100 International Politics Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best international politics topic ideas & essay examples, 📝 good essay topics on international politics, 📌 most interesting international politics topics to write about, ❓ international politics essay questions.

  • The Religion Impact on the International Political Scene However, the relationships that exist between the two social institutions depend on the content and level of the political system and religion.
  • International Political Economy and Finance Finally, “From Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy” by Stiglitz is the evaluation of the economic crisis and the financial sector in different developed and developing countries and their direct […] We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • International Trade as a Significant Issue in International Political Economy In the current world, there are many aspects which have to be reformatted and improved considerably, and one of them is international trade.
  • European Union as an Actor in International Political Economy In the drafting of the constitutional treaty, that charter was included and in addition to that, a declaration of the acquisition of the European Convention on Human Rights by the European Union.
  • How Has Change in Ship Technology Effected International Politics? Notably, technology has been the main influence in gun development, the sailing of the ship, growth in development of literature and this became more evident with the end of the feudalism and the subsequent emergence […]
  • The Idea of Political Realism in the International Relations Security as one of the basic issues and the relevance of morality are also recognized to be important elements of realism in international politics.
  • Daniel W. Drezner: Theories of International Politics and Zombies He observes that the emergence of the Zombies would be the perfect solution to the problems facing powerful states. In chapter eight, Dresner observes that unstable cooperation among states is always the order of the […]
  • Contribution of Marxism and Imperialism in Shaping the Modern International Political System Therefore, the postulated concepts of class struggles, materialism, and the surfacing of a capitalistic world market incredibly provide a point of alignment of the Marxism concepts and theories of international relations.
  • International Politics and Economical Efficacy One of the most important aspects of any society is the connection between politics and economics, and the intricate social network which is established by the environment.
  • How Will Social Media Change the Future of International Politics? Besides this, social media has also contributed greatly to the development of international politics by increasing the knowledge of politics in different parts of the world and encouraging more young people to participate in politics.
  • Neorealism: Kenneth Waltz ‘Theory of International Politics’ The theories look at the philosophies which shape the relationships between nations and the key interests of the nations which participate in international relations.
  • International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis By world-system, the theory indicates the inter-regional and transnational divisions of labour that divide the world between the rich and the poor, and the powerful and the weak as Macedo and Gounari confirm4.
  • International Politics Discussed by Wendt and Waltz In his book chapter, The anarchic structure of the world politics, Waltz argues that the domestic power structure is defined by the principles that govern it as well as the specialisation of its various functions.
  • Negotiations in International Trade and Politics The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the predecessor to the World Trade Organization, was formed after World War II, to arbitrate on international trade issues.
  • Current Issues in North Korea International Politics In this paper, an analysis will be conducted involving the current issue of North Korea’s limitation of its citizen’s right to the freedom of speech by preventing them from connecting to the internet and how […]
  • NATO: Theory of International Politics This organization was able to survive the end of the Cold War since it went on serving several helpful purposes for the members and also because the members totally came to an agreement that they […]
  • International Political Economy Perspectives It is also important to add that the idea of the conflict is leading in the three perspectives as it is accepted that there are conflicting forces that try to control production and wealth distribution.
  • Neorealists and Marxists in International Politics The secularism implies the diminishment of the influence of the Catholic Church and its intervention in the internal affairs of the country.
  • International Organizations in Global Politics A number of scientists tend to prove the idea that the progress in the evolution of the international relations results from the growth of companies and organizations which become influential enough to act at the […]
  • World Modern History: Constructing International Politics One of the reasons for that is the fact that every state wants to be the most powerful within the institution, especially when it comes to security.
  • Strange’s Study of Power in International Political Economy The following paper will discuss and cover Susan Strange’s contribution to the study of power in International Political Economy to evaluate and demonstrate the scholar’s viewpoints and statements as to the given theme.
  • International Political Economy in Statecraft Simulation In order to evaluate the possible position of each country, we have to grade, classify and establish the most applicable factors, such as the available resources, the governmental system and political approach, the durability and […]
  • Globalization Era and Internationalism Politics The age of the Nation-State is over and it is easy to prove this statement is to consider the situation which exists in the modern world about the society, to check the political preferences and […]
  • Political Structures: Local and International The author states the fact that the structure concept is based on the idea that the main units and their aspects are combined in different ways.
  • Multilateralism and Other Trends in International Political Economy The essay aims to answer the following questions: what perspectives on contemporary international relations in the context of economy and politics appear to be the most important, and could future trends be projected on the […]
  • Nongovernmental Organizations in International Politics The differences in ideology may create hardships in terms of approach, perception, and solutions to the problems of social development. Social movements have been part of the political and economic landscape for centuries.
  • International Relations and Political Issues In that sense, political issues in the context of international relations is more sensitive, as the image of the international relations is shaped by the political affairs, and military actions which often involves the participation […]
  • How Useful Is the Concept of ‘Hegemony’ for Understanding International Politics? Whereas, the strength of country’s ‘structural’ power is being concerned with its possession of instruments of direct geopolitical influence, such as army and navy, the strength of country’s arelational’ power is being reflected in this […]
  • International Political Scene: Globalization and Peace Relations Although the role of the State in contemporary international system has been moved to the peripheral, it is arguable that the state still has a major role to play in conflicts.
  • The Role of Individuals in International Politics: Hitler and Stalin The focus of this dissertation will be on the personalities of the two leaders and their opinions on war and peace.
  • International Political Economy: Free or Equal While government intervention may help provide equality and social stability, it puts restrictions on personal freedom and the market economy, which prompts many people to argue against it. While many factors were involved, it is […]
  • International Political Economy, Democratization, and Terrorism IPE describes the global power dynamics that control international trade and finance, fuel globalization, and wealth distribution across the globe. Sachs argues that globalization and the emergence of political economics have led to the increased […]
  • International Politics of the Middle East This paper covers an evaluation on the international politics of the MENA region alongside discussions on the history behind its political platform.
  • International Politics: Humanitarian Intervention
  • Changes in the Hierarchy of International Politics
  • The Modern International Politics as a World in Disarray
  • The History of Treaties and International Politics By Mario Toscano
  • International Politics and Institutions in Time
  • The Connections between International Politics and Gender Equality Issues
  • International Politics and Morality
  • Has Globalization Transformed International Politics
  • International Politics: Offshore Athletic Shoe Production
  • International Politics: The Case of Global Microfinance
  • How Critical Theory Improves the Study of International Politics
  • Describing the Modern International Politics as a World in Disarray
  • International Politics and Import Diversification in the Second Wave of Globalization
  • Spanier and Wendzel: Understanding International Politics
  • International Politics: The Incompetence of the United Nations
  • The European Union’s Roles in International Politics
  • International Politics: North-South Gap
  • The International Politics of Natural Disasters by John Hannigan
  • International Politics in Multinational Corporations
  • The International Politics In Sub-Saharan Africa
  • National Relations and International Politics
  • International Relations Theory and the Future of European Integration
  • International Law With International Politics
  • One of the Most Significant Developments in the Twenty-Century International Politics: The European Union
  • The Evolution of Moral Conduct in International Politics
  • Fundamental Principles of International Politics by Martin Rochester
  • The Most Influential Actors in International Politics
  • The IMF Lending Policies: Sovereignty and Hierarchy in the International Political Economy
  • International Politics: Globalism, Pluralism, and Realism
  • The State-Centric Construction of the International Politics
  • International Politics: The Oil Industry in Venezuela
  • The Main Ideological Currents in International Politics
  • A Foreign Policy for the American People
  • German-US Relations and International Politics: Common Experiences, Values, Interests and Issues
  • How a Rising China Has Remade International Politics
  • Nestle in International Politics: Risks in the Context of Decolonization and the Cold War
  • “Bananas, Beaches and Bases” or Roles That Women Play in International Politics
  • U.S. Dollar as the World’s Dominant and How It Influences International Politics
  • International Politics of the OIC: The Collective Voice of the Muslim World
  • What Is the History of Treaties and International Politics?
  • What Are the Changes in the Hierarchy of International Politics?
  • How Does Critical Theory Improve the Study of Research Papers in International Politics?
  • How Are International Politics and Morality Related?
  • What Connects Realism and International Politics?
  • What Is the Description of Modern International Politics as a World in Disarray?
  • What Is the Role of the European Union in International Politics?
  • What Is the Relationship Between International Politics and Gender Equality Issues?
  • Who Are the Most Influential Figures in International Politics?
  • How Can One Understand the International Politics of Spanier and Wenzel?
  • What Will International Politics Look Like in Transnational Corporations?
  • How Are International Politics and Import Diversification Related in the Second Wave of Globalization?
  • How Are Transnational Corporations and International Politics Connected?
  • How Does Realism Manifest Itself in International Politics?
  • How Can UN Incompetence Affect International Politics?
  • What Does International Politics Focus On?
  • What Are the Elements of International Politics?
  • What Are the Issues in Global Politics?
  • Why Is International Politics So Important?
  • What Is the Core Concept of International Politics?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Politics and International Relations?
  • Which Are the Main Theories of International Politics?
  • What Are the Approaches of International Politics?
  • Which International Politics Theory Is the Best?
  • What Are the Biggest Political Problems Facing the World Today?
  • How Do Globalization Affects International Politics?
  • What Is the Difference Between International Relations and Politics?
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  • Chicago (N-B)

