Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems
If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:
The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).
Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.
Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .
If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.
Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection
When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in 1921, you might write something like this:
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author :
Citing two books by the same author :
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:
John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays
Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.
Here is an example from O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh.
WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.
ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.
WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com, as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:
In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).
In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.
The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
Have a thesis expert improve your writing
Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes, generate your apa citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
- Working with sources
- How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA
How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA
Published on 15 April 2022 by Shona McCombes and Jack Caulfield. Revised on 3 September 2022.
Quoting means copying a passage of someone else’s words and crediting the source. To quote a source, you must ensure:
- The quoted text is enclosed in quotation marks (usually single quotation marks in UK English, though double is acceptable as long as you’re consistent) or formatted as a block quote
- The original author is correctly cited
- The text is identical to the original
The exact format of a quote depends on its length and on which citation style you are using. Quoting and citing correctly is essential to avoid plagiarism , which is easy to detect with a good plagiarism checker .
Table of contents
How to cite a quote in harvard and apa style, introducing quotes, quotes within quotes, shortening or altering a quote, block quotes, when should i use quotes, frequently asked questions about quoting sources.
Every time you quote, you must cite the source correctly . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style you’re using.
Citing a quote in Harvard style
When you include a quote in Harvard style, you must add a Harvard in-text citation giving the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number if available. Any full stop or comma appears after the citation, not within the quotation marks.
Citations can be parenthetical or narrative. In a parenthetical citation , you place all the information in brackets after the quote. In a narrative citation , you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote.
- Evolution is a gradual process that ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (Darwin, 1859, p. 510) . Darwin (1859) explains that evolution ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (p. 510) .
Complete guide to Harvard style
Citing a quote in APA Style
To cite a direct quote in APA , you must include the author’s last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by commas. If the quote appears on a single page, use ‘p.’; if it spans a page range, use ‘pp.’
An APA in-text citation can be parenthetical or narrative. In a parenthetical citation , you place all the information in parentheses after the quote. In a narrative citation , you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote.
Punctuation marks such as full stops and commas are placed after the citation, not within the quotation marks.
- Evolution is a gradual process that ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (Darwin, 1859, p. 510) .
- Darwin (1859) explains that evolution ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (p. 510) .
Complete guide to APA
Make sure you integrate quotes properly into your text by introducing them in your own words, showing the reader why you’re including the quote and providing any context necessary to understand it. Don’t present quotations as stand-alone sentences.
There are three main strategies you can use to introduce quotes in a grammatically correct way:
- Add an introductory sentence
- Use an introductory signal phrase
- Integrate the quote into your own sentence
The following examples use APA Style citations, but these strategies can be used in all styles.
Introduce the quote with a full sentence ending in a colon . Don’t use a colon if the text before the quote isn’t a full sentence.
If you name the author in your sentence, you may use present-tense verbs, such as “states’, ‘argues’, ‘explains’, ‘writes’, or ‘reports’, to describe the content of the quote.
- In Denmark, a recent poll shows that: ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
- In Denmark, a recent poll shows that support for the EU has grown since the Brexit vote: ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
- Levring (2018) reports that support for the EU has grown since the Brexit vote: ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (p. 3).
Introductory signal phrase
You can also use a signal phrase that mentions the author or source but doesn’t form a full sentence. In this case, you follow the phrase with a comma instead of a colon.
- According to a recent poll, ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
- As Levring (2018) explains, ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (p. 3).
Integrated into your own sentence
To quote a phrase that doesn’t form a full sentence, you can also integrate it as part of your sentence, without any extra punctuation.
- A recent poll suggests that EU membership ‘would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ in a referendum (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
- Levring (2018) reports that EU membership ‘would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ in a referendum (p. 3).
When you quote text that itself contains another quote, this is called a nested quotation or a quote within a quote. It may occur, for example, when quoting dialogue from a novel.
To distinguish this quote from the surrounding quote, you enclose it in double (instead of single) quotation marks (even if this involves changing the punctuation from the original text). Make sure to close both sets of quotation marks at the appropriate moments.
Note that if you only quote the nested quotation itself, and not the surrounding text, you can just use single quotation marks.
- Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: ‘ ‘ Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone, ‘ he told me, ‘ just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had ‘ ‘ (Fitzgerald 1).
- Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: ‘”Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone,” he told me, “just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had “ (Fitzgerald 1).
- Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: ‘“Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone,” he told me, “just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had”’ (Fitzgerald 1).
- Carraway begins by quoting his father’s invocation to ‘remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had’ (Fitzgerald 1).
Note: When the quoted text in the source comes from another source, it’s best to just find that original source in order to quote it directly. If you can’t find the original source, you can instead cite it indirectly .
Often, incorporating a quote smoothly into your text requires you to make some changes to the original text. It’s fine to do this, as long as you clearly mark the changes you’ve made to the quote.
Shortening a quote
If some parts of a passage are redundant or irrelevant, you can shorten the quote by removing words, phrases, or sentences and replacing them with an ellipsis (…). Put a space before and after the ellipsis.
Be careful that removing the words doesn’t change the meaning. The ellipsis indicates that some text has been removed, but the shortened quote should still accurately represent the author’s point.
Altering a quote
You can add or replace words in a quote when necessary. This might be because the original text doesn’t fit grammatically with your sentence (e.g., it’s in a different tense), or because extra information is needed to clarify the quote’s meaning.
Use brackets to distinguish words that you have added from words that were present in the original text.
The Latin term ‘ sic ‘ is used to indicate a (factual or grammatical) mistake in a quotation. It shows the reader that the mistake is from the quoted material, not a typo of your own.
In some cases, it can be useful to italicise part of a quotation to add emphasis, showing the reader that this is the key part to pay attention to. Use the phrase ’emphasis added’ to show that the italics were not part of the original text.
You usually don’t need to use brackets to indicate minor changes to punctuation or capitalisation made to ensure the quote fits the style of your text.
If you quote more than a few lines from a source, you must format it as a block quote . Instead of using quotation marks, you set the quote on a new line and indent it so that it forms a separate block of text.
Block quotes are cited just like regular quotes, except that if the quote ends with a full stop, the citation appears after the full stop.
To the end of his days Bilbo could never remember how he found himself outside, without a hat, a walking-stick or any money, or anything that he usually took when he went out; leaving his second breakfast half-finished and quite unwashed-up, pushing his keys into Gandalf’s hands, and running as fast as his furry feet could carry him down the lane, past the great Mill, across The Water, and then on for a mile or more. (16)
Avoid relying too heavily on quotes in academic writing . To integrate a source , it’s often best to paraphrase , which means putting the passage into your own words. This helps you integrate information smoothly and keeps your own voice dominant.
However, there are some situations in which quotes are more appropriate.
When focusing on language
If you want to comment on how the author uses language (for example, in literary analysis ), it’s necessary to quote so that the reader can see the exact passage you are referring to.
When giving evidence
To convince the reader of your argument, interpretation or position on a topic, it’s often helpful to include quotes that support your point. Quotes from primary sources (for example, interview transcripts or historical documents) are especially credible as evidence.
When presenting an author’s position or definition
When you’re referring to secondary sources such as scholarly books and journal articles, try to put others’ ideas in your own words when possible.
