most of them end up on landfill sites. The plastic bags in landfills usually lay there for over 300 years until they are completely photodegraded, or decomposed by the light, especially sunlight. During the process of being photodegraded, the plastic bags break down into small toxic particles that are either released into the air, or into the soil. These small toxic particles contaminate many different things such as soil and waterways. Since it is in the soil and waterways, animals often come and end up eating these dangerous toxic particles. Some supermarkets use biodegradable bags that are said to be “environment friendly,” but that is a total lie. According to an article about plastic bag pollution by Sharon Jacobsen, it says, “...the truth is that the process of breaking down these petrol based bags causes carbon to become methane which is a greenhouse gas.” Greenhouse gases are very dangerous to the environment since it causes temperature increase around the whole entire globe. Therefore, in conclusion, neither plastic bags or so-called “environment friendly” bags are good for the environment all around us, and we should not use them. Instead, we should use reusable

Plastic Bag Ban Bad For Freedom And Environment Summary

Summers’ facts and examples in this article to support his claim that banning plastic bags would be bad. A fact that he uses in his article is that the bill would have prohibited grocery stores and convenience stores at least $2 million in gross annual sales. People often debate that plastic bags hurt the planet and marine life. However, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, plastic bags, sacks, and wraps make up about 1.6 percent of all solid waste materials. Out of that little percent, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bags, the most common plastic grocery bag, only make up about 0.3 percent of them.

Natural Selection Of Plastic Bags Essay

To many, plastic bags are seen as malevolent and criminal, and heavy campaigns have been pushed into our communities to ban the use of them and enforce those beliefs, but in actuality, plastic bags aren’t as horrible as we make them out to be for

Plastic Bag Tax In Australia

The objective of this report is to illustrate the effect of the implementation of a plastic bag tax in Australia. By providing a brief overview of issues, correlated with plastic bag consumption in conjunction with current and proposed changes to policies in Australia. Through the application of economic theory, it can determined whether a tax would decrease consumption and through supporting evidence indicating its efficiency when applied in practice.

The Damage Of Plastic Bags In Tribe Talks

The Damage of Plastic Bags Plastic bags are a huge concern to the environment, and something need to be done about them. Some groups have been trying to put a ban on plastic bags into effect because of the damage it is causing to the earth.

Argumentative Essay On Plastic Bags

As the United States deals with the overwhelming amounts of waste building up, Nitin et al explain that “plastics take anywhere from 15 to 1000 years to biodegrade” once they are discarded (Nitin). Changes in recycling methods can no longer keep up with the exorbitant amount of waste produced in the United States. This is why some states choose to take their initiative one step further by placing either fees or a ban on the use of plastic bags. Due to the enormous waste the United States produces on a daily basis and the negative outcomes of this trash including adverse health effects, harmful impacts on nature, and the exponential piling of trash in landfills, the US government should ban plastic bags.

Plastic Pollution

Many individuals underestimate the amount of plastic we use each day. According to the article “Plastic Bags Wars”, “the world consumes 1 million plastic shopping bags every minute”. Plastic bags, along with many other types of plastics, have become a leading source of pollution worldwide (Doucette). Captain Charles Moore, founder of the Algalita foundation states that we use two million plastic bottles in the United States every five minutes. Discovered by Charles Moore in 1997, the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” is a prime example of the amount of plastic pollution that enters the

Research Paper On Plastic Bags

Picture this: A person goes out to the store to purchase a couple of necesites. Those necesites then get put into a plastic bag as per usual. They get home and take everything out of the bag. They then trash the bag because it is no longer needed. The plastic bag then ends up in some landfill where it is blown away into the middle of the ocean. The plastic bag then goes on to danger the marine animals. Plastic bags should be banned from stores because there are other ways people can carry their things, they are dangerous to marine animals, and cause pollution.

Informative Speech On Plastic Bags

Introduction: Have you ever wanted to help the environment, but you just didn’t know how? When we go shopping we see a lot of people carrying bags made of plastic. I must admit; plastic bags can be very convenient at times, but the use of plastic bags has it disadvantages. If you knew about the dangers of the use of plastic bags, then I'm sure you will think twice about using plastic bags and use tote bags instead.