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World Politics Essay

world politics essay

The World Of Politics And Political Theory

have contributed to the world of politics and paved the way for our modern day government. Not only have they built up a forum for how policymaking is organized and overall studied, they have also illuminated new ways to carry out our judicial systems. Two of the major component thinkers that attributed to the growth of politics as a whole were Aristotle and Plato. These two philosophers not only presented new theories but also changed how legislation is viewed by the world and potential lawmakers

World Politics And The Voice Of Justice Summary

World Politics and the Voice of Justice John T. Rourke The author John T. Rourke focuses on issues within the political party in his article “World Politics and the Voice of Justice” (2016). He views the political world in debate form. This piece of writing is based on debates by many different individuals on matters pertaining to the world. He mentions how the citizens need to become informed about events occurring around them. He points out that globalization plays a key factor in how the world

The World Of Modern Politics

In the world of modern politics there are International organizations that focus of world trade to world healthcare to smaller organizations and can comprise of small countries to the world’s power house countries like Russia and the United states. These international organizations play a very large role in the global politics scale and to help understand their impact, different theories were created to help describe their overall impact on the global scale. Four of the main theories as are Neorealism

International Politics And Its Impact On The World

The study of International Politics is very important and extremely relevant in today’s society, especially in a world that is so easily impacted by the countries and nations around the United States, whether it is positive or negative. As a republic, we tend to feel irrelevant in the world despite our loyalty as a nation. Many people feel that since they are only one person they can do very little to help the world, but I believe that if more people were educated on international matters and the

Politics In Brave New World

broader society. Through their representation of the complexities of politics and its profound impact on the people, both Aldous Huxley and director George Clooney elucidate the prevalent political ideologies of their times. Huxley’s 1932 prose fiction Brave New World describes the fears and anxieties that were common in the 1920s – 1930s due to the Great Wars. Conversely, Clooney’s 2011 film Ides of March portrays the underhanded politics in the contemporary context and its impact on the societal perspectives

The World Politics And The Ones Obscured By It

features of Liberalism that are explained by the world politics and the ones obscured by it. It looks into how elements like Free trade, Internationalism, Theory of Democratic Peace, Security Co-Binding have shaped global politics and how the idea of liberal and illiberal fights been obscured in the realm of global politics. The essay is concluded with a gist of how post-cold war liberalism has shaped the west and is responsible in engaging the world in a liberal order. Introduction When we look back

Globalization : The World Of Politics And The Human Population

however, it has effects on the environment, culture, the economy, politics and the human population (Globalization 101). Globalization has effected the environment due to human productivity; cars, technology, mining, farming and the advancements of different products. Globalization has effected culture due to the diffusion of ideas, beliefs and values around the world extending the social relationships with people around the world. Globalization has also effected the economy in the assimilation and

Politics On The World Wide Web

Politics on the World Wide Web With the development of the world wide web, substantial opportunity has arisen for people around the world, as easy and free access to an immediate audience of people is prevalent in the cyberspace. For example, most people in modern society are not only attached to, but also dependent on the internet for a number of reasons. These reasons may include things such as a resource for news or simply a way to stay connected with friends through social media. People who

The Main Factor That Influenced The World Politics

The main factor that influenced the world politics in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries is globalization. For some, globalization is an inevitable process which creates opportunities for people to make connection with each other around the world, communicate and share experiences. It carries political and economic changes which open up unprecedented opportunities for prosperity for all its citizens (Scholte, 2002). For others, globalization is a process of economic, political and

Comparing Hutchings's Time And World Politics

“Time and World Politics” is a book about the past and the future. And it also has a lot to say about now – this analysis has become peculiarly relevant due to today’s uncertainty faced by the international society with the post-truth scenario of major powers in the West and their mostly unexpected change of leadership and future steps in foreign policy. Kimberly Hutchings’s work, as the title suggests, talks about the point of view of time in world politics in a very thoroughly way; it is a superb

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World Politics Essays Examples

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World politics.

Realism in international relations refers to the classical belief that states vie for power using economic and military means. Human nature is, according to the realist, self-serving and unavoidably power-hungry. Thus, the theory is concerned mainly with how states vie for economic and military dominance in the world's political arena and how to navigate through a usually treacherous world. Subsequently, realist international relations are based on power politics. Realism infers that states act selfishly, unilaterally, and largely independently. International rule of law and political norms are virtually nonexistent in the realist perspective. Liberalism, on the other hand, offers a more nuanced perspective on international relations. Classical liberalism presumes that states do not act solely out of want for economic and military dominance. States are comprised of peoples and cultures, and their corresponding value systems. Moreover, a liberal theory of international relations points to the emergence of globalization in promoting cross-cultural communication….

Igos in World Politics Nonstate

IGOs play an important role in modern international relations. Overall, they provide many benefits to the global community, with the ability to act collectively in the interest of human rights, international peace and security, and economic development. However, the IGOs cannot act without the support of individual states, with the need for donations to promote economic growth (Kegley & Blanton, 2010) to the use of nations' militaries to pursue UN peacekeeping operations (Scharf, 2007). Given the use of nations' resources to further the goals of IGOs and the states' retention of authority to protect self-interest, IGOs are important in world politics, but will remain subservient to the nation. Just as the global climate after WWI spurred the creation of the League of Nations (Scharf, 2007), a massive international event in the future may dictate that states withdraw their participation in IGOs. As long as states retain the authority to cease participation….

Grigorescu, a. (2010). The spread of bureaucratic oversight mechanisms across intergovernmental organizations. International Studies Quarterly 54(3): 871-886.

Kegley, C. & Blanton, S. (2010). World Politics: Trends and Transformation (13th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth.

Lake, D. (2010). Rightful rules: Authority, order, and the foundations of global governance. International Studies Quarterly 54(3): 587-613.

Roca, S. (1987). Economic sanctions against Cuba. In D. Leyton-Brown (ed.), the Utility of International Economic Sanctions (pp. 87-104). New York: St. Martin's Press.

Today's International Relations and World Politics

Biggest Challenges The Three Biggest Challenges Facing the International Community & How They Affect International Relations In my opinion, the three biggest challenges facing the international community are: Inequality Terrorism, and Nuclear Proliferation These challenges have assumed crucial importance in recent times and have significantly affected international relations. If the international community fails to tackle these issues satisfactorily over the next few decades, they may become uncontrollable with overwhelming consequences for the whole world. This essay looks briefly at these three issues in turn and explains how they affect the current and future international relations. Inequality Economic and social inequality has assumed grotesque proportions in recent times and the indications are that it is on the rise. For example, the richest 1% in the world (50 million people) have income equivalent to the poorest 57% (2.6 billion people) and four fifths of the world's population live below what countries in North America and Europe consider the poverty….

Works Cited

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Eland, Ivan. "Bush Administration Bluster Exacerbates Nuclear Proliferation." The Independent Institute. May 2, 2005. May 3, 2005.

Elliott, Larry and Charlotte Denny. "Top 1% earn as much as the poorest 57%." Guardian Unlimited. January 18, 2002. May 3, 2005.

"Inequality." World Revolution.org. 2005. May 3, 2005.

Order and Justice in World Politics

Facilitating a Geographical Corporate Environment of Human ights in Brazil This company has been retained by The New Global Link (TNGL), a corporation that has recently been awarded a license to do business in the country of Brazil. As such, TNGL, in retaining this company, seeks to understand the Brazil in terms of its socio-economic-political environments. TNGL, an American corporation, has a reporting responsibility and a fiscal responsibility to its shareholders, and is to ensure its success globally, beginning in Brazil, where it will be working towards further global expansion in South America. It therefore essential that TNGL establish itself not just as a corporate business partner with the country of Brazil, but as a social and economic partner that realizes that the social and economic health and well being of the country will reflect itself on TNGL in numerous ways. Therefore, TNGL is seeking a comprehensive briefing that will….

Reference List www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108125967

Balderston, Daniel, Mike Gonzalez, and Ana M.L pez, eds. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Caribbean Cultures. London: Routledge, 2000.  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108126074 .

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95812157

Moreno, Albrecht. "Bossa Nova::Novo Brasil the Significance of Bossa Nova as a Brazilian Popular Music." Latin American Research Review 17, no. 2 (1982): 129-141.  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95812158 .

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001760348

Politics Herz 1957 Surmises That

However, she concludes that the effect of PMCs, as a whole, cannot be determined by this one example. Supply in the current PMC market has a tendency to self-perpetuate. As more PMCs enter the market, new threats are developed that the firms provide protection against. "Moreover, demand does not penalize firms that service 'illegitimate;' clients in general. Consequently, the number of actors who can wield control over the use of force is limited mainly by their ability to pay." (605). This results in a draining of current security institutions resources. Their security coverage is worsened. By increasing the availability of military force, more actors are involved in conflict and less reason is needed to contest existing institutions, destabilizing nations. Conclusion: Herz (1957) was correct in his understanding that the territorial states of yesteryear are forever changed. Sovereignty in today's world is tenuous at best. International law has been created to help….

Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Stategy. 12.2. (Spring 1993): 141-165.

Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.

Homer-Dixon, T. "The Rise of Complex Terrorism." Foreign Policy. 128. (Jan-Feb 2002): 52-62.

Leander, a. "The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies." Journal of Peace Research. 42.5. (2005): 605-622.

Politics Some Say That World

yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no….

Reference List

1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/ 

BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.

Retrieved from  http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=30 

Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.

World War I On Politics

With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States....America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other." (Woodrow Wilson's war message) United States' entry bolstered the Allied forces and gave them extraordinary power over the German Imperial army. With America's entry into the war, things suddenly changed as we were was no longer spectators. The response from the public was however not overwhelming since it had been made….