But if a passage does a great job at expressing, explaining, or defining something, and it would be very difficult to paraphrase without changing the meaning or losing the weakening the idea’s impact, it’s worth quoting directly.
A quote is an exact copy of someone else’s words, usually enclosed in quotation marks and credited to the original author or speaker.
To present information from other sources in academic writing , it’s best to paraphrase in most cases. This shows that you’ve understood the ideas you’re discussing and incorporates them into your text smoothly.
It’s appropriate to quote when:
- Changing the phrasing would distort the meaning of the original text
- You want to discuss the author’s language choices (e.g., in literary analysis )
- You’re presenting a precise definition
- You’re looking in depth at a specific claim
Every time you quote a source , you must include a correctly formatted in-text citation . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style .
For example, a direct quote in APA is cited like this: ‘This is a quote’ (Streefkerk, 2020, p. 5).
Every in-text citation should also correspond to a full reference at the end of your paper.
In scientific subjects, the information itself is more important than how it was expressed, so quoting should generally be kept to a minimum. In the arts and humanities, however, well-chosen quotes are often essential to a good paper.
In social sciences, it varies. If your research is mainly quantitative , you won’t include many quotes, but if it’s more qualitative , you may need to quote from the data you collected .
As a general guideline, quotes should take up no more than 5–10% of your paper. If in doubt, check with your instructor or supervisor how much quoting is appropriate in your field.
If you’re quoting from a text that paraphrases or summarises other sources and cites them in parentheses , APA recommends retaining the citations as part of the quote:
- Smith states that ‘the literature on this topic (Jones, 2015; Sill, 2019; Paulson, 2020) shows no clear consensus’ (Smith, 2019, p. 4).
Footnote or endnote numbers that appear within quoted text should be omitted.
If you want to cite an indirect source (one you’ve only seen quoted in another source), either locate the original source or use the phrase ‘as cited in’ in your citation.
A block quote is a long quote formatted as a separate ‘block’ of text. Instead of using quotation marks , you place the quote on a new line, and indent the entire quote to mark it apart from your own words.
APA uses block quotes for quotes that are 40 words or longer.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.
McCombes, S. & Caulfield, J. (2022, September 03). How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA. Scribbr. Retrieved 20 November 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/working-sources/quoting/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, how to paraphrase | step-by-step guide & examples, how to avoid plagiarism | tips on citing sources, the 5 types of plagiarism | explanations & examples.
Generate accurate MLA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- How to cite a book in MLA
How to Cite a Book in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on June 28, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 16, 2022.
An MLA book citation always includes the author(s) , title (italicized), publisher, and publication year in the Works Cited entry. If relevant, also include the names of any editors or translators, the edition, and the volume. “University Press” should be abbreviated to “UP” in a Works Cited entry.
The in-text citation gives the author’s last name and a page number in parentheses.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, citing a book chapter, editions of books, multi-volume books, translated books, e-books and online books, where to find information for a book citation, frequently asked questions about mla style.
Use this format if the book’s chapters are written by different authors, or if the book is a collection of self-contained works (such as stories , essays, poems or plays ). A similar format can be used to cite images from books or dictionary entries . If you cite several chapters from the same book, include a separate Works Cited entry for each one.
Start the Works Cited entry with the author and title of the chapter, followed by the book’s title, editor, publisher, and date , and end with the page range on which the chapter appears.
If there are two editors, give the full names of both. If there are more than two editors, follow the same rules as for citing multiple authors : name only the first editor followed by et al.
If you are citing a work from a book with no named editor (e.g. a collection of a single author’s poems or plays), use the same format, but leave out the editor element.
- Multiple editors
Citing a whole collection or anthology
If you refer to a whole collection without citing a specific work within it, follow the standard book citation format. Include the editor(s) where the author would usually go, with a label to identify their role.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
If the book cover or title page specifies an edition, add the edition number or name, followed by the abbreviation “ed.”, after the title. Note that versions of the Bible are treated slightly differently.
Including the original publication date
Classic books are often published and republished many times. If the original publication date is relevant or necessary to put the source in context, you can also include this directly after the title.
If you cite only one volume of a multi-volume work, include the volume number in the Works Cited entry.
If you cite more than one volume of the book, cite them as a single work and specify the total number of volumes in your Works Cited entry. In this case, the in-text citations must include the volume number as well as the page number.
- Citing a single volume
- Citing multiple volumes
If the book is translated, include the translator’s name after the title.
The citation format for an e-book depends on how you accessed it.
Books accessed online
If you accessed the book via a website or database, use the standard MLA book citation format, followed by the name of the website or database and a link to the book. Look for a DOI, stable URL or permalink. If the book was accessed as a PDF, you may note this in your reference .
If you downloaded the book onto an e-reader device or app, you only have to add “E-book ed.” after the title.
If the e-book does not have page numbers, use an alternate locator, such as a chapter or section heading, in your in-text citation. Do not use locators that are specific to the device (e.g. Kindle locations).
The title, author, publisher, and publication year are usually found on the book’s title page. You might have to check the copyright page for the publisher and publication year.
Note that the copyright date is not always the same as the publication date. If several different years appear on the copyright page, use the most recent one.
If the book has any editors or translators named on the cover page, include them in the citation after the book’s title.
In MLA style , book titles appear in italics, with all major words capitalized. If there is a subtitle, separate it from the main title with a colon and a space (even if no colon appears in the source). For example:
The format is the same in the Works Cited list and in the text itself. However, when you mention the book title in the text, you don’t have to include the subtitle.
The title of a part of a book—such as a chapter, or a short story or poem in a collection—is not italicized, but instead placed in quotation marks.
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.
In MLA Style , you should cite a specific chapter or work within a book in two situations:
- When each of the book’s chapters is written by a different author.
- When the book is a collection of self-contained works (such as poems , plays , or short stories ), even if they are all written by the same author.
If you cite multiple chapters or works from the same book, include a separate Works Cited entry for each chapter.
Some source types, such as books and journal articles , may contain footnotes (or endnotes) with additional information. The following rules apply when citing information from a note in an MLA in-text citation :
- To cite information from a single numbered note, write “n” after the page number, and then write the note number, e.g. (Smith 105n2)
- To cite information from multiple numbered notes, write “nn” and include a range, e.g. (Smith 77nn1–2)
- To cite information from an unnumbered note, write “un” after the page number, with a space in between, e.g. (Jones 250 un)
You must include an MLA in-text citation every time you quote or paraphrase from a source (e.g. a book , movie , website , or article ).
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a Book in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 20, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/book-citation/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, a complete guide to mla in-text citations, how to format your mla works cited page, how to cite a play in mla, what is your plagiarism score.
Programs near you Online & evening classes
Columbia, MO Traditional, online and in-class
Jefferson City, MO Blended, online & in class
Advising & tutoring
- Introducing quotations
- Study strategies
- Academic advising
- Trio support
- Advising and Tutoring
- Tutoring and Writing Assistance
- Suggested Ways to Introduce Quotations
Suggested ways to introduce quotations
When you quote another writer's words, it's best to introduce or contextualize the quote.
How to quote in an essay?