Plastic Bags Should be Banned Essay

  • 7 Works Cited

Five hundred billion used globally and one hundred billion of them end up in U.S. landfills, taking about one thousand years to decompose, but only 5.2 percent were recycled (Borrud, 2007, p.75).-These are the figures plastic bags have produced every year. Human beings invented plastic bags for the convenience of carriers and packers. However, just as other great inventions, say, nuclear energy and biotechnology, plastic bags are causing serious issues like global warming, environment pollution and energy consumption. They are gradually becoming sword towards ourselves. In responding to this problem, the city of San Francisco has become the trail blazer to prohibit non-biodegradable plastic bags in its large supermarkets and pharmacies.

Related Topics

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Waste Management in Australia Quantitative Research


Usually, people dispose of unusable materials in litterbins. However, few of them are concerned with whatever happens after throwing the rubbish into the pit. Australia is experiencing one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

As a result, there has been amplified utilisation of resources in an attempt to meet various needs of Australians. Consequently, there is a high rate of waste generation due to the existence of fast growing industries. This situation has resulted in increased use of landfills to dispose of depleted materials. Indeed, this method is suitable for efficient disposal of biodegradable wastes.

However, at the back of landfill use are serious consequences that result from anaerobic digestion. The garbage that is disposed of in landfills harbours various microbes that disintegrate organic wastes into harmful gases that escalate global warming. This situation has created unending debates about establishing methods of waste disposal rather than using capped heaps.

Various researches have revealed that there are alternative ways that individuals, communities, and organisations can adopt to get rid of organic wastes. This essay provides an insight into waste management by examining the reasons why Australians should embrace recovery of energy from unused materials rather than dispose them of in landfills.

  • Waste Management in Australia

In Australia, various authorities in the municipalities are charged with the responsibility of creating awareness of waste management in an attempt to maintain sanitary and healthy environment for human survival. This practice focuses on keeping hazardous materials away from living and working places.

It also reduces pressure on raw materials that are used to make consumer products such as plastics through recycling and reusing them (Zaman & Lehmann 2011). The cost of unhygienic environment is much higher than that of observing strict management practices. In the wake of waste management, many companies have sprouted in Australia to deal with the menace (Zaman & Lehmann 2011).

Studies show that New South Wales alone has over 30-percent of the total waste management companies in Australia. The industry is approximated to generate more than 3-billion dollars revenue annually. It has offered employment to over 12,000 citizens. Its annual growth rate is about 7.5-percent. Statistics clearly indicate that more than 2700 organisations in Australia were involved in management of waste by the fall of 2012.

Disposal of Wastes in Landfills in Australia

The increasing rate of industrialisation in Australia has significantly led to generation of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes. According to Parsons and Kriwoken (2010), there has been increased reliance on landfills as a primary method of disposing of organic wastes. Various surveys have revealed that the amount of waste that was disposed of in landfills has also amplified.

For instance, Parsons and Kriwoken (2010) confirm that the quantity of organic wastes that were heaped in landfills increased by approximately 15-percent from 2004 to 2009. Presently, the volume of waste that is buried in landfills has exceeded 250 million tons as compared to about 25 million tons in 2009. This difference statistics depicts the rate of industry growth in Australia that has resulted in massive generation of wastes.

The graph shows the tonnes of paper, landfill, co-mingled, and organic wastes that have been recycled in Australia between 2011 and 2013.

Waste recycling in Australia

Graph 1: Waste recycling in Australia (Green & Dzidic 2014).

Impact of Landfill Use on the Environment and Society

The use of landfills has had various effects on the lives of Australians. Treloar (1998) reveals that leachate and gases that emanate from decomposing landfills expose human beings to varying health threats. Increased use of landfills in Australia has been characterised by corresponding levels of methane and carbon dioxide gases that aggravate global warming.

According to Pickin, Yuen, and Hennings (2002), leachate and gas that emanate from decomposing biodegradable waste in landfills have direct greenhouse effects. This situation has compelled the government to encourage conversion of waste into energy to save the environment from the menace.

Estimated landfill emissions in Australia

Table 1: Estimated landfill emissions in Australia (Treloar 1998).

In addition, landfill waste exposes people to numerous infections that arise from bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms that thrive in decomposing materials.

Classification of Landfill Waste

Numerous materials that end up in landfills determine the types of waste-to-energy management practices that should be executed to save the environment from pollution and devastation (Memon 2010). These types are grouped into two main categories. The first group comprises municipal wastes. Unused materials in this class are generated at the household level.