President Woodrow Wilson's War message" accessed online 14th April 2005:


John Bach McMaster. The United States in the World War: D. Appleton & Company. New York. 1918

Eastern Front in the Context of the Second World War

World War II -- Eastern Front While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against all non-Aryan people,….


Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.

Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.

WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present

Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear….

Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:


"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,

May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm

Politics Nationalist Rebirth During the Inter-War Years

Politics Nationalist ebirth During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the hineland in 1936, the occupation of Czechoslovakia in….

Berwick, M. The Third Reich. London: Wayland Publishers, 1971.

Carsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1970.

Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.

Mosse, George. The Crisis of German Ideology. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.

WWII to the 60s the

Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing….

Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.

Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.

Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.

Politics International Relations Analysis of Theories the

Politics International Relations Analysis of Theories The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs. To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states, by what Waltz calls….

Politics German Government the German

ecause the Republic was weak, it was open to failure, and open to a takeover by a powerful group such as Hitler's Nazis. asically, the failure of the Republic allowed Hitler to take control of the government, which ultimately led to World War II, the persecution of the Jews, the Holocaust, and millions of deaths. Thus, the fall of the Weimar Republic was extremely significant to world history, and it was because it was created as a weak Republic that it could fall so quickly and have so many weaknesses that Hitler and his party capitalized on. This shows a very diachronic relationship between the Army, the legislative branches, and the Chancellor, because they could not work together harmoniously, and so, they created friction that led to the failure of the Republic. A more synchronic relationship may have created more strength in the Republic, and led to a much….

Author not Available. (2005). The French National Assembly. Retrieved from the French National Assembly Web site: www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8al.asp22 July 2005.

Mahler, Gregory S. (2003). Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rempel, Gerhard. (2000). The Weimar Republic I: Economic and Political Problems. Retrieved from the Western New England College Web site: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/23weimar_collapse.html22 July 2005.

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This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many. It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it. Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states, I….

Politics the Machiavellian Characteristics of President George

Politics The Machiavellian Characteristics of President George . Bush George . Bush has followed in his fathers' footsteps, becoming the 43rd President of the U.S., holding office between 2001 and 2009. He is a president that held power during a notable period, with the 9/11 attacks occurring only a year into his presidency. Like any U.S. president, there will be a number of controversial issues associated with his presidency, including the way action was taken in Iraq. In hindsight it may be argued that President Bush was acting in a very Machiavellian manner, aligned with Machiavelli's ideal Prince. The alignment between the prince and Bush may not be surprising when it is realized that both a principle adviser to the president; Karl Rove, as well as Republic strategists and friend, Lee Atwater where both avid fans of Machiavelli (Phillips 147). However, to argue the likeness requires an examination of examples rather than the….

Works cited

Harris, P, "Bush says God chose him to lead his nation," The Guardian, 29 August 2005

Ludlow, Lawrence M, Machiavelli and U.S. Politics, 25 October 2013

Machiavelli, The Prince, 1513

Rycroft, D, Iraq: Prime Minister's Meeting, 23 July (Dearlove Memo), accessed 25th of October 2013


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ecause the Republic was weak, it was open to failure, and open to a takeover by a powerful group such as Hitler's Nazis. asically, the failure of the…

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A frozen war in ukraine would be a victory for russia, burundi and rwanda’s latest rift has its roots in eastern congo, as dutch politics flounders, wilders’ popularity soars, japan and south korea’s ‘historical dispute’ is still very much alive, deep space nine vs. warhammer: the battle for the eu’s soul has begun, bob marley’s vision is still relevant for global development, the icj’s ukraine genocide case is actually a win for kyiv, daily review: somalia’s deal with turkey is aimed at ethiopia.

Somali President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.

Somalia announced yesterday it had signed a defense and economic cooperation deal with Turkey that reportedly includes maritime security support, authorizing Ankara to train and equip the Somali navy so it can better defend its territorial waters. The deal was signed earlier this month and will reportedly be in force for the next decade. ( AP )

The Somalia-Turkey agreement is just the latest development in the continued fallout from a deal signed on Jan. 1 between Ethiopia and Somaliland, a breakaway region of Somalia that remains unrecognized internationally. That agreement grants Ethiopia, which is landlocked , access to some of Somaliland’s coastline and use of its port, potentially in exchange for diplomatic recognition of Somaliland.

Until this year, the Somaliland situation, while an irritant for Mogadishu, had largely been static . The breakaway region had enjoyed de facto independence for decades without having made any progress on international recognition, while Somalia focused more attention on its war against the Islamist militant group Al-Shabaab. Now, Ethiopia’s reported pledge to recognize Somaliland—notably at a time when quasi-states appear to have more leverage in the global order—has set off a cascade of regional effects, including some saber-rattling.

For its part, Somalia remains particularly suspicious of the potential role that the United Arab Emirates played in the Ethiopia-Somaliland agreement. That’s because the Horn of Africa has increasingly become an epicenter of geopolitical competition among Middle East powers. The UAE, in particular, has become a major player in the Horn and has previously facilitated ties between Ethiopia and Somaliland. So Somalia’s suspicion is not unfounded.

It makes sense, in this context, that Somalia would seek to strengthen its partnership with Turkey, which has become an increasingly close ally. Turkey already provides development aid and military training to Somalia, and in 2017 opened its largest overseas military base in Mogadishu.

With this new agreement, that partnership extends to Somalia’s territorial waters, potentially serving as a deterrent to Ethiopia’s use of Somaliland’s coastline. At the same time, however, the Turkey-Somalia deal is sure to escalate tensions in the region and further entangle the Horn in longstanding Middle East rivalries.

Iran has provided Russia with a large number of short-range, surface-to-surface ballistic missiles, Reuters reports . Shipments of the missiles began in January and are expected to continue.


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world politics essay

How to Write the Political and Global Issues College Essay

world politics essay

Essays are one of the best parts of the college application process. With your grades in, your test scores decided, and your extracurriculars developed over your years in high school, your essays are the last piece of your college application that you have immediate control over. With them, you get to add a voice to your other stats, a “face” to the name, so to speak. They’re an opportunity to reveal what’s important to you and what sets you apart from other applicants and tell the admissions committee why you’d be an excellent addition to their incoming student class.

Throughout your college applications process, there are many different types of essays you’ll be asked to write. Some of the most popular essay questions you’ll see might include writing about an extracurricular, why you want to matriculate at a school, and what you want to study.

Increasingly, you might also see a supplemental college essay asking you to discuss a political or global issue that you’re passionate about. Asking this type of question helps colleges understand what you care about outside of your personal life and how you will be an active global citizen.

Some examples from the 2019-2020 cycle include:

Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service : Briefly discuss a current global issue, indicating why you consider it important and what you suggest should be done to deal with it.

Yeshiva University Honors Programs : What is one issue about which you are passionate?

Pitzer College : Pitzer College is known for our students’ intellectual and creative activism. If you could work on a cause that is meaningful to you through a project, artistic, academic, or otherwise, what would you do?

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world politics essay

Our chancing engine factors in extracurricular activities, demographic, and other holistic details.

Our chancing engine factors in extracurricular activities, demographic, and other holistic details. We’ll let you know what your chances are at your dream schools — and how to improve your chances!

Tips for Writing the Political and Global Issues College Essay

Pick an issue close to your life.

When you first see a political and global issues prompt, your gut reaction might be to go with a big-picture topic that’s all over the news, like poverty or racism. The problem with these topics is that you usually have a page or less to talk about the issue and why it matters to you. Students also might not have a direct personal connection to such a broad topic. The goal of this essay is to reveal your critical thinking skills, but the higher-level goal of every college essay is to learn more about who you are.

Rather than go with a broad issue that you’re not personally connected to, see if there’s just one facet of it that you  can  contend with. This is especially important if the prompt simply asks for “an issue,” and not necessarily a “global issue.” While some essay prompts will specifically ask that you address a  global  issue (like Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service), there are still ways to approach it from a more focused perspective.

For example, if you were to talk about world hunger, you could start with the hunger you see in your community, which is a food desert. For your solution, you can discuss your plan to build a community garden, so the town is able to access fresh produce. Food deserts, of course, aren’t the only reason world hunger exists; so, you should also explore some other reasons, and other solutions. Maybe there is a better way to prevent and recuperate produce currently being wasted, for instance. If the prompt doesn’t specifically ask for a global issue, however, you could simply focus on food deserts.

For another example, maybe you want to talk about climate change. A more personal and focused approach would deal with happenings in your community, or a community you’ve had contact with. For instance, perhaps your local river was polluted because of textile industry waste; in this case, it would be fitting to address fast fashion specifically (which is still a global issue).

Remember your audience

As you’re approaching this essay, take care to understand the political ramifications of what you’re suggesting and how the school you’re addressing might react to it. Make sure you understand the school’s political viewpoints, and keep in mind that schools are hoping to see how you might fit on their campus based on your response.

So, if you’re applying to a school known for being progressive, like Oberlin or Amherst, you might not want to write an essay arguing that religious freedom is under threat in America. Or, if you’re applying to Liberty University, you should probably avoid writing an essay with a strong pro-LGBTQ stance. You don’t have to take the opposite position, but try picking a different issue that won’t raise the same concerns.

If you have no political alignment, choose economics

If you find yourself applying to a school with which you share no political viewpoints, you might want to consider if the school would even be a good fit for you. Why do you really want to go there? Are those reasons worth it? If you think so, consider writing about an economic issue, which tend to be less contentious than social issues.