To introduce a quote in an essay, don't forget to include author's last name and page number (MLA) or author, date, and page number (APA) in your citation. Shown below are some possible ways to introduce quotations. The examples use MLA format.
1. Use a full sentence followed by a colon to introduce a quotation.
- The setting emphasizes deception: "Nothing is as it appears" (Smith 1).
- Piercy ends the poem on an ironic note: "To every woman a happy ending" (25).
2. Begin a sentence with your own words, then complete it with quoted words.
Note that in the second example below, a slash with a space on either side ( / ) marks a line break in the original poem.
- Hamlet's task is to avenge a "foul and most unnatural murder" (Shakespeare 925).
- The speaker is mystified by her sleeping baby, whose "moth-breath / flickers among the flat pink roses" (Plath 17).
3. Use an introductory phrase naming the source, followed by a comma to quote a critic or researcher
Note that the first letter after the quotation marks should be upper case. According to MLA guidelines, if you change the case of a letter from the original, you must indicate this with brackets. APA format doesn't require brackets.
- According to Smith, "[W]riting is fun" (215).
- In Smith's words, " . . .
- In Smith's view, " . . .
4. Use a descriptive verb, followed by a comma to introduce a critic's words
Avoid using says unless the words were originally spoken aloud, for instance, during an interview.
- Smith states, "This book is terrific" (102).
- Smith remarks, " . . .
- Smith writes, " . . .
- Smith notes, " . . .
- Smith comments, " . . .
- Smith observes, " . . .
- Smith concludes, " . . .
- Smith reports, " . . .
- Smith maintains, " . . .
- Smith adds, " . . .
5. Don't follow it with a comma if your lead-in to the quotation ends in that or as
The first letter of the quotation should be lower case.
- Smith points out that "millions of students would like to burn this book" (53).
- Smith emphasizes that " . . .
- Smith interprets the hand washing in MacBeth as "an attempt at absolution" (106).
- Smith describes the novel as "a celebration of human experience" (233).
Writing skills are critical to success
Skilled writers are in demand across all industries. Learn the tips, techniques and strategies to effectively communicate your thoughts and ideas on paper. Apply today to get a comprehensive liberal arts education that will improve your writing abilities.
- Columbia College partnerships
- Explore your degree options
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite an Essay in MLA
How to Cite an Essay in MLA
The guidelines for citing an essay in MLA format are similar to those for citing a chapter in a book. Include the author of the essay, the title of the essay, the name of the collection if the essay belongs to one, the editor of the collection or other contributors, the publication information, and the page number(s).
Citing an Essay
Mla essay citation structure.
Last, First M. “Essay Title.” Collection Title, edited by First M. Last, Publisher, year published, page numbers. Website Title , URL (if applicable).
MLA Essay Citation Example
Gupta, Sanjay. “Balancing and Checking.” Essays on Modern Democracy, edited by Bob Towsky, Brook Stone Publishers, 1996, pp. 36-48. Essay Database, www . databaseforessays.org/modern/modern-democracy.
MLA Essay In-text Citation Structure
(Last Name Page #)
MLA Essay In-text Citation Example
Click here to cite an essay via an EasyBib citation form.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
How useful was this post?
Click on a star to rate it!
We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!
Let us improve this post!
Tell us how we can improve this post?
To cite your sources in an essay in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author’s name(s), chapter title, book title, editor(s), publication year, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for in-text citations and a works-cited-list entry for essay sources and some examples are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author on the first occurrence. For subsequent citations, use only the surname(s). In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author(s).
Citation in prose:
First mention: Annette Wheeler Cafarelli
Subsequent occurrences: Wheeler Cafarelli
Works-cited-list entry template and example:
The title of the chapter is enclosed in double quotation marks and uses title case. The book or collection title is given in italics and uses title case.
Surname, First Name. “Title of the Chapter.” Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Year, page range.
Cafarelli, Annette Wheeler. “Rousseau and British Romanticism: Women and British Romanticism.” Cultural Interactions in the Romantic Age: Critical Essays in Comparative Literature , edited by Gregory Maertz. State U of New York P, 1998, pp. 125–56.
To cite an essay in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author(s), the essay title, the book title, editor(s), publication year, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for citations in prose, parenthetical citations, and works-cited-list entries for an essay by multiple authors, and some examples, are given below:
For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author (e.g., Mary Strine).
For sources with two authors, use both full author names in prose (e.g., Mary Strine and Beth Radick).
For sources with three or more authors, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues” (e.g., Mary Strine and others). In subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues” (e.g., Strine and others).
In parenthetical citations, use only the author’s surname. For sources with two authors, use two surnames (e.g., Strine and Radick). For sources with three or more author names, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.”
First mention: Mary Strine…
Subsequent mention: Strine…
First mention: Mary Strine and Beth Radick…
Subsequent mention: Strine and Radick…
First mention: Mary Strine and colleagues …. or Mary Strine and others
Subsequent occurrences: Strine and colleagues …. or Strine and others
….(Strine and Radick).
….(Strine et al.).
The title of the essay is enclosed in double quotation marks and uses title case. The book or collection title is given in italics and uses title case.
Surname, First Name, et al. “Title of the Essay.” Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Year, page range.
Strine, Mary M., et al. “Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities.” Speech Communication: Essays to Commemorate the 75th Anniversary of the Speech Communication Association , edited by Gerald M. Phillips and Julia T. Wood, Southern Illinois UP, 1990, pp. 181–204.
MLA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
The Tech Edvocate
- Home Page Five (No Sidebar)
- Home Page Four
- Home Page Three
- Home Page Two
- Icons [No Sidebar]
- Left Sidbear Page
- Lynch Educational Consulting
- My Speaking Page
- Newsletter Sign Up Confirmation
- Newsletter Unsubscription
- Page Example
- Protected Content
- Request a Product Review
- Shortcodes Examples
- Terms and Conditions
- The Edvocate
- The Tech Edvocate Product Guide
- Write For Us
- Dr. Lynch’s Personal Website
- The Edvocate Podcast
- Assistive Technology
- Child Development Tech
- Early Childhood & K-12 EdTech
- EdTech Futures
- EdTech News
- EdTech Policy & Reform
- EdTech Startups & Businesses
- Higher Education EdTech
- Online Learning & eLearning
- Parent & Family Tech
- Personalized Learning
- Product Reviews
- Tech Edvocate Awards
- School Ratings
Instructional Design 101 For Beginners
How to make getting into college easier, why the dimo autopi is the perfect holiday gift, what part do grades play in college admissions, questions that high school students have about college admissions, 3 ways to make warhammer terrain, 3 ways to brainstorm alone, 3 ways to memorize a speech in one night, how to bake a steak, how to find your spirit animal: 12 steps, how to put a quote in an essay.
Quotations can be an effective way to bring depth and credibility to your essay. By including the words of respected authors, experts, or speakers, you support your stance and demonstrate your understanding of the subject matter. However, integrating a quote naturally into your work can be challenging. In this article, we will guide you on how to properly put a quote in an essay, ensuring a seamless flow and enhanced readability for your writing.