The local environmental authorities collect and dispose of the garbage in designated areas. The second category consists of commercial and industrial wastes that occur in larger quantities than the municipal wastes. Mainly, they are generated from business activities that involve large-scale processing of raw materials.

Wastes that result from construction sites or during demolition of buildings fall under this category. Such unused materials are removed using large skip bins. Other industrial wastes such as chemical effluents are hazardous in nature.

As a result, they require specialised handling. They are referred to as prescribed industrial wastes. The Environment Protection Regulations (EPR) of 2009 is charged with the responsibility of managing such effluents (Memon 2010).

National Waste-to-Energy Policy

The Australian national waste regulation was enacted in 2009 to promote management of wastes. The following were the aims of the policy.

  • To avoid or reduce generation of waste
  • To ensure proper management of waste as a resource
  • To make use of safe and environmentally sound scientific methods for treatment, disposal, and recovery of waste

The policy identified six key areas that are well coordinated to create more clarity to the community and businesses. The first area involves taking responsibility to promote a safe and clean environment. It is a duty of every person to make sure that materials that are produced for use do not lead to generation of waste that is harmful to the environment.

Secondly, the policy advocates for market improvement. There is a need to establish market for resources that are recovered from waste to reduce pressure on natural resources. As a result, innovation in the sector needs to be accelerated. Thirdly, the policy aims at establishing sustainable ways of reducing waste generation. Furthermore, it highlights the need to reduce hazards.

Potentially harmful waste production should be abolished and energy recovery measures put in place. Lastly, updated waste and resource recovery information should be made available to policymakers. Provision of such evidence promotes assessment of the implemented regulations.

Waste Management Audit

According to Shan-shan and Lo (2007), waste management audits entail the use of formal and structured processes to quantify the types and amounts of waste that are generated by Australian organisations. The information obtained from the audit assists in the identification of existing waste management practices in attempt to determine ways of improving them.

Either an in-house or a contracted certified public accountant states the objectives of the process prior to the auditing process (Shan-shan & Lo 2007). This information enables determination of the suitable waste-to-energy conversion technology. Various objectives that can be used in the audit are listed below.

  • To determine the composition of the waste generated and the quantity
  • To identify opportunities of improving waste management strategies and systems
  • To measure the effectiveness of the existing systems
  • To collect information about waste minimisation

Non-hazardous Solid Waste Management in Australia

Non-hazardous waste consists of everyday unused materials such as product packaging, torn clothing, damaged furniture, and appliances. The municipal council normally collects this waste for disposal. A hierarchy for management of this kind of waste has been designed.

It is illustrated using an inverted pyramid that presents the most desirable practices at the top and the least desirable ones at the bottom.

Waste Management Hierarchy

Figure 1: Waste Management Hierarchy (Boyd 1994)

Waste to Energy (Energy Recovery)

Energy recovery is found at the second level from the bottom of the waste management pyramid. In Australia, energy recovery is still a less preferred method of waste disposal regardless of the efforts that various authorities and companies have made towards its implementation.

Energy recovery refers to the conversion of waste that is non-recyclable into heat (Green & Dzidic 2014). In the wake of increasing global warming and general environmental pollution, the many communities and governments around the world have pressured the Australian local authorities to initiate sustainable waste management programmes. This situation has resulted from the increased use of landfills.

The mounting pressure on the Australian authorities has compelled them to embark on a move to convert waste into energy. Various companies have come up with various waste-to-energy conversion technologies that are aimed saving the environment from amplified global warming effects.

To achieve this objective, the companies that have adopted a number of waste-to-energy techniques such as conventional combustion, anaerobic digestion, and advanced thermal technology to promote sustainable waste management. According to Parsons and Kriwoken (2010), wastes have both physical and chemical significances owing to their ability to generate bioenergy. As a result, these materials can be subjected to both primary and secondary energy conversion processes.

The waste-to-energy conversion techniques entail harnessing heat from materials that have a high calorific content through processes such as gasification, incineration, and/or pyrolysis (Parsons & Kriwoken 2010). The heat energy is used to generate electricity that is used for both domestic and commercial purposes.

For instance, some industries such as sugar millers heap huge wastes on daily basis. Some of such companies have recently begun using this waste to produce thermal electricity. This practice cuts their costs of production. At the household level, some people use animal waste to produce biogas, which is regarded as clean energy, through anaerobic digestion (Boyd 1994).