For instance, you could write about the impact of monopolies because your parents own an independent bookstore that has been affected by Amazon. Or you could discuss tax breaks for companies that keep or move their production domestically, after seeing how your town changed when factories were moved abroad. Maybe tax filing is a cause you’re really passionate about, and you think the government should institute a free electronic system for all. No matter what you write about here, the key is to keep it close to home however you can.

Pick the best possible framing

When you’re writing an essay that doesn’t fully align with the political views of the school you’re applying to, you’ll want to minimize the gap between your viewpoint and that of the school. While they still might disagree with your views, this will give your essay (and therefore you) the best possible chance. Let’s say you’re applying to a school with progressive economic views, while you firmly believe in free markets. Consider these two essay options:

Option 1:  You believe in free markets because they have pulled billions out of terrible poverty in the developing world.

Option 2:  “Greed is good,” baby! Nothing wrong with the rich getting richer.

Even if you believe equally in the two reasons above personally, essay option 1 would be more likely to resonate with an admissions committee at a progressive school.

Let’s look at another, more subtle example:

Option 1:  Adding 500 police officers to the New York City public transit system to catch fare evaders allows officers to unfairly and systematically profile individuals based on their race.

Option 2:  The cost of hiring 500 additional police officers in the New York City public transit system is higher than the money that would be recouped by fare evasion.

While you might believe both of these things, a school that places a lower priority on race issues may respond better to the second option’s focus on the fallible economics of the issue.

Structuring the Essay

Depending on how long the essay prompt is, you’ll want to use your time and word count slightly differently. For shorter essays (under 250 words), focus on your personal connection rather than the issue itself. You don’t have much space and you need to make it count. For standard essays (250-500 words), you can spend about half the time on the issue and half the time on your personal connection. This should allow you to get more into the nuance. For longer essays, you can write more on the issue itself. But remember, no matter how long the essay is, they ultimately want to learn about you–don’t spend so much time on the issue that you don’t bring it back to yourself.

Want help with your college essays to improve your admissions chances? Sign up for your free CollegeVine account and get access to our essay guides and courses. You can also get your essay peer-reviewed and improve your own writing skills by reviewing other students’ essays.

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world politics essay

Russia’s role in world politics: power, ideas, and domestic influences

  • Introduction
  • Published: 03 May 2018
  • Volume 56 , pages 713–725, ( 2019 )

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  • Elias Götz 1 &
  • Neil MacFarlane 2  

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Russia’s role in world politics has become the object of a spirited debate among policymakers, think-tank analysts, and academics. Much of this debate focuses on one central question: What are the main drivers, or causes, of Moscow’s increasingly proactive and assertive foreign policy? The purpose of this special issue is to address this question by focusing on the interplay of power, ideas, and domestic influences. Our introductory article sets the scene for this analytical endeavor. More specifically, the article has three aims: (1) to review the existing explanations of Moscow’s assertiveness; (2) to discuss the challenges, opportunities, and benefits of employing eclectic approaches in the study of Russian foreign policy; and (3) to outline the contributions of the articles that follow.

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Götz, E., MacFarlane, N. Russia’s role in world politics: power, ideas, and domestic influences. Int Polit 56 , 713–725 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-018-0162-0

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Manuscripts should be submitted with an abstract to ScholarOne Manuscripts at mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wp . Manuscript texts should be double spaced, and the word count should be indicated. Research articles and review articles may be up to 12,500 words in length, including notes and references. Tables, figures, and appendixes need not be included in the word count. Supplementary material intended for online publication should be used judiciously, only including materials that are central to the argument developed in the main text; these materials cannot exceed fifteen pages in length. Abstracts should be limited to 150 words in length. Revised articles may exceed the original word limit, including notes and references, if doing so is a result of responding to reviewers’ comments. World Politics strongly suggests that author response memos not exceed five pages, single spaced.

World Politics has a firm and long-standing policy of not considering material that has already been published (including in a foreign language), has been concurrently submitted elsewhere, or is already slated for publication even in a somewhat different form, such as a chapter of a book. This policy applies to both print and online formats. For these purposes, an online format that would preclude consideration by World Politics refers to a refereed presentation and/or a copyrighted working paper. Examples of pre-published materials that may be considered for publication by World Politics are print working papers and online papers on an author’s own homepage or Web site. Certain material already scheduled for publication, such as a chapter of a book, may be considered by World Politics if it is to appear no earlier than nine months after the likely date of publication in World Politics . Dual submission and dual publication are not permitted while a piece is under consideration at World Politics . These restrictions apply to all copyrighted publications (including book chapters, journal articles, and/or working papers).

Procedures for reviewing manuscripts are based on the anonymity of the author and the confidentiality of readers’ and editors’ reports in a triple-blind process. Author anonymity is preserved, as well, during the editorial decision-making process. Bylines or any information that could easily identify the author(s) should be removed. Self-cites should also be removed if possible. Referees are drawn from the social science scholarly community. Articles that are published in the journal have usually been reviewed by at least two non- Princeton reviewers and often, but not in all instances, one of the editors. Referees for the previous calendar year are acknowledged in the October issue of the journal. Authors can expect to receive decisions on their submissions within four months. In the case of an article deemed to be inappropriate for World Politics , the editors will notify the author that the article has been withdrawn from consideration.

World Politics has a Dataverse archive, and authors who rely on quantitative data must place their data, after a piece is accepted but prior to publication, in this trusted digital repository. The information made available should include such items as the original data; specialized computer programs; lists of computer program recodes; extracts of existing data files; and, most importantly, an explanatory file that describes what is included in the data, how it was created, the sources from which it was drawn, and how to replicate the exact numerical results produced in the work. Information should be provided in any published piece concerning the availability of the data. Embargoes on original, proprietary data for up to two years beyond the date of publication (or other special circumstances affecting the decision to make data publicly available) will be considered, but must receive the approval of the editorial committee prior to publication. The editorial committee will give special consideration to requests from junior colleagues seeking longer embargos for cases involving original data collection being used for other projects.

Access the World Politics Dataverse site at dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/world-politics .

Authors of published articles will receive gratis a copy of the issue in which the article appears and a PDF file of the article.

Please address all inquiries to Emily Babson, Executive Editor, World Politics , Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies, Louis A. Simpson International Bldg., Room 148B, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544. E-mail: [email protected] .

(July 2022)

Ethical Conduct of Research and IRB Statement Questions

Social scientists often confront ethical challenges when conducting research and writing up results from research. In 2020, the American Political Science Association adopted Principles and Guidance for Human Subjects Research. The World Politics editorial committee endorses and adheres to these principles. They include (among others) respect for autonomy of human participants (a broader category than “human subjects” as defined in United States federal regulation); openness about ethical issues; the researcher’s non-delegable responsibility for the ethical conduct of research; and the reasoned justification of deviations from the Principles and Guidelines in scholarly publications.

  • Did your research directly engage with human participants? Yes/No
  • Did your research adhere to the APSA Principles described and linked in the preamble? Yes/No If no, please select which ones were violated from the options provided. Where in the submission do you address the deviation from these principles? Did your research entail any additional ethical challenges at any stage of the research process? If yes, please summarize in no more than 100 words. Where in the submission do you address the ethical issues you note above?
  •  Did any ethics board review the research design to confirm that human participants (or human subjects) would be treated fairly and justly? (Your answer will be deidentified for reviewers, who will see only “yes” or “no” but not the name of the university or the approval number). If yes, please indicate the organization, reference number, and date of approval. If no, please indicate how you arrived at this conclusion (organization name did not deem it Human Subjects Research OR organization name granted an exemption [include reference number and date). If neither applies, indicate that your university does not have an IRB Board. If research was reviewed by an IRB, indicate statement of approval or exemption by IRB protocol number, institution, and date.

For a printable version of the Author Guidelines download this PDF .

The Hopkins Press Journals Ethics and Malpractice Statement can be found at the ethics-and-malpractice  page.

Editorial Policies and Procedures

World Politics is an academic quarterly founded in 1948. It is currently produced under the auspices of the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies (PIIRS), Princeton University, and, as of 2023, is published by Johns Hopkins University Press. Publication of the journal is financed by subscriptions, sale of individual issues, and fees from permissions and advertisements. Since 2007, the journal has accepted submissions only through ScholarOne Manuscripts, a Web-based service, at mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wp .

World Politics publishes scholarly research articles and review articles. The journal seeks to represent all of the disciplines, methods, and viewpoints that are relevant to the central problems of international relations and comparative politics. It does not publish opinion pieces or narratives of a journalistic nature. The journal also does not publish communications to the editor or rejoinders to specific articles; scholars who believe that they have been challenged are encouraged to submit an article that will advance the scholarly debate. Statements of fact and opinion appearing in World Politics are made on the responsibility of the author alone and do not imply the endorsement of the editors and publisher.

World Politics has a firm and long-standing policy of not considering material that has already been published (including in a foreign language), has been concurrently submitted elsewhere, or is already slated for publication even in a somewhat different form, such as a chapter of a book. This policy applies to both print and online formats. For these purposes, an online format that would preclude consideration by World Politics refers to a refereed presentation and/or a copyrighted working paper. Examples of pre- published materials that may be considered for publication by World Politics are print working papers and online papers on an author’s own homepage or Web site. Certain material already scheduled for publication, such as a chapter of a book, may be considered by World Politics if it is to appear no earlier than nine months after the likely date of publication in World Politics . Dual submission and dual publication are not permitted while a piece is under consideration at World Politics . These restrictions apply to all copyrighted publications (including book chapters, journal articles, and/or working papers).