1. Choose the Right Quote
Carefully selecting the most appropriate quote for your essay is vital. Ensure that it is:
– Relevant: Ensure that the quote directly connects to the point you are trying to make.
– Credible: Opt for quotes from reliable sources such as experts or well-known publications.
– Concise: Select a succinct quote that delivers the message effectively, without unnecessary wordiness.
2. Introduce the Quote
To avoid confusing your reader, always make sure to introduce the quote before incorporating it into your text. You can do this by using phrases such as “According to,” “In the words of,” or “As [author name] stated.” This introduction should also include the author’s full name and credentials.
3. Format Your Quotes Correctly
Formatting quotes depend on their length:
– Short Quotes (Less than four typed lines)
Integrate these directly into your text, making use of quotation marks. For example:
As Jane Austen wrote, “It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.”
– Long Quotes (Four typed lines or more)
Set these off as a block quotation without using quotation marks. Indent the entire quote one inch from the left margin and double space between lines.
4. Cite Your Source Properly
Always provide credit to the original source by using the appropriate citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, or Chicago). This usually includes the author’s name, publication year, and page number.
Short quotes: Add the citation immediately after the closing quotation marks and before the sentence’s concluding punctuation.
Long quotes: Place the citation after the final punctuation mark of the block quote.
5. Analyze and Interpret the Quote
After including a quote in your essay, spend some time analyzing how it supports your argument, why it matters, and its significance to your overall point. This connects the quote to your central idea and shows its relevance.
Successfully integrating quotes into an essay provides strong evidence for your argument and adds credibility to your writing. Remember to choose relevant quotes from reliable sources, introduce them appropriately, format correctly according to their length, cite the source properly, and analyze their significance within your piece. With these tips in mind, you can seamlessly incorporate quotes into your essay and enhance its readability and impact.
3 Ways to Become a Cage Fighter
3 ways to be emotionally detached.
Related articles more from author.
How to Shave Your Bikini Line: 12 Steps
3 Ways to Split an Atom
How to Make a Worm Farm
3 Ways to Get Rid of White Spots on Teeth
4 Ways to Read Body Language
How to Grow Cannas
- Plagiarism checker Do The Check
- Academic editing Ask For Help
- Samples database View Samples Base
Writing A Book Title In Your Essay – The Right Way
09 Mar 2022
📃APA Style Essay: Book Titles
✒️APA Style: The Name of The Author
📒MLA Style: Citing a Book Title
✏️Chicago Style: Book Title
📑Various Types of Titles
🖊️Underline or Italicize Book Titles
When you are writing an academic essay , the book title and author's name should be written in italics. However, if the book title is part of a larger work (such as a journal article), it should be underlined instead. So, you're wondering how to write a book title in an essay?
Writing an essay with a book title can be tricky, particularly because each style guide has its own formatting rules for including titles in the main text. Whether you are using MLA, APA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles, you will need to consider how to properly format the book title. For more complicated literature-based assignments, seeking assistance from an admission essay writing service may be wise, as they specialize in writing essays that incorporate academic sources.
In this article, we will explore how to write both titles in an essay properly so that you avoid any mistakes!
Is writing essays your hobby?
Participate in our "Independence Day of the United States" essay writing competition and get a 12-month Quizlet subscription.
- Deadline: July 24, 2023
- Topic: Declaration of Independence
- Language: English
- Length: 1000-5000 words
- Font size: 11 or 12
APA Style: How to Write Book Titles in Essays
When writing an essay, you must follow the style guide provided by your professor. Some teachers may require you to use APA style and others MLA style. There are some rules on how to quote a book title in an essay. You should use italics and quotation marks when writing book titles in essays. For example: " The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. "
When writing a book title in APA Style, you should be aware of these rules:
Write the book title in italics and place it after the author's name, which is presented in reverse order (last name first).
Use quotation marks around the headline of a chapter or article.
Capitalize proper names that are not common nouns (names of people, places, organizations), but do not capitalize words such as "and," "or," "to," or "and/or."
Do not capitalize prepositions that appear at the beginning of titles if they are followed by an article (e.g., "A," "An"), but do capitalize prepositions at the beginning of titles if they are not followed by articles ("Of").
The first word of the headline should be capitalized, as well as any other words after a colon or hyphen. For example, "The Elements of Style: Grammar for Everyone" or "Theories of Personality: Critical Perspectives."
Capitalize proper names and words derived from them (e.g., the names of people, places, organizations), except proper nouns used generically (e.g., 'a bed').
Need help with writing an essay?
Get your paper written by a professional writer
APA Style Essay: Writing The Name of The Author
You should always use the full name and surname of the author in your APA essay because this will give proper credit to the writer. If you do not mention the author's full name, people may not know who wrote what and will think you copied it from somewhere else. This will cause lots of problems for you and your reputation as well.
Make sure that all authors' names appear in the same format in each entry. For example, if one person's surname is Smith and another's is Jones, both have first names starting with "J." It may seem like they are being cited as different people when they're actually written differently from each other on separate pages in your paper.
To write an APA essay without any issues , there are certain rules that you need to follow while writing an author's name in APA essay:
- Use only one author's name in your paper unless there are multiple authors
- If there are multiple authors, then use both their last names followed by the initials of their first names
- Only use initials of first names when there are three or more authors; otherwise, use full names with their last names
Example: Johnson, M.C., Carlson, M., Smith, J. N., & Hanover, L. E.
MLA Style Essay: Citing a Book Title
Now let's discuss how to mention a book in an essay. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, published by the Modern Language Association (2014), contains detailed rules about how to cite a book title in an essay.
The following guidelines will instruct you on how to refer to a book in an essay in MLA style :
- List your sources at the end of your paper, before the works cited page or bibliography.
- Use italics for titles of books, magazines, and newspapers, but not for articles within those publications, which should be placed in quotation marks.
- Include all relevant book information under two categories: "title" and "author." In the former category, include the work's title and its subtitle if there is one; do this even if neither appears on your title page (see below). In the latter category, include only primary authors who have written or edited an entire book; if there are multiple contributors, you should cite them separately under each.
The general format for citing the title of the book in an essay is as follows:
Author's last name, first initial (Date). Title of Book with Subtitle if there is one. Publisher Name/Location of Publisher; Year Published
Generate Citations Automatically
Chicago style essay: writing the book title.
One of the most important things to remember when writing in Chicago style is how to write the title of a book in an essay. To write a good book title in an essay, you should follow these steps:
- Write it at the beginning of your sentence.
- Capitalize it just like any other noun or proper noun.
- Put a comma after the title unless it's an introductory clause or phrase. For example: "The Firm," by John Grisham (not "by") and "The Catcher in the Rye," by J.D Salinger (not "and").
- In addition to the book's name, punctuation marks should also be italicized.
For example: Harry Potter and the Half-blood Prince: Children's Edition
Writing Various Types of Titles
Now that we covered how to write a book title and author in an essay, it's time to look at some different types of titles. When you write a book title in an essay, several things must be considered. Whether it's a book, series, chapter title, editor's name, or author's name, how you write it depends on where it appears in your paper.
Here are some key rules for writing headings for novels:
- Use capital letters to write the title of the novel. For example, The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett .
- Use italics and capital letters to write the name of the author and his/her other works mentioned in a book title—for example, Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (1813) .
You should use quotation marks when writing headings of short title poems, articles, and stories.
However, before deciding which format to use, it is important to understand the main idea you want to express in your essay. Additionally, you could use essay papers for sale to help you accomplish your goal of writing an essay effectively.
Stuck with finding the right title?
Get plenty of fresh and catchy topic ideas and pick the perfect one with PapersOwl Title Generator.
Should We Underline or Italicize Book Titles?
It depends on which style guide you use. The Modern Language Association and Chicago Manual of Style both suggest using italics, while the American Psychological Association suggests using quotation marks with a few exceptions.
The way you write the title of a book in an essay is different depending on the instructions you were given. For example, if you're writing an essay in APA style, use quotation marks around the book's name. If you're writing for MLA or Chicago style , however, italicize the book's name instead. If you're writing a handwritten essay instead of using a computer, capitalize and underline the book's name.
Was this article helpful?
Thanks for your feedback.
Dr. Karlyna PhD
I am a proficient writer from the United States with over five years of experience in academic writing. I comfortably complete given assignments within stipulated deadlines and at the same time deliver high-quality work, which follows the guidelines provided.
Readers also enjoyed
Legal essay topics for student.
Essay Writing Guides 22 likes
Science Essay Topics for Students
Essay Writing Guides 3 likes
Explanatory Essay Topics for Students
Essay Writing Guides 8 likes
WHY WAIT? PLACE AN ORDER RIGHT NOW!
Simply fill out the form, click the button, and have no worries!
- Education & Career
- By Jyoti Tejpal
- Updated: September 18, 2021
How to Quote a Book in an Essay : Quick Boost Up Tips
How to quote a book in an essay can be a tricky art but for sure is a great way to support the ideas with rock solid proofs, that you require to support the thesis or essay.
To be able select a good quote, try to find a passage that has the argument like yours and is open to go into an analysis. Try to assimilate that quote into the essay written by you, and ensure the proper cite is given to it based on the style guide you opt to use.
Let’s check out some worthy points to be considered while quoting a book in an essay.
How to Quote a Book in an Essay : Incorporating a Short Quote
Incorporate short quotes into a sentence.
A short quote which can be shorter than 4 typed lines. While using a short quote, try to include it without any editing in the paragraph, beside your own words. To help the reader go through the quote and the reason why you’re using it, you may write a full sentence that incorporates the quote than just picking up a sentence from other person’s work and pasting it into your paper.
Use a lead-in to make an introduction to the quote.
The lead-in gives context to the quote. It helps the reader to know that you’re reflecting an evidence and putting it up as a support, as well as acknowledging the quote and its place from where that support comes from. Generally, you will be using the author’s name, but this thing is not at all always necessary.
Put quotation marks around the quote.
You must use quotation marks every time you paste or quote someone else’s words in your own essay. This helps the reader know about your action that you have borrowed from some other writer. As long as you use quotation marks and cite the resource from where you have taken the sentence or matter, you can use other person’s thoughts without any plagiarizing. You still require to put quotation marks although you are only quoting just a few words for the other source. Rather it is the best practice to be cautious and use quotes if you’re in doubt.
Use commentary followed by a quote explaining its support to the essay
A quote must be support your ideas. For this purpose, you are required to analyze it and link it back to the work or thesis. After the quote, write at least 1-3 sentences as an explanation what the quote means, how does it support your essay/topic/sentence, and how it support is providing to your argument in totality.
Paraphrase the quote.
Paraphrasing is done while you restate someone else�s thoughts in your own thoughts and words. It�s the best way to incorporate proofs into the paper without using a direct quote any time. You are not required to use quotes around a paraphrase, you actually require to cite it. Whenever you put a paraphrase, you still require to put commentary that joins the paraphrased thought back to your work, essay and ideas.
How to Quote a Book in an Essay : Using a Long Quote
Introduce a long quote.
A long quote can be anything that goes more than 4 typed lines. You have to put these quotes in a block of text in a separate block from the rest of your essay. Because the quote is separated in a block, you need not put quotation marks around it. The reader will automatically understand that the material is a direct quote from somewhere because it’s separate from the rest of the text. That is the reason why you need not use quotation marks. But, you will definitely write and include the citation at the bottom of the essay.
Always write an introductory lead-in.
To tell the reader that a quote is just going to follow and what the quote is about, it is most necessary to introduce the quote. For a block quote, the lead-in can be a whole sentence explaining what the reader should take as a meaning after reading and understanding the block quote. At the end of the sentence, put a colon. After that put your block quote. While citing two or more paragraphs, you should use block quotes. It dose not depend upon the length of the quote like if the passage you wish to quote is less than four lines long. You must indent the initial line of each paragraph an extra quarter inch and use ellipses (�) at the end of one paragraph to help the transition to the next paragraph.
Indent the block quote.
The perfect indentation can be to indent it by .5 inches (1.3 cm) from the left margin. For this you may use simple steps like, press the tab key to move the lines over. Ensure the entire quote is indented so that the reader can recognize that it’s set off as a separate thing from the rest of the essay. Your block quote should use the same line spacing as the rest of the essay, which is in most cases likely be double-spacing.
Use an ellipsis to cut a word/words from a direct quote.
Sometimes you just wish to shorten a quote to help the reader better understand why it is supporting the argument or you may just wish to delete some words that are non-essential to the quote�s meaning. To delete word/words, you are just required to put an ellipsis (…) instead of the words. But don�t eliminate words to expedite something fishy like changing the meaning of the original text.
Place brackets around words for clarification.
Sometimes you are required to put word/words to a quote in order to help your reader to understand it. This is helpful for you to explain pronouns used in the direct quote or further explaining what a quote is actually referring to. Brackets help you to add or delete or replace words until and unless you don�t portray the quote with a changed meaning of the text.
Give commentary after a quote to explain.
A block quote needs more commentary than a short quote. At least you must write 2-3 sentences explaining and analyzing the quote, trying to link it back to your essay. However, you may require to put longer commentary to fully justify and explain the quote to the reader of your essay. If you don’t clarify the quote well, then it’s not helping the essay or ideas. You must not expect the reader to build a connection to the quote back to your essay for you.
Paraphrase the quote to condense it.
Paraphrasing is a great way to shorten a long quote in your essay. Unless the author’s original words are essential to make your point, you may rewrite the passage in your own set of words. You must try to condense or shorten the original author’s words into 1 or 2 sentences that support your argument. Then, incorporate the paraphrase into the paragraph, without using quotation marks. However, you must include a citation to give your reader a chance know where you got those ideas from.
How to Quote a Book in an Essay : Citing Your Quote
Cite the author�s last name & page number in parentheses in MLA.
Write out the author�s last name, then list the numerical page number. You are not required to set them separate with a comma, and you are required to put �p.� or �page� before the page number. An MLA citation must look like this:
- For sources with multiple authors, separate their names with the word �and:� (Anderson and Smith 55-56) or (Taylor, Gomez, and Austin 89)
- If you use the author�s name in the lead-in to the quote, you are just required to put the year in parentheses: According to Arc Lopez, �the yellow grass gives a feel of a fresh start for Lia (24).�
Include the author�s last name, year, & page number for APA format.