Economics of Energy Recovery

Australia is known as one of most notorious environment emitters of greenhouse gases due to increased industrialisation and use of landfills. Waste-to-energy initiatives are projected to improve collection of revenue through activities such as electricity generation.

Parsons and Kriwoken (2010) reveal that various Australian authorities have signed power purchase agreements with the companies that have taken the initiative to pursue energy recovery. On another perspective, establishment of waste-to-energy projects will encompass installation, operational, and maintenance costs.

Although various achievements on waste management in the have been realised, there is still a lot research and work that needs to be done. The government should conduct civic education to sensitise people to ways of reducing waste generation. The rate at which natural resources are being used to make products is a major cause of waste generation.

At some point, is hard to imagine the availability of such resources in the next century. Recycling and reusing waste can slow down this rate effectively. Disposal of waste through landfills be a last resort when other forms have been proven ineffective for a particular kind of waste.

The waste capped in a landfill can otherwise create employment opportunities if a recycling plant is set up. Entrepreneurs should take advantage of the opportunities that are brought about by the availability of unused materials to venture in the multi-billion dollar waste management industry. This situation results in a clean environment that is necessary for a healthy nation.

Boyd, W 1994, ‘Agricultural waste management planning’, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, vol. 49 no. 2, pp. 53.

Green, M & Dzidic, P 2014, ‘Social science and socialising: adopting causal layered analysis to reveal multi-stakeholder perceptions of natural resource management in Australia’, Journal of Environmental Planning & Management, vol. 57 no. 12, pp. 1782-1801.

Memon, M 2010, ‘Integrated solid waste management based on the 3R approach’, The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 30-40.

Shan-shan, C & Lo, C 2007, ‘The roles of grassroots local government in sustainable waste management in China’, International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14 no. 2, pp. 133-144.

Parsons, S & Kriwoken, L 2010, ‘Maximising recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sised enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia’, Waste Management and Research, vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 472.

Pickin, J, Yuen, S & Hennings, H 2002, ‘Waste management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia’, Atmospheric Environment , vol. 36 no. 4, pp. 741-52.

Treloar, J 1998, Recovery and Use of Landfill Gas in Adelaide, South Australia . Web.

Zaman, A & Lehmann, S 2011, ‘Urban growth and waste management optimisation towards ‘zero waste city’’, City, Culture and Society, vol. 2 no. 4, pp. 177-87.

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IvyPanda. (2022, April 25). Waste Management in Australia.

"Waste Management in Australia." IvyPanda , 25 Apr. 2022,

IvyPanda . (2022) 'Waste Management in Australia'. 25 April.

IvyPanda . 2022. "Waste Management in Australia." April 25, 2022.

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IvyPanda . "Waste Management in Australia." April 25, 2022.

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Essay: The war against plastic is distracting us from pollution that cannot be seen

The war against plastic may be overshadowing greater threats to the environment. In a collaboration with experts from the environmental sciences, engineering, industry, policy and charities, we have written a paper in the journal WIREs Water which highlights concerns that relatively easy action against plastic pollution can conveniently mask environmental apathy, and that people are being misled by alarmist headlines, emotive photographs, and “ greenwashing ”.

Plastic is an incredibly useful and versatile material on which much of modern society relies, yet it has become one of the most topical environmental issues of the day. Over the past few years, plastic pollution has encouraged action from individuals, organisations and governments at levels similar to some of the greatest threats to the environment, such as climate change and biodiversity loss.

Plastic pollution on a beach

Plastic pollution is unsightly and has harmful effects but are only part of the pollution picture, say researchers. PICTURE: Brian Yurasits/Unsplash

This concern is well founded. Plastic pollution is unsightly, can entangle wildlife , can be ingested and block stomachs and intestines, and may carry harmful chemicals . It can break down into small pieces, eventually to microplastics – pieces smaller than five millimetres – that can accumulate up the food chain. It has also been found in some of the most remote parts of the world.

But though there is widespread animosity towards plastics, they are a group of materials that we cannot live without, and that we should not live without. We argue that plastics themselves are not the cause of the problem, and that failing to recognise this risks exacerbating much greater environmental and social catastrophes.