Manuscripts should be submitted with an abstract to ScholarOne Manuscripts at mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wp . Manuscripts should be double spaced, and set in a 12-point, sanserif font (Arial or Calibri, for example). Submissions should be no more than 12,500 words in length, including notes and references. In all cases, the final version accepted for publication may be longer if responding to reviews requires it. Tables, figures, and appendixes are not included in the word count. Abstracts should be no more than 150 words in length. Appendices of supplementary materials will be published online at the journal’s Johns Hopkins Web site. World Politics edits its journal articles only; it does not edit supplementary materials. Appendices should be used judiciously, only including materials that are central to the argument developed in the main text; appendices should not exceed fifteen pages in length. Once an article is accepted for publication, authors are required to deposit quantitative data (including replication files, computer codes, and explanatory files) at the World Politics ’ Dataverse site .

Procedures for reviewing manuscripts are triple-blind. Author names are not revealed to reviewers. Author names are not revealed to editors until after the final decision is made on the manuscript. Reviewer names are not revealed to authors. Reviewers may not review articles for World Politics that they have reviewed for other journals or if they know the author’s identity. For more information about the review process, please see World Politics ’ reviewer guidelines.

Articles that are published in the journal have usually been reviewed by at least two non-Princeton reviewers and often, but not in all instances, one of the editors. While members of the editorial committee may not submit articles for consideration, Princeton scholars may do so (in which case they are usually reviewed by three non-Princeton reviewers before deliberation by the editorial committee).


All manuscripts are screened to determine whether they should be reviewed or withdrawn. Once reviewed, decisions on manuscripts—whether to accept, reject, or ask for a revision—are made at the editorial committee meetings. Committee members consider each submission on the basis of the readers’ reviews and reach their decision by majority vote, although in most cases decisions are made by consensus.

  • Is it an academic piece?
  • Does the quality of scholarship merit review?
  • If it is a high-quality academic piece, is it a good fit for World Politics ? In particular, is it theoretically engaged with social science debates? Does it have an empirical discussion of political phenomena? Does it seek to make an innovative and important contribution?
  • If the answers to all of these questions are yes, the piece is circulated. If no, then the piece is withdrawn.
  • Accepting an article. An article may be accepted as submitted, or with suggestions for revisions to be made at the author’s discretion, or subject to the author doing some final revisions that will typically be reviewed by the editors (accept subject to/conditional accept). Manuscripts that are accepted for publication have typically been reviewed by at least three readers. Often, but not in all instances, one of the readers for an accepted article will be a member of the editorial committee, and two of the readers will be drawn from outside of Princeton University. When none of the committee members has the relevant expertise, however, a decision may be made on the basis of reviews by readers who are not on the editorial committee. When a manuscript is submitted by a Princeton author, the committee will seek three outside reviews.
  • Rejecting an article. The editorial board will reject an article based on the reviews that have been received. They will automatically reject a submission on the basis of two negative reviews. Where reviews are split, the board will deliberate further and decide whether to solicit another review or to reject the manuscript at that time.
  • Asking for a revise and resubmit. If the editors feel that a submission cannot be accepted in its current form but has the potential to be revised as a work of publishable quality, they may offer the author the opportunity to revise it on the basis of the critiques and suggestions provided by the reviewers. There is no commitment in advance to publish a revision, however. Revisions may be longer than the guidelines permit for an initial submission, if the manuscript has increased in length in response to suggestions made by the readers. The usual procedure is to have revisions reviewed by the original readers; in unusual circumstances, additional readers may be called in if the editors deem that to be necessary or if any of the original readers are unable to read the revision. In the case of a revision that is judged to be still in need of significant but doable work, an author may be asked to submit a second revision without a commitment to publish. If the revision does not satisfy the readers, the editors are likely to reject it. In rare cases, after reviewing the revised submission, the editors might extend an accept conditional on making additional changes.

In general, World Politics makes every effort to render decisions to authors within four months of the submission of an article. Authors of rejected manuscripts are provided with the readers’ comments and/or are given reasons for the rejection; likewise, authors invited to revise their manuscripts are provided with comments to guide them in doing their revisions. Reviewers receive anonymized copies of all decision letters.

For a printable version of the Publication Ethics download this  PDF .

Editorial Committee (Volume 75)

Yuen Yuen Ang Rachel Beatty Riedl Mark Beissinger Miguel Centeno G. John Ikenberry Jonas Pontusson Grigore Pop-Eleches (Chair) Kristopher Ramsay James Vreeland

Associate Editors (Volume 75)

Faisal Z. Ahmed Amaney Jamal Melissa Lee Rebecca Perlman Jacob N. Shapiro Rory Truex Guadalupe Tunon Andreas Wiedmann

Editorial Board (Volume 74)

Nancy Bermeo Lisa Blaydes Ethan Bueno de Mesquita Thomas J. Christensen Christina Davis Christian Davenport Anna Gryzmala-Busse Torben Iversen Alan Jacobs Stathis Kalyvas David Leblang Evan Lieberman Ellen Lust Lisa Martin Dan Nexon Tom Pepinsky Jon C. Pevehouse Ken Roberts Margaret E. Roberts Michael Ross Joel Simmons Kathy Thelen Lily Tsai Andreas Wimmer Libby Wood Dan Ziblatt

Guidelines for Review Articles

Review articles in World Politics differ from conventional book reviews. First, they usually consider a number of books that address a similar topic, rather than a single work. Second, in addition to describing the contents of the works under review, a World Politics review article should advance our understanding of one or more of the major substantive or methodological themes suggested by those works. The good review article, that is, should be a contribution in its own right to the literature on the themes selected.

An author who is interested in writing a review article for World Politics should submit a proposal of a paragraph or two outlining how he or she intends to develop the topic at hand. The proposal should also include a tentative list of books that would be included in the essay. Proposals should be sent to Emily Babson at [email protected] .

All manuscripts—including those that have been commissioned—are subject to a triple-blind review process. The editors may make suggestions for revision or may reject review articles that are not considered suitable for the journal.

World Politics does not publish reviews of books by Princeton University authors or of books published under the auspices of the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies. Books published by Princeton University Press may be reviewed in the journal, however (as long as they are not by authors at Princeton University).

World Politics has its own house style. Books under review should be listed at the beginning of the article, with complete bibliographical information, including number of pages. Notes should follow the form outlined in the style sheet. Please note that page references to books under review should be incorporated into the text, in parentheses. Manuscripts may be up to 12,500 words in length. (Submissions that are longer than that will not be considered.) They should be double-spaced, with notes run at the end.

Completed review articles should be submitted to the journal via ScholarOne Manuscript Central: mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wp .

Authors of published review articles will receive gratis a copy of the issue in which the article appears and a PDF file of the article.

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5  (2022) 5.1 (Five-Year Impact Factor) 0.00329 (Eigenfactor™ Score) Rank in Category (by Journal Impact Factor): 10 of 187 journals, in “Political Science” 4 of 96 journals, in “International Relations”

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Also of Interest

Cover image of Journal of Democracy

William Dobson, National Endowment for Democracy and Tarek Masoud, Harvard University

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Bert B. Lockwood, Urban Morgan Institute for Human Rights, College of Law, University of Cincinnati

Hopkins Press Journals

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How to Write a Political Essay, With 5 Tips

Lindsay Kramer

If you’ve read political op-eds, you’ve read political essays. Political essays have been used to express individuals’ opinions and shape readers’ views for centuries. Historically famous political essays include On Liberty by John Stuart Mill, Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, and Republic by Plato.

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What is a political essay?

A political essay explains, explores, and often argues for or against a specific political position. A political essay can analyze a political situation, argue a particular issue, or reflect on a political event. One aim of a political essay is to inform readers about political matters and persuade them to adopt a particular point of view.

Another purpose of a political essay is to understand political issues through rhetorical analysis. In other words, when writing a political essay, you’re thinking and writing critically about a specific political concept, precedent, position, or legal document through the lens of a political theory. This kind of writing is an exercise in interpreting political theory, which often enters the realm of philosophy as well. A few examples of political theories include these:

  • Conservatism
  • Libertarianism
  • Objectivism

Political essays can be persuasive essays , with the goal of guiding the reader to agree with a specific position. In some cases, they’re analytical essays . In any case, a political essay is defined by its adherence to a theoretical framework and its author’s development of a logical argument within that framework.

What are the parts of a political essay?


Like any other essay, a political essay includes an introduction . This section introduces the essay’s topic and provides a summary of what the reader can expect in the following paragraphs. It also needs to “hook” the reader with an unexpected fact or engaging statistic. Your essay’s title can be its hook, or the hook can be the content of its introduction. In any case, the hook serves to engage readers and make them want to continue reading.

Thesis statement

Every political essay includes a thesis statement . This is a summary of your essay. A thesis statement can be a single sentence or a few sentences. The thesis statement is part of the introduction.

Following the introduction, a political essay includes two or more body sections . Each section discusses a relevant point that adds to the reader’s understanding of the topic, such as statistics that directly support the thesis statement or opposing perspectives on the topic.

The final part of a political essay is its conclusion . The essay’s conclusion summarizes the points made in its body paragraphs and brings the author’s discussion to an end. It may also add a short insight or personal anecdote that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.


Although a bibliography isn’t technically part of an essay, it’s an important accompaniment to one. On a separate page from the essay, your bibliography lists all the sources you consulted and cited in your writing. This credits the authors of those sources and makes it easy for readers to conduct their own research after reading your work.