Write the author�s name, then put a comma, add the year and put another comma. Finally, write �p.� followed by the page number. An APA citation for a direct quote looks like this:
- (Tanon, 2019, p. 10)
- If you�re citing multiple authors, separate their names with the word �and:� (Well, Hanks, and Timothy, 2019, p. 85)
- If you incorporated the author�s name into the lead-in, you can just refer to the year and page number: Based on Tanon�s (2019, p. 10) analysis, �coffee improves creativity.�
Use the author�s last name, date, and page number for Chicago Style.
List the author�s last name and then the date, but don�t put a comma between them. After the date, put a comma and then the page numbers. You don�t need to write �p.� or �page.� For instance, a Chicago Style citation will look like this:
- (Alexandra 2016, 125)
- If you�re quoting a source with multiple authors, separate them with the word �and:� (Patrick, Stewart, and Gobble 2016, 175)
- If you have already incorporated the author�s name into the quote, then you may just provide the year and page number: According to Alexander, �the smell of roses deepens happiness� (2016, 125).
Prepare a Works Cited or References page.
Each style guide has its own requirements for listing your reference sources, so make sure you follow the style guide you’re using to format your paper.
- For MLA, you would cite an article like this: Lopez, Reg. “A Fresh Blossom: Symbol of ‘Her Brightest Sunshine.'” Journal of Stories, vol. 2, no. 5, 2014, p. 15-22.
- In APA, you’d cite an article like this: Lopez, Reg. (2014). A Fresh Blossom: Symbol of “Her Brightest Sunshine.” Journal of Stories, 2(5), 15-22.
- For Chicago Style, your article citation would look like this: Lopez, Reg. “A Fresh Blossom: Symbol of ‘Her Brightest Sunshine.'” Journal of Stories 2 no. 4 (2014): 15-22.
How to Quote a Book in an Essay : Selecting a Quote
Select a quote that supports the argument you�re introducing.
The quote should stand as an �evidence� for what you wish the reader to believe. This might can be anything from an expert advice, study inferences or results, or data statistics. If you�re putting something about literature, you can directly quote from the text to explain a point or quote the words of a critic to support the claims about a text.
Ensure the quote is something you can analyze and undertsand.
You would never wish to just drop a quote in the essay and keep writing. This will never going to help you support the arguments, as you link the quote back to your own writings. Without any proper analysis, you can�t make the point that you may explain to the reader. If you are not able to explain the quote or sentence or link it back to your essay, then it will never be a good idea to put it in your essay.
Avoid over usage of direct quotes in your essay.
As you put a lot of direct quotes, the essence of your own thoughts and ideas will be lost somewhere in between those quotes and everything will look more of a copy and paste article. This may be taken as undermining your own argument and losing credibility with the reader. It is advisable not to use more than 1 direct quote in your paragraph. It would rather be advisable to use a paraphrase or a summary to support your thoughts. Paraphrases and summaries work just like a direct quote leaving that you are not required to put quotation marks around them as you prefer using your own words to restate thoughts. However, you still, are required to cite the sources you utilized.
Hope you must have got quick pro tips on how to quote a book in an essay so that you also start writing and improving upon your essays.
- PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
- EDIT Edit this Article
- EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
- Browse Articles
- Learn Something New
- Quizzes Hot
- This Or That Game New
- Train Your Brain
- Explore More
- Support wikiHow
- About wikiHow
- Log in / Sign up
- Education and Communications
- College University and Postgraduate
- Academic Writing
How to Write a Book Name in an Essay
Last Updated: January 27, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Danielle Blinka is a Writer, Editor, Podcaster, Improv Performer, and Artist currently living in Houston, TX. She also has experience teaching English and writing to others. Danielle holds a Bachelor of Arts in English, Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, Master of Arts in English with a concentration in writing, and Master of Public Administration from Lamar University. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 57,249 times. Learn more...
When you’re writing an essay that includes a book title, it can be confusing to write the title correctly. However, it’s really easy once you know the rules. How you write the title will vary a little bit depending on the style your instructor assigns and if you are typing or handwriting the essay. Luckily, it's easy to follow the rules for writing a book name in an essay.
Typing an Essay in MLA or Chicago Style Format
- For example, you would write To Kill a Mockingbird , The Lord of the Rings , or Wuthering Heights .
- If you have the book name in front of you, you can just copy it down as it is printed.
- Articles include a, an, and the.
- Prepositions include at, in, on, of, about, since, from, for, until, during, over, above, under, underneath, below, beneath, near, by, next to, between, among, and opposite.
- Coordinating conjunctions include the FANBOYS, which are for, and, not, but, or, yet, and
- For example, you would write the name of William Faulkner’s novel Absalom, Absalom! with both the comma and the exclamation point in italics.
- If the highlight bar goes away, try again, making sure that you don’t click anywhere on the page after you highlight the book name.
- Alternatively, you can press the italicize icon before you type the title.
- If you’re using Microsoft Word to type your essay, the italicize key may appear if you hover over the highlighted book name.
- If the next word after your title appears italicized when you resume typing, simply highlight it and click the italicize icon to remove the formatting.
- For example, The Lord of the Rings trilogy is sometimes published in one volume. In this case, you could write the name of the first novel as "The Fellowship of the Ring" when citing it in an essay.
Typing an Essay in APA Format
- Capitalize the first letter of the words, not the entire word.
- If the word is a two-part hyphenated word in the title, you should capitalize both words. For example, you would write Blue River: The Trial of a Mayor-Elect .
- If there is a dash or colon in the title, you should capitalize the word after the punctuation, regardless of how long the word is. As above, you would write Blue River: The Trial of a Mayor-Elect .
- For example, you would write Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? with the question mark italicized.
- If the book name is not highlighted, left click and drag your cursor again, making sure that you don’t click again anywhere on the page.
- If you are using Microsoft Word, the italics icon may appear when you hover over the highlighted book title. It’s okay to click this key.
Handwriting an Essay
- For MLA and Chicago style essays, capitalize the first word of the book name and every word other than articles, prepositions, or coordinating conjunctions. For example, write The Lord of the Rings .
- If you’re using APA style, capitalize the first word and all words longer than 4 letters.  X Research source This means you would write Public Policy in Local Government .
- If you’re writing on lined paper, it may help to follow along the line of the paper. However, make sure your line is dark enough so that your instructor will see that you properly underlined the book name.
- For example, you would write Judy Blume’s Are You There, God? It’s Me, Margaret by underlining the punctuation marks as well as the words.
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_general_format.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_literature/writing_about_literature/formatting.html
- ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/underline-or-italicize-book-titles/
- ↑ https://askus.library.wwu.edu/faq/116757
- ↑ https://libguides.up.edu/apa/books_ebooks
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/italics-quotations/italics
You Might Also Like
About This Article
- Send fan mail to authors
Did this article help you?
- Do Not Sell or Share My Info
- Not Selling Info
wikiHow Tech Help Pro:
Develop the tech skills you need for work and life
When to Use Quotation Marks for Titles
Do you know when to use quotation marks for titles? Knowing whether to use italics or quotation marks for titles is one of the most common problems students have, especially when it comes to academic writing where you discuss your sources. Luckily, there are consistent themes that can help you pick the right format for each title, no matter what style guide you’re following.