"[T]hough there is widespread animosity towards plastics, they are a group of materials that we cannot live without, and that we should not live without. We argue that plastics themselves are not the cause of the problem, and that failing to recognise this risks exacerbating much greater environmental and social catastrophes."

Some pollution is less visible The environmental impacts of some less visible pollutants are well known. Greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. Fine particles in the atmosphere are associated with respiratory illnesses and are a major component of smog . And radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster continues to impact the wildlife that has taken over its exclusion zone.

But society pollutes the environment in more ways than most people are aware, and has done since long before concern for plastic pollution became prevalent. Agriculture leads to nutrient over-enrichment and pesticide pollution . Electronics, vehicles and buildings require a wide variety of toxic metals that leak into the environment at the end of their lives and are blown and washed from where they are mined. Medicines that are washed down drains and not completely metabolised (used up) by our bodies can also find their way into rivers and lakes.

These lesser known realities of everyday consumption degrade the environment and are toxic to wildlife. As chemicals, rather than particles like plastic, these pollutants are also far more mobile than plastics and, in the case of toxic metals, more persistent.

Plastic pollution provides a convenient distraction from these inconvenient truths. Starting with political legislation at the very top, high-profile action against plastic pollution has been disproportionate to its environmental impact.

Banning microbeads in cosmetics, for example, addressed only a very small part of the problem. This is not to say that microbeads are not present in the environment or that they do not pose a risk to it. But those who are in positions of power – scientists, industry, the media, politicians – have an obligation not to mislead their audiences by disseminating research and environmental policy that lacks context.

Focus on the product – not the plastic Plastic is just one type of anthropogenic material in the environment. Plastic textile fibres such as polyester or nylon are a prominent form of pollution , but it is natural fibres like wool and cotton that have recently been found to dominate environmental samples . Though biodegradable, when these natural fibres do degrade they may leach harmful chemicals, such as dyes into the environment.

Glass and aluminium, sometimes promoted as solutions to plastic bottle pollution, can have greater carbon footprints than the plastics they replace. And many of these alternatives will also persist in the environment. Someone who will throw a plastic bottle into a river will not change their behaviour if they have an aluminium can.

The problem is the product, not the plastic. A desire for convenience, industries reliant on overconsumption not informed consumption, and a culture of policies for popularity not progression, are all at the root of the plastic conversation. But the plastic pollution is just the bit you can see.

So what should we do? “Plastic” and “plastic pollution” are all too often confused. Plastic pollution is a visible and easily relatable symptom of unsustainable levels of consumption, inappropriate product design, poor waste management and disingenuous policy.

Greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity losses, exploitative labour practices and chemical pollution either cannot be seen so clearly or their effects develop over a longer period of time. But once their impacts are visible, it is often too late for the environments they afflict. That’s why there is a pressing need to raise the profile of the pollution that cannot be seen.

Thomas Stanton  is a lecturer in environmental science at  Nottingham Trent University ; Matthew Johnson  is associate professor in the Department of Geography at  University of Nottingham , and Paul Kay , is associate professor in water quality at the  University of Leeds . This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article .

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Persuasive Essay On Waste Management

During the World War era, the United States began as one of the last countries to industrialize its production rate, however it ended up being the biggest producer in the world with the help of the conveyer belt; factories could produce faster and cheaper and so, production rates skyrocketed. The production factories gave jobs to many people and so it strengthened the economy. In other words, the more production, the stronger economy, however, since factories produce unwanted residue waste , the more production, the more they created hazardous waste. In today’s world, “the U.S. manages to produce a quarter of the world’s waste despite the fact that its population of 300 million is less than 5% of the world’s population, according to 2005 estimates.” …show more content…

We often forget about the consequences from our actions because we believe that we are not obliged to Earth, instead Earth is obliged to us by nature. The waste that is being produced globally, including electronic, chemical, and residue-liquid, is hazardous to all living things and so the status quo of dealing with these kinds of waste is by incinerating and then burying them underground. However, the waste facility that my group and I did research on, Scholl Canyon Management, does not take in hazardous waste nor burn any because of the dangerous effect. Since the Scholl Canyon facility does not take in hazardous waste due to regulations, it raises a question on our current ethics and practices on waste management. On the other hand, they do handle regular non-recyclable waste by collectively packaging it underground layer after layer. Although the Scholl Canyon facility does not take in hazardous waste, they still practice techniques that could have unforeseen consequences, and so, if Leopold, Abbey, and Berry were at the dump sight, they would all agree on changing the practice of recycling due to limitation, unforeseen consequences, and internal