How to start a political essay

Before you start your essay , determine the topic you’ll cover. If you’re assigned a topic, this step is easy. If not, take some time to determine a political topic you care about and can research using high-quality sources. Although your political essay’s thesis can be your opinion, it needs to be supported by sources, such as legal precedents, statistics, and case studies.

Develop your thesis

The next step in writing a political essay is determining your thesis. What is your essay going to be about? A thesis is more than a topic; it’s your nuanced position on the topic. Examine the difference here:

Topic: Voter participation in presidential primaries.

Thesis: The American presidential primary process is inaccessible to the average voter for various reasons. These reasons include the timing of primary elections and voters’ perceptions of the importance of primaries.

With a thesis ready, your next step is to identify the sources you’ll use to support it.

Find sources

You may have a few sources ready, or you may have to find appropriate sources for your essay. There is a lot of political information available online and offline, so be sure to stick to factual, trusted sources. Examples of these include primary sources , such as scholarly articles, data from government sources, and quoted statements directly from lawmakers. Stay away from blog posts, opinion pieces, and content from third parties—including political commentators—as these secondary sources often reflect their authors’ perspectives rather than unbiased facts. Your essay should reflect your own perspective and understanding of the topic. By writing a political essay, you’re creating a piece of writing that would be considered a secondary source by those who cite it.

Conduct research

Research your topic thoroughly, and read sources that counter your perspective and thesis statement. Although your essay shouldn’t be based on secondary sources, reading them can help you better understand current positions on your topic. In a political essay, it’s important to understand the opposing position and engage with it in good faith rather than paint opponents as straw men or misunderstand their positions. A strong political essay addresses opposing viewpoints and argues against them logically, so it’s important that you have a solid grasp of these perspectives before you begin to write.

5 tips for writing a political essay

Once you have a clear direction for your essay, it’s time to write the first draft. Work from your outline, as this will help you stay focused and see what to write next when you get stuck.

1 Don’t let the order slow you down

You don’t need to write your essay in a specific order. If you’re having difficulty introducing your essay, but you know how you’ll unravel each issue and how they relate to each other, dive right into writing your body paragraphs. Sometimes, it’s easier to write an introduction once you know exactly what you’re introducing.

2 Use an academic tone

A political essay is a piece of academic writing, so avoid casual words, phrases, and sentence structures. Depending on your essay’s intended audience, it could be beneficial to explain certain legal subjects or precedents in plain language , but don’t confuse plain language for conversational or casual language.

3 Support your criticism

If your essay criticizes a specific politician or policy, support your criticism with statistics. Rather than making a personal attack, explain why this politician or their policies had a negative impact on the public. Your essay is a reflection of you, your understanding of its topic, and your ability to research and analyze political topics.

4 Get your thoughts down

Write a first draft without trying to make it perfect. Get your thoughts onto the page coherently and mostly in a logical order. Once you’ve finished your first draft, give yourself some time before you return to edit it.

5 Read and read again

When you return to edit your work, you’ll have a fresher perspective, making it easier to spot mistakes and areas where you might need to rework some of your writing. This process is known as revising, and it transforms your first draft into your second draft. Once you have a complete second draft, reread your essay to spot any mistakes you might have missed initially. This step, known as proofreading, is the last step before you submit or publish your work.

Political essay FAQs

A political essay examines its topic—generally a legal ruling, piece of legislation, or current event—through the lens of a specific political theory.

What should a political essay include?

A political essay should include these sections:

  • An introduction with a thesis statement
  • Body paragraphs that discuss the topic in detail, including opposing viewpoints
  • A conclusion that summarizes the essay and leaves the reader with an understanding of the author’s position
  • A bibliography that lists all the sources the author used

What are the different kinds of political essays?

A political essay can be an argumentative essay, a persuasive essay, or an analytical essay.

When should you write a political essay?

You may be asked to write a political essay in a political science, philosophy, history, or English course. Outside academic settings, you may write a political essay as an opinion piece or a persuasive essay to share with voters and legislators.

world politics essay

The Impact of Globalization on World Politics

Blurring boundaries through globalization.

We live in a time when the application of conventional social, economic and political terminology, to describe the realities of living in a post-industrial world, can no longer be thought of as fully adequate. Nowadays, politics is much better described in terms of economy, social and demographic trends – in terms of psychiatry, and the economy itself – in terms of criminology. Such a situation came into being as the most immediate effect of the process of Globalization changing the very essence of classical geopolitical notions. Despite the fact that promoters of Globalization try their best to instill ordinary people with the idea that it is only “experts” (namely, these promoters) who are qualified to talk on the subject of “world shrinking in size”, due to the emergence of new “globalized” socio-political realities, anyone with even average IQ is quite capable of understanding the true nature of Globalization as the process of independent countries being deprived of its political sovereignty by cosmopolitan money bags, who perceive independent countries’ laws and regulations as an obstacle on the way of moving speculative capital from one corner of the globe to another. In his book, “The Next Global Stage”, one of Globalization’s most famous theorists Kenichi Ohmae makes no secret of what represents Globalists’ ultimate agenda: “The global economy ignores barriers, but if they are not removed, they cause distortion. The traditional centralized nation-state is another cause of friction. It is ill-equipped to play a meaningful role on the global stage” (Ohmae 2005, p. 15). Therefore, Globalization is best defined as the process that creates objective preconditions for the eventual emergence of the World Government, which will exercise supreme authority over the planet’s natural and human resources.

Impact of globalization on world politics

The following are Globalization’s two major effects on modern politics: 1). World’s political leaders are being increasingly preoccupied with “world’s issues”, at the expense of striving to assure their own nations’ well-being, as it used to be the case, even as recent as 20 years ago. Moreover, these leaders are being deprived of their existential individuality. Nowadays, they consist of unmemorable mediocrities that can excel in only one pursuit – indulging in politically correct rhetoric. In his article “The Club”, William Pierce provides us with insight on why there is such universality in how leaders of Western countries act: “To have a major policy role in the U.S. government or the government of any major European country, any major White country, you’re supposed to be a member of what amounts to a private club — the Club — in which you have been carefully checked out and determined to be “safe”: which is to say, determined to be willing to take orders from the secret bosses of the New World Order” (Pierce 2000). 2) The executive authority of such institutions as U.N., EU or WTO continues to increase rapidly. For example, today’s EU is nothing less of a bureaucratic quasi-state, (“euro-ministers” now go as far as suggesting that EU must have its own army and a police force – Europol) despite the fact that originally, the founding of this organization was only meant to serve purely consultative purposes. In his article “A European Common Defense Community in the Making?”, Douglas Goold says: “The EU has come a long way from being focused on functional matters, such as coal and steel, atomic energy, agriculture and trade barriers, to developing into something that comes close to being a quasi-federal state” (Goold 2007, p. 16). The same can be said about U.N. and WTO. For example, it became a common practice in such East European countries as Ukraine to seek WTO’s consent, when the issue of Prime Minister’s appointment is being concerned.

Thus, we need to stress out once again that Globalization is nothing but an instrument that allows the representatives of the world’s financial elite to acquire political power to deprive independent countries of their national sovereignty. And the reason they do it is very simple – Earth grows increasingly overpopulated, while the planet’s most important natural resources, such as oil, are estimated to deplete in 50-100 years from now. Therefore, the world’s oligarchs strive to be put in a position of exercising unilateral control over these resources, without regard to national laws and regulations, as soon as possible. This is exactly why the hawks of Globalization promote the elimination of national borders with such a passion.


  • Ohmae, K 2005, Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless World . Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing.
  • Goold, D 2007, A European Common Defense Community in the Making? . Behind the Headlines, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 16-23.
  • Heywood, A 2004, Political Theory: An Introduction , Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Pierce, W 2000, The Club . The Nationalist Coalition.

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TOP 65 Greatest Political Essay Topics

Benjamin Oaks

Table of Contents

Being a student requires writing a lot of research papers, projects, essays, and assignments, right? If you’ve been asked to write a political essay and you don’t know where to start, here is the right place to seek for top-notch creative ideas.

So, a political essay itself is an ordinary essay on any kind of topic concerning political context. It means that you can write not only about politics strictly , but also choose a topic related to it.

How about covering issues, like international relations, different kinds of political influence on various population groups, a wide range of social and political connections or your own unique topic concerning politics, its effects, or consequences?

The choice is huge!

However, you should keep in mind that writing about any political issue demands accuracy and a lot of research work. A successful political essay requires complete awareness of what you are writing about.

What is more, you may need to search for political essay examples to examine specific features of this paper.

Another crucial thing is the topic. Here you may find some helpful political essay topics to choose from or to help you come up with an exceptional idea.

Great Political Essay Topics with Explanations

Political essay topics

Here are some basic topics for your political essay. Loads of students go for writing a political ideology essay.

Broader topics, on the other hand, cover connections between politics and other institutions like the church, religion, history, philosophy, etc.

  • When and how did the politics originate?
  • The connection between politics and religion.
  • Comparison of electoral systems in the world.
  • The most influential political figure of the XX century.
  • The political decision that has changed your country at most.
  • What is better for the world, globalization or nationalism?
  • Democracy: pros and cons.
  • Correlation between morality and power.
  • Terrorism as a political instrument.
  • Totalitarianism: pros and cons.
  • The environmental question in the politics of your country.
  • The impact of international relations on your country in the last ten years.
  • Change in politics at wartime.
  • The philosophy of politics.
  • Pros and cons of the political system in your country.