Below, we explain exactly when to use quotation marks in titles (and when to use italics instead). We’ll cover the title rules for the three main style guides—APA, MLA, and Chicago—and give you some guidelines for figuring out which kinds of titles use which format.
How to properly quote a title with quotation marks
Quotation marks (“ ”) are mostly for showing speech or copying passages verbatim from other works, but sometimes they’re used for more than just punctuation . For certain types of works, they’re used to set apart titles.
The general rule is to use quotation marks for titles of short works such as articles, poems, songs, essays, or short stories. By contrast, use italics for larger works such as books, movies, and the names of periodicals. We provide a complete list below.
When to use italics or quotation marks for titles
Some types of work italicize titles , and some use quotation marks, but how do you know which is which? Here’s a quick list of what kinds of works use each.
Works that use quotation marks in titles
- journal articles
- newspaper and magazine articles
- blog and online news articles
- essay titles
- poems (except epic poems)
- short stories
- episode titles of TV shows, podcasts, and other serial works
- page titles for websites
- section or part titles within a larger work
- short-form videos, such as those on YouTube
Examples of titles with quotation marks
“A Policy Framework for the Growing Influence of Private Equity on Health Care Deliver”
( Journal of the American Medical Association )
“Sonoma County Board of Supervisors to consider sewer rate increase”
( The Press Democrat )
“E.U. Approves Microsoft’s $69 Billion Deal for Activision”
( The New York Times )
“A Dream Deferred”
“Everything that Rises Must Converge”
“A Lonely Coast”
“ (Sittin ’ On) The Dock of the Bay ”
“Think About Things”
( The Wild Robot Escapes )
“The First Tee”
( The Match: The Day the Game of Golf Changed Forever )
“The Danger of a Single Story”
(Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie)
“ Creativity in Management ”
“The Lives of Others”
( This American Life )
“Alone@Work: Miles To Go Before I’m Me”
( Rough Translation )
Works that use italics in titles
- epic poems (not regular poems)
- periodical names (magazines, newspapers, and news websites)
- radio shows
- TV shows (not individual episodes)
- podcasts (not individual episodes)
- music albums
- video games
- operas and long musical compositions
- classic art like paintings and sculptures
- legal cases
- large vehicles such as ships, aircrafts, and spacecrafts
When to use quotation marks for titles for each style guide
While the basics are the same—italics for the titles of long works and quotation marks for the titles of short works—some minor details may vary. Here’s a quick rundown of when to use quotation marks in titles for the APA, MLA, and Chicago styles.
Quotations marks in titles for APA
The APA format follows the list above: It uses quotation marks for all types of work mentioned. The only particular rule they have about quotation marks in titles is that they are not used in the reference list for articles and chapters.
In APA, the reference list is the name of the bibliography, like a works cited page . When writing a full citation that mentions an article or book chapter, simply write the title with neither quotation marks nor italics. However, if the same title is written within the text (or in a copyright attribution), use quotation marks.
Quotations marks in titles for Chicago
In general, Chicago style follows the list above. It does, nevertheless, list a few extra types of works that the other style guides do not.
Quotation marks for titles:
- fairy tales and nursery rhymes
Italics for titles:
- serialized cartoons and comic strips
Quotations marks in titles for MLA
The use of quotation marks in titles for MLA format is very straightforward. Simply use the appropriate format for the type of work, as indicated in the large list above.
When to use single or double quotation marks for titles
There are two types of quotation marks: single quotation marks (‘ ’) and double quotation marks (“ ”).
In general, American English uses double quotation marks. The only time we use single quotation marks for titles is to replace quotation marks within another pair of quotation marks.
For example, if you were writing an article about Langston Hughes’s poems—highlighting “Harlem” in particular—the title of your article might be something like this:
“Reflections on ‘Harlem’ and Other Poems”
Notice how, when we talk about the poem “Harlem” on its own, we use the standard double quotation marks. However, when we mention it within another pair of quotation marks, we use single quotation marks instead.
This is done simply for the sake of clarity. It would be confusing to use double quotation marks within double quotation marks, so this makes reading a bit easier. Let’s look at another example:
EPISODE TITLE: “The Winds of Winter” (episode of Game of Thrones )
ESSAY TITLE: “Why ‘The Winds of Winter’ Is the Best Episode of Game of Thrones ”
Keep in mind that if a title in quotation marks is used within an italicized title, double quotation marks are used. For example, look at how we write the title of a full book that collects Roald Dahl’s short stories:
“The Landlady” and Other Short Stories
It’s also worth noting that this is only the convention in American English. In British English, single quotes and double quotes are switched! That means titles and speech quotes use single quotation marks most of the time and double quotation marks are used only within single quotes. Keep that in mind if you’re ever reading a British piece of writing .
Quotation marks for titles FAQs
Why use quotation marks for titles.
Quotation marks set apart the titles of short works like articles, poems, songs, essays, or short stories. Longer works like books or movies use italics instead.
When do you use quotation marks for titles?
Use quotation marks for the titles of articles, essays, poems, short stories, songs, chapters, lectures, pages for websites, episodes of serial works (such as TV shows or podcasts), names of sections or parts in larger works, and short-form videos such as those on YouTube.
When do you use italics?
Use italics for the titles of books, movies, plays, TV shows, podcasts, video games, apps, classic art (like paintings and sculptures), music albums, legal cases, dissertations, anthologies, reports, periodicals (like magazines or newspapers), operas and long musical compositions, and large vehicles (like ships or aircraft).
- School & Boards College Admission Govt Jobs Alert & Prep Exams Current Affairs General Knowledge Careers Videos Education News Quiz & Mock Tests Ebooks Results हिन्दी Jagran TV Jagran Play View All Categories
- SRM University
- Nikharda Punjab
- Current Affairs
- Web Stories
- School Life
My Book My Inspiration Essay in English: Long and Short Paragraphs
My Book My Inspiration Essay in English : Check here sample essays, tips and quotes to write an engaging essay on My Book My Inspiration in English in 150 words, 500 words.
My Book My Inspiration Essay in English: Books are the gateways to a whole another universe. They open realms of imagination, knowledge, and inspiration. Schools and colleges also motivate and push students to indulge in reading more and more books because it is one of the best ways to widen one’s horizons. Often students are given the task of writing a book review or an essay about the books they read because it helps them re-visit what they learned from the book. To help students in writing my book my inspiration essay, we have provided here various short and easy essay on my book, my inspiration in 150 words and 500 words.
How to Write Essay on My Book My Inspiration in English
Step 1: Think of the book that you would like to write upon.
Step 2: Jot down the name of the book, the author’s name, the major themes covered, the main characters.
Step 3: Introduce the book and its author and the reason why you like it.
Step 4: Elaborate upon the characters, the background and plot of the book, the themes covered in the book.
Step 5: Conclude by summarising it all.
Extra Tip: Use quotes to make your essay touching.
Quotes About Books in English
You can use quotes about books and book-reading to make your essay more impactful.