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that the united states produced a quarter of the world's waste despite being less than 5% of its population. the scholl canyon facility does not take in hazardous waste due to regulations.
  • Explains that the scholl canyon facility compresses waste that cannot be recycled, re-used, or rebuilt, then puts it underground and finishes it by planting greenery over it.
  • Explains that burying trash underground creates man-made disasters that can cause a great deal of damage if the conditions are right. recyclable material can be produced instead of plastic bottles.
  • Explains that burying hazardous trash underground will cause internal hazardousness affects, which could affect some parts of a region. the solution is to stop producing un-reusable materials and recycle paper.
  • Argues that to stop the current status quo of dealing with unrecyclable trash, we need to change our ethical stance by thinking long-term of what our actions are doing.

Click here to unlock this and over one million essays

Persuasive Essay On Landfills

Imagine yourself in the middle of a rainforest, listen to the sounds around you, smell the fresh air, hear the wildlife; take that image and get rid of the trees around you, the sounds of wildlife, and the smell of fresh air. Instead of a rainforest you are now in the middle of a seemingly endless sea of trash and waste. The fresh scent in the air gone, the sprawling land of greenery and trees gone, and the sounds of the forest is reduced to the sound of heavy machinery trying vainly to reduce trash into smaller more compact waste.

Let's Get Dirty - Our Future Is Compost

Have you ever wondered what happens to your trash after you put it in the garbage can? Most people do not, after all, sanitation workers remove the garbage and it is never seen again. Martin V. Melosi called this "out-of-site, out-of-mind mentality… as long as someone removed wastes from the immediate range of the senses, the problem was solved."1 As a result, garbage disposal is a service that many take for granted. Yet, waste does not just disappear. It must be stored, buried, or burned somewhere. This disposal process has gone on for hundreds of years since populations produced huge amounts of waste. The continued use of landfills and dumps has caused the perception that there is a garbage crisis.

The Garbage Problem in America

A garbage crisis is at hand. As a nation, we have begun to worry that the growing mounds of wastes will only continue to increase as the means of disposal become further restricted. Government agencies and public officials are urgently trying to find a solution. The waste dilemma has become the centerpiece of the politics of garbage.

Understanding and Categorizing Solid Waste in India

properly carried out there is possibility of toxic material entering the stream of SOLID WASTE.

Persuasive Essay About Trash Island

Have you ever seen trash island? Ordinary people think that it is an island where people dump their trash. This isn’t the cases, however. Trash island is an island that is made out of non-biodegradable plastic and other trash. It floats in the Pacific ocean about 100 miles from the coast of California. The objects that float into the island cause a massive threat to wildlife including sea turtles and sharks. This has already caused a mass extinction in some types of plankton and fish. Today it is a vast problem. Will there ever be a solution?

We the People of a Wasteful Country

To waste or not to waste would seem like an easy question, but in our country that has over 2,000, landfills it really makes you wonder if we are a nation of excess. Excess isn’t solely defined by what we just throw away. It may be some old clothes that one never wears or perhaps one perfectly good cell phone that was discarded because it was time for an upgrade. The United States is full of excess that could be severely reduced. With waste comes three major topics: waste in general, the landfill, it’s stored in, and the effect it has on the environment. Each of these topics plays a pivotal role in how we as a nation deal with our excess.

Persuasive Essay On Water Pollution

People often get very offended when you start talking about limiting their food choices. They claim it is their right to choose what they eat and to some degree it is and should always be but on the other hand that animal on their plate wasn’t given the right to choose whether they’d be there or not and if we looked each animal in the eye before they went to slaughter we would then truly realize that no animal wants to die and if we don’t need to eat animals to survive then shouldn’t we let that animal live a the life it deserves, one free from all human caused suffering. Doesn’t our environment also deserve to thrive as it once did? We see ever increasingly the man made atrocities, whether it be from oil, industrial, or any other factor.