Political socialization essay

Usually, socialization topics cover various aspects of society and life. These topics can be connected with peoples or particular groups of people regarding the political context.

You may try writing a political cartoon essay, too. If you’re a fan.

  • Psychology of politics.
  • Are civil wars a failure of national politicians?
  • Which ways of reducing corruption in your country do you know?
  • What makes lots of people around the whole world think politics is immoral?
  • Does gender discrimination affect politics in your country?
  • How do you see the ideal political system?
  • How do cultural norms influence politics in different countries?
  • Should social movements have an impact on politics?
  • Connections between politics and the media.
  • Political scandals: pros and cons.
  • Are strikes and protests an efficient method of influencing the work of government?
  • How should government regulate privacy and internet safety?
  • Your position towards the death penalty.
  • Do people in your country have enough civil rights?
  • Advantages and disadvantages of legalizing drugs.

Political science essay topics

As those topics below are scientific, they most surely would demand reading a decent amount of literature about political history and its development.

Here students usually go for political systems thematic essays, yet we’ll try to offer something more interesting.

It can be a daunting assignment, but if you enjoy studying history and being super accurate that’s exactly what you’re looking for!

  • Description of democratization processes.
  • Development of politics in your country.
  • Analysis of civil wars phenomenon.
  • Nature of political conflicts.
  • The system of political parties in your country.
  • History of international relations.
  • Influence of non-state actors on the international arena.
  • Analysis of modern international relations.
  • The concept of power balance.
  • Modern conflict science.
  • Collisions in international law.
  • Ancient / Asian / Islamic / Christian political thought.
  • State and local government in your country.
  • The founding of the political system in your country.
  • The foreign policy of your country.

Political argumentative essay topics

Argumentative topics are fascinating, right? If you pick one, you’ll inevitably begin a fierce discussion about it.

Usually, there are two options available: for or against, yes or no, one side or the other.

If you have strong beliefs about any political topic, you should give it a try. That’s for sure. A political corruption essay would be a good start, but there is no reason to avoid searching for other options…

  • Do you think a war is always a political decision?
  • Should a politician be cruel or merciful?
  • Is your country headed in the right direction?
  • What do you regard as a more important thing: people’s privacy or national security?
  • Presidential republics or parliamentary republics?
  • What is more effective nowadays, war or diplomacy?
  • Can we completely overcome corruption?
  • Do revolutions cause more good or harm?
  • Are nuclear weapons a crucial need for countries in the XXI century?
  • Should America build the wall?

Political persuasive essay topics

Do you consider yourself to be a creative person? Do you enjoy dreaming and breaking the existing frames society lives in? If yes, then the persuasive topic is what you need.

There can be no right or wrong point of view in such questions. Diverse opinions, that’s what it would be called more likely. The most popular type among students is a political party essay.

Have your own special vision on it? Cool! Write it down.

Want something else? Try these out!

  • Do you believe in your country’s democracy?
  • If you had the opportunity, which law would you add to your country’s legislation?
  • Tell about the most controversial political figure of your state and your attitude towards him/her.
  • Suggest ways of coping with corruption.
  • How do you see the future of politics?
  • Which political party in your country do you support and why?
  • Which political change or situation stroke you most during the last year?
  • Imagine creating your political party. What will it be like?
  • What is the most winning international rapport your country maintains?
  • Tell me how would you build your own state.

On balance…

I hope you’re full of fresh thoughts even if you didn’t choose any of the topics above.

Actually, politics is so multifaceted and diverse that you will definitely find something acceptable.

Finally, yet importantly, if you would consider the issue attractive, try writing an essay on political correctness. Why not?..

Do politics seem to be way too boring? We have trained professionals here, who strive to write a top-notch essay for you! Order it now and enjoy your free time…

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How Netflix Affects College Students?

60 best argumentative essay topics in 2023, an ultimate guide on how to write a research paper for a+.

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Essays on World Politics

53 samples on this topic

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The paper is a review of the writings of Kenneth waltz and Alexander Wendt. The two differ in the approach of discussing the anarchical realms of the world. They agree on the use of force as a method of survival for the states. Thesis Statement The main argument of the paper is the contention that anarchy is relative a states. The paper takes the social constructivism approach is discussing anarchy in the world. International political arena is equated to a jungle where there are no rules.

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Michael Doyle is one of the most outstanding scholar international relations. In his famous work on liberalism and international politics, Doyle seeks to re-examine the belief that authorities or government founded on individual liberty formulate and implement foreign policies that are restraint and peaceful (Fearon 577). In efforts to give a theoretical explanation of the world politics, Doyle examines three types of liberalism, that is, liberal pacificism as attributed by Schumpeter, liberal imperialism by Machiavelli and liberal internationalism as developed by Immanuel Kant (Doyle 1152).

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In order to understand the relationship between these bureaucratic, patron – client and criminal organizational models it is first necessary to define and examine them individually. In some ways they are quite similar in that the ultimate power and responsibility is concentrated in the upper echelons. How that translates down through the organization varies. Additionally, most organizations contain elements of both structural designs.

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What to Know About Indonesia’s Election

More than 100 million people are expected to vote. The country is a vibrant democracy, but some fear it risks sliding back toward a dark past.

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A woman holds a clipboard in a room full of identical white boxes, wrapped in plastic.

By Sui-Lee Wee

Reporting from Jakarta, Indonesia

The numbers are staggering.

More than 100 million people are expected to vote, many for the first time. They’ll do so in booths across thousands of islands and three time zones, hammering nails into ballots to mark their choices. And within hours, if history is any guide, the world will know the outcome of the biggest race of the day: the one for Indonesia’s presidency.

Indonesia, the world’s third-largest democracy, will hold its general election on Wednesday. Election Day is a national holiday, and on average, about 75 percent of eligible voters have turned out. In addition to the president, voters are choosing members of Parliament and local representatives.

This election season has raised fears that Indonesia, which was an authoritarian state not long ago, is in danger of sliding back toward its dark past. The potential ramifications extend far beyond the country’s borders. As one of the world’s biggest exporters of coal, nickel and palm oil, Indonesia has a large role to play in the climate change crisis.

And in the contest between the United States and China for influence in Asia, Indonesia is seen by U.S. officials as a “swing state.” Under President Joko Widodo, ties with China have deepened significantly, but he has also maintained strong defense relations with Washington.

Here’s what you need to know.

What is at stake?

The election is widely seen as a referendum on the legacy of Mr. Joko, who is stepping down after two five-year terms.

Often referred to as Jokowi, he remains extremely popular because he has transformed Indonesia into one of Southeast Asia’s biggest economic success stories. He ushered in a universal health care system, built more than 1,000 miles of roads and highways, and oversaw respectable economic growth of about 5 percent a year.

His supporters say his job is unfinished and that there are pressing issues, such as inequality and poverty, that still need to be addressed. Critics say democratic norms have eroded under Mr. Joko’s time in power and that he is now maneuvering to extend his influence even after he leaves office .

Mr. Joko appears to be backing Prabowo Subianto, a onetime rival who has been accused of human rights abuses, to become his successor, alarming even some of his supporters. The outcome of the election could determine the future of democracy in Indonesia, which has the world’s biggest Muslim population.

Who’s running for president?

For the first time in 15 years, voters will get to pick from three presidential candidates: Mr. Prabowo, the current defense minister; Anies Baswedan, the former governor of Jakarta; and Ganjar Pranowo, who ran Central Java.

Mr. Prabowo has touted himself as the continuity candidate, saying this month that Mr. Joko’s policies had been “very, very beneficial for all of the people.” But he is a polarizing choice.

To many Indonesians, Mr. Prabowo is associated with the dictator Suharto , who ruled with an iron fist over the country from the mid-1960s to the late 1990s. Mr. Prabowo was married to one of Suharto’s daughters and served as a general in his military, which was notorious for human rights violations. In 1998, Mr. Prabowo was discharged from the army for ordering the kidnappings of student activists.

But Mr. Prabowo has shored up support thanks to an image makeover and the implicit backing of Mr. Joko. Surveys show Mr. Prabowo with a wide lead in the polls, but it is less clear whether he will win enough votes across a broad base of provinces to land the presidency without having to go through a runoff election in June.

A large number of swing voters, by one count around 13 percent of the electorate, make the result hard to predict.

Mr. Ganjar of Central Java — the candidate fielded by Mr. Joko’s political party, the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle — has also promised to continue most of Mr. Joko’s policies, albeit with tweaks. He has been described as “Jokowi lite.” But analysts say he has struggled to define his message, and polls show his support topping off at around 20 percent.

Mr. Anies, the former Jakarta governor, is highly regarded in the capital for improving public transportation and managing the coronavirus pandemic, but his previous ties to radical Islamist preachers have raised concerns.

In recent weeks, though, Mr. Anies has drawn support from Gen Z voters and educated urbanites on a message of change, with some surveys showing he is slightly ahead of Mr. Ganjar. He has argued that a plan pushed by Mr. Joko to move the capital to another island would not lead to equitable development, and he has warned about the return of nepotism.

Why is the youth vote so important this time?

People under 40 account for more than half of all eligible voters, making them the biggest bloc in this election. Surveys have found that younger voters are concerned about the economy, education, employment and corruption.

To reach this cohort, the presidential hopefuls have turned to social media. Mr. Prabowo, the former general, has tried to rebrand himself as a gemoy, or cute, grandfather. TikTok has been flooded with videos of him dancing at rallies. This strategy has endeared him to some voters.