- "There is no friend as loyal as a book." - Ernest Hemingway
- "A room without books is like a body without a soul." - Marcus Tullius Cicero
- "The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you'll go." - Dr. Seuss
- "I have always imagined that Paradise will be a kind of library." - Jorge Luis Borges
- "So many books, so little time." - Frank Zappa
- "A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies, said Jojen. The man who never reads lives only one." - George R.R. Martin
- "Books are a uniquely portable magic." - Stephen King
- "Books are the mirrors of the soul." - Virginia Woolf
- "You can never get a cup of tea large enough or a book long enough to suit me." - C.S. Lewis
- "Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body." - Joseph Addison
You can also choose an impactful quote from the book you choose to write about to make it even more impactful.
My Book My Inspiration Essay 150 Words
Books, with their extraordinary power to inspire, ignite our imaginations, and shape our perceptions. Books have always been my source of inspiration because they have the power to transform lives in profound ways.
Ever since I was a young kid, I loved to read because it transported me to distant lands and introduced me to unique characters. These literary adventures ignited my creativity and instilled a deep appreciation for the beauty of language. I also developed emotional appreciation for different cultures and languages, transcending cultural boundaries.
Books are my best friends. Books have provided me solace in challenging times. As I grew up, my passion for diverse genres of literature deepened. Each book that I have read, has broadened my understanding
In conclusion, books stand as an unwavering source of inspiration and creativity. They serve as a refuge, a portal to imagination, and a catalyst for personal growth. Grateful for their profound impact, I continue to traverse the literary landscape.
My Book My Inspiration Essay 500 words
Books have always been an integral part of my life, serving as portals to new worlds and inspiration for personal growth. Among the countless books I have read in the past few years, one book stands out as a profound source of enduring wisdom and motivation. The book that holds a special place in my heart is To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. From the moment I turned its first few pages, I was spellbound by the narrative and the wisdom embedded in the book. It has profoundly shaped my worldview and inspired me to strive for a more just and compassionate society.
From the moment I first opened its pages, "To Kill a Mockingbird" captivated me with the way it has maintained its captivating storytelling while exploring complex themes such as racial injustice, moral courage, and the power of empathy. At the heart of the story lies the unforgettable and most remarkable character of Atticus Finch, a lawyer who defends an innocent black man, Tom Robinson, against a charge of rape in the deeply segregated Alabama community. Through Atticus's unwavering commitment to justice and his unwavering belief in the inherent goodness of humanity, I was inspired to confront my own biases and to stand up for what is right, even in the face of adversity.
One of the most profound lessons I learned from "To Kill a Mockingbird" is the importance of empathy and understanding. Through the eyes of the character Scout Finch, a young girl growing up in the turbulent 1930s, I gained a deeper appreciation for the challenges faced by marginalised communities and the need to bridge the divides that separate us. Scout's innocence and her willingness to challenge societal norms taught me to question preconceived notions and to seek out the truth, even if it is uncomfortable or inconvenient.
The book's enduring message of hope and resilience has also been a source of inspiration in my own life. Atticus's unwavering belief in the power of education and his determination to instil in his children a sense of justice and compassion have resonated deeply with me. His unwavering commitment to his principles, even in the face of overwhelming opposition, has served as a guiding light for me in my own pursuit of personal integrity and social justice.
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee has been more than just a book to me. To me, it is a testament to the power of literature to inspire, challenge, and transform. It has shaped my understanding of the world, ignited my passion for social justice, and instilled in me the courage to stand up for what I believe in. As I will move ahead in life, navigating the complexities of daily chores, personal and professional life, I know that the lessons I learned from Atticus Finch and the unique characters of "To Kill a Mockingbird" will continue to guide me, reminding me to always strive for a better world.
- About Chandrayaan 3 Essay in English for School Students
- Teacher's Day Essay and Lines in English for School Students
- Essay on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in English
- Essay on Lal Bahadur Shastri in English
- Education News
- AAI Recruitment 2023
- SBI Apprentice Admit Card 2023
- OSSC Recruitment 2023
- AIIMS Bhopal Admit Card 2023
- SSC GD Constable Notification 2023
Latest Education News
- Challenges Of Nation Building Class 12 Notes: CBSE 12th Political Science Chapter 1 Politics in India Since Independence, Download PDF just now
- England vs Pakistan Head to Head in ICC ODI World Cup and International Cricket just now
- India vs South Africa Head to Head in ICC ODI World Cup and International Cricket just now
- England vs Australia Head to Head in ICC ODI World Cup and International Cricket just now
- Haryana HPSC HCS Notification 2023 Out: Check Application Form Dates Here just now
- Indian Navy Recruitment 2023: Apply Online For 275 Apprentice Posts, Check Eligibility & Selection Process just now
- AU Result 2023 OUT: Direct Link to Download UG and PG Result at andhrauniversity.edu.in just now
- New Zealand vs South Africa Head to Head in ICC ODI World Cup and International Cricket just now
- Karnataka Ayush PG Counselling 2023 Cutoff Percentile Revised, Apply Until Nov 23 just now
- VSKUB Results 2023 OUT: Download UG and PG Semester Marksheet on vskub.ac.in
- CGPSC Interview Admit Card 2023 Out: सिविल जज पदों के लिए psc.cg.gov.in पर रिलीज, हॉल टिकट डाउनलोड Direct Link 31 mins ago
- Who Is Javier Milei? Media Career, 2023 Presidential Campaign and Electoral History 33 mins ago
- Bihar Teacher News 2023: अब तक 85 हजार उम्मीदवारों को मिला स्कूल आवंटन पत्र, यहाँ देखें लेटेस्ट अपडेट 43 mins ago
- SSC GD Constable Bharti 2023-2024: आवेदन फॉर्म तिथि, पात्रता मानदंड, रिक्तियां, परीक्षा तिथियां, वेतन सहित सभी महत्वपूर्ण डिटेल देखें 53 mins ago
- JNTUA Result 2023 OUT on jntua.ac.in, Download UG and PG Semester Marksheet 58 mins ago
- कैप्टन की शादी और वर्ल्डकप की ट्रॉफी के बीच का ये कनेक्शन आपको हैरान कर देगा! 1 hour ago
- Madhya Pradesh Judiciary Notification 2023 Out, Apply for 138 Civil Judge Posts at mphc.gov.in 1 hour ago
- Brain Teaser for IQ Test: Can You Spot the Mistake Inside the City Street Picture in 9 secs? 1 hour ago
- Optical Illusion for IQ Test: Only a Genius Can Spot the Hidden Frog Inside the Lotus Pond Picture in 11 Secs! 1 hour ago
- UGC NET December 2023 Exam Dates OUT: Check NTA NET Subjectwise Schedule PDF, Shift 1, Shift 2 Timings 1 hour ago
- UK Board 12th Result 2023 - Scrutiny Result Sep 8, 2023
- UK Board Result 2023 - Scrutiny Result Sep 8, 2023
- UK Board 10th Result 2023 - Scrutiny Result Sep 1, 2023
- NIOS Board 10th Result 2023 - Declared Jun 26, 2023
For more results, click here
- Be Cyberwise