Persuasive Essay On Water Conservation

Water is essential for humanity’s survival, and even though the world is largely covered by water, only a small percentage is only usable for human consumption. Approximately, on average, 120,000 gallons of water are used annually for a single-family household (Galbraith). This alarming number could be reduced dramatically for the efforts of water conserving and lower water bill prices for families and subsequently saving money that could be used for other expenses. Thus, conserving water would prove beneficial and advantageous to not just Texas, but for everyone else as well. Although environmental policies have been not as popular with Congress and the state legislature, it is still an important problem to consider since there are only a limited amount of resources for public use, such as water.

Persuasive Essay On Recycling

When most people hear the word recycling they think of plastic water bottles, milk jugs, or even old paper that they can reuse, but this is not necessarily the case anymore. Scientists and researchers have discovered a new form of recycling that is going to help better the environment and it can even help make people money! Smokers around the world do not think about recycling their used cigarette butts, but this new form of recycling has changed some of their minds on this subject. Recycling has been a major environmental issue, but most people have forgotten about it or they just do not care for it anymore. Paper recycling dates back to as far as 400 B.C. Some people even say that the early Romans recycled their bronze coins so that they

Persuasive Essay On Coal Pollution

In 2007, the world consumed 5.3 billion tons of coal, 31.1 billion tons of oil, 2.92 trillion cubic meters of natural gas, and 65,000 tons of uranium. All of these energy needs could have been met with only 6,600 tons of thorium, an abundant, slightly radioactive element found in the Earth’s crust.

Persuasive Essay: Why Should People Recycle?

Do you know that there are about three trillion pounds of garbage on Earth? Sadly, these pieces of garbage kill animals when they eat the garbage because the garbage has a lot of harmful pathogens which sometimes give them serious diseases. Even the air pollution in the landfill can also harm the animals which can be a real danger to them because they can die or suffer in pain. If people recycle, then it wouldn't create this problem which is going on the world. People should recycle because it saves energy, reduces landfills, and saves money.

Persuasive Essay On Environmental Pollution

Our planet is suffering from severe pollution, which ranges from contaminated air, water and soil as well. Humans are doing nothing to reduce the amount of pollution that is harming our earth. To understand how pollution works first you must understand that there are different types of pollution. The most common types of pollution and the ones that I will be focusing on which are the ones doing the most harm to our planet are air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and littering. In order to help out and reduce pollution in our planet people need to be more aware of what these problems are and about the severe damages that they are causing our planet. Before industrialization really jumped into place and had an effect on large cities, nature had its own way of cleaning up its own air and itself. Wind scattered gases, rain washed many substances and the rest dissolved into the ground; while plants absorbed carbon dioxide and made it into oxygen. With big cities growing more every time and with more towns that were becoming more industrialized a lot of more waste began to be released into the environment and the atmosphere and soon this was more than enough for nature to handle. In order to stop and reduce pollution people need to understand the damage that it is causing our environment and our planet as well. People need to be more aware of how they can help out and do their part in reducing these problems that are causing our planet to die slowly with people not even noticing it.

Innovative Waste Disposal

As humanity develops new technology, the magnitude and severity of waste increases. When computers were developed, it widely was believed that the need for paper would be eliminated. On the contrary this was widely proven false and we are now utilizing more paper than ever. Canada is not an exception as the typical Canadian generates an average of three pounds of solid waste each day1. This alone shows what a careless species we have become- using and disposing materials without even considering the damage we are causing. With half a trillion tones of waste around the world, only 25% may be reused for a second or third time and less than 5% can be renewed limitlessly1. These facts are true only in developed countries. Since these traditional waste reduction methods have been proven inefficient, we must endorse new innovative technology to arrive at a solution.

Essay On Waste Disposal

The solid wastes are produce not only by households; it’s contributed by hospitals and corporations. Hospitals throw away bandages, use needles and latex gloves, these items hospitals throw away daily all the time because they can’t be reuse for the safety of its patients. Corporations throw away a lot of waste as well such as papers that they use whether in writing or in projects. All of these leftovers after consumptions are waste that is produced by our daily actions.

Waste Water Essay

Wastewater is the combination of water-carried or liquid wastes starting in the sanitary conveniences of dwellings, industrial or commercial facilities. In addition to this, surface water, groundwater and storm water may also be present. It is any water that has been badly affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It contains waste from residential, industrial and commercial processes. Municipal water contains industrial wastewater, sewage and gray water. Gray water is the water from sinks and showers. Large industries also produce wastewater.

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