Many young people are unaware of the problematic aspects of Mr. Prabowo’s past, such as his role in the kidnapping of activists, because the history of Suharto-era human rights violations is not taught in schools.

Independent groups that run websites like “Bijak Memilih,” or Choose Wisely, are working to help younger voters by providing news and information. One reason they are doing so is some young voters have expressed skepticism about the independence of the country’s media outlets.

Mr. Anies is also using social media to drum up support, turning to an unlikely bloc: Indonesian K-pop fans. Many such supporters say they were taken by Mr. Anies after he emerged from a debate and did a TikTok livestream with his supporters, where, like a K-pop star, he answered questions about his love life and his favorite books.

What sets this election apart from others?

It is one of the world’s most complex single-day elections. About 205 million people are registered to vote in this sprawling archipelago of about 17,000 islands, roughly 7,000 of which are inhabited.

Six million election officials have begun fanning out across the country to ensure that as many people as possible get a chance to vote. Logistics are a headache in some places — requiring officials to travel on horseback or take boats or helicopters and trek for hours to deliver ballots to voters.

“It is a massive, colossal task,” said Yulianto Sudrajat, a member of Indonesia’s General Election Commission who is in charge of logistics.

Voters will mark their ballots by hammering nails into them, which election officials say is a fairer method than using a pen, since some Indonesians are unfamiliar with writing instruments. As the votes are counted, election officials hold the ballots up so people can see light shining through the holes.

In 2019, the process took such a toll that 894 election workers died, prompting the government to urge volunteers this time to undergo health screenings.

Although the official vote count takes weeks to confirm, the results are generally known by the end of the day, based on so-called quick counts, a kind of exit poll. After polling stations close at 1 p.m. Jakarta time, independent pollsters will tally ballots from a sampling of voting stations nationwide.

In previous elections, the quick counts — released by 5 p.m. — have accurately reflected the real results.

Rin Hindryati and Hasya Nindita contributed reporting.

Sui-Lee Wee is the Southeast Asia bureau chief for The Times, overseeing coverage of 11 countries in the region. More about Sui-Lee Wee

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world politics essay

A Brief History of the Political Essay

From swift to woolf, david bromwich considers an evolving genre.

The political essay has never been a clearly defined genre. David Hume may have legitimated it in 1758 when he classified under a collective rubric his own Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary. “Political,” however, should have come last in order, since Hume took a speculative and detached view of politics, and seems to have been incapable of feeling passion for a political cause. We commonly associate political thought with full-scale treatises by philosophers of a different sort, whose understanding of politics was central to their account of human nature. Hobbes’s Leviathan , Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws , Rousseau’s Social Contract , Mill’s Representative Government , and, closer to our time, Rawls’s Theory of Justice , all satisfy that expectation. What, then, is a political essay? By the late 18th century, the periodical writings of Steele, Swift, Goldsmith, and Johnson had broadened the scope of the English essay for serious purposes. The field of politics, as much as culture, appeared to their successors well suited to arguments on society and government.

A public act of praise, dissent, or original description may take on permanent value when it implicates concerns beyond the present moment. Where the issue is momentous, the commitment stirred by passion, and the writing strong enough, an essay may sink deep roots in the language of politics. An essay is an attempt , as the word implies—a trial of sense and persuasion, which any citizen may hazard in a society where people are free to speak their minds. A more restrictive idea of political argument—one that would confer special legitimacy on an elite caste of managers, consultants, and symbolic analysts—presumes an environment in which state papers justify decisions arrived at from a region above politics. By contrast, the absence of formal constraints or a settled audience for the essay means that the daily experience of the writer counts as evidence. A season of crisis tempts people to think politically; in the process, they sometimes discover reasons to back their convictions.

The experience of civic freedom and its discontents may lead the essayist to think beyond politics. In 1940, Virginia Woolf recalled the sound of German bombers circling overhead the night before; the insect-like irritant, with its promise of aggression, frightened her into thought: “It is a queer experience, lying in the dark and listening to the zoom of a hornet which may at any moment sting you to death.” The ugly noise, for Woolf, signaled the prerogative of the fighting half of the species: Englishwomen “must lie weaponless tonight.” Yet Englishmen would be called upon to destroy the menace; and she was not sorry for their help. The mood of the writer is poised between gratitude and a bewildered frustration. Woolf ’s essay, “Thoughts on Peace in an Air Raid,” declines to exhibit the patriotic sentiment by which most reporters in her position would have felt drawn. At the same time, its personal emphasis keeps the author honest through the awareness of her own dependency.

Begin with an incident— I could have been killed last night —and you may end with speculations on human nature. Start with a national policy that you deplore, and it may take you back to the question, “Who are my neighbors?” In 1846, Henry David Thoreau was arrested for having refused to pay a poll tax; he made a lesson of his resistance two years later, when he saw the greed and dishonesty of the Mexican War: “Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.” But to Thoreau’s surprise, the window of the prison had opened onto the life of the town he lived in, with its everyday errands and duties, its compromises and arrangements, and for him that glimpse was a revelation:

They were the voices of old burghers that I heard in the streets. I was an involuntary spectator and auditor of whatever was done and said in the kitchen of the adjacent village inn,—a wholly new and rare experience to me. It was a closer view of my native town. I was fairly inside of it. I had never seen its institutions before. This is one of its peculiar institutions; for it is a shire town. I began to comprehend what its inhabitants were about.

Slavery, at that time, was nicknamed “the peculiar institution,” and by calling the prison itself a peculiar institution, and maybe having in mind the adjacent inn as well, Thoreau prods his reader to think about the constraints that are a tacit condition of social life.

The risk of political writing may lure the citizen to write—a fact Hazlitt seems to acknowledge in his essay “On the Regal Character,” where his second sentence wonders if the essay will expose him to prosecution: “In writing a criticism, we hope we shall not be accused of intending a libel.” (His friend Leigh Hunt had recently served two years in prison for “seditious libel” of the Prince Regent—having characterized him as a dandy notorious for his ostentation and obesity.) The writer’s consciousness of provocative intent may indeed be inseparable from the wish to persuade; though the tone of commitment will vary with the zeal and composition of the audience, whether that means a political party, a movement, a vanguard of the enlightened, or “the people” at large.

Edmund Burke, for example, writes to the sheriffs of Bristol (and through them to the city’s electors) in order to warn against the suspension of habeas corpus by the British war ministry in 1777. The sudden introduction of the repressive act, he tells the electors, has imperiled their liberty even if they are for the moment individually exempt. In response to the charge that the Americans fighting for independence are an unrepresentative minority, he warns: “ General rebellions and revolts of an whole people never were encouraged , now or at any time. They are always provoked. ” So too, Mahatma Gandhi addresses his movement of resistance against British rule, as well as others who can be attracted to the cause, when he explains why nonviolent protest requires courage of a higher degree than the warrior’s: “Non-violence is infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness is more manly than punishment.” In both cases, the writer treats the immediate injustice as an occasion for broader strictures on the nature of justice. There are certain duties that governors owe to the governed, and duties hardly less compulsory that the people owe to themselves.

Apparently diverse topics connect the essays in Writing Politics ; but, taken loosely to illustrate a historical continuity, they show the changing face of oppression and violence, and the invention of new paths for improving justice. Arbitrary power is the enemy throughout—power that, by the nature of its asserted scope and authority, makes itself the judge of its own cause. King George III, whose reign spanned sixty years beginning in 1760, from the first was thought to have overextended monarchical power and prerogative, and by doing so to have reversed an understanding of parliamentary sovereignty that was tacitly recognized by his predecessors. Writing against the king, “Junius” (the pen name of Philip Francis) traced the monarch’s errors to a poor education; and he gave an edge of deliberate effrontery to the attack on arbitrary power by addressing the king as you. “It is the misfortune of your life, and originally the cause of every reproach and distress, which has attended your government, that you should never have been acquainted with the language of truth, until you heard it in the complaints of your people.”

A similar frankness, without the ad hominem spur, can be felt in Burke’s attack on the monarchical distrust of liberty at home as well as abroad: “If any ask me what a free Government is, I answer, that, for any practical purpose, it is what the people think so; and that they, and not I, are the natural, lawful, and competent judges of this matter.” Writing in the same key from America, Thomas Paine, in his seventh number of The Crisis , gave a new description to the British attempt to preserve the unity of the empire by force of arms. He called it a war of conquest; and by addressing his warning directly “to the people of England,” he reminded the king’s subjects that war is always a social evil, for it sponsors a violence that does not terminate in itself. War enlarges every opportunity of vainglory—a malady familiar to monarchies.

The coming of democracy marks a turning point in modern discussions of sovereignty and the necessary protections of liberty. Confronted by the American annexation of parts of Mexico, in 1846–48, Thoreau saw to his disgust that a war of conquest could also be a popular war, the will of the people directed to the oppression of persons. It follows that the state apparatus built by democracy is at best an equivocal ally of individual rights. Yet as Emerson would recognize in his lecture “The Fugitive Slave Law,” and Frederick Douglass would confirm in “The Mission of the War,” the massed power of the state is likewise the only vehicle powerful enough to destroy a system of oppression as inveterate as American slavery had become by the 1850s.

Acceptance of political evil—a moral inertia that can corrupt the ablest of lawmakers—goes easily with the comforts of a society at peace where many are satisfied. “Here was the question,” writes Emerson: “Are you for man and for the good of man; or are you for the hurt and harm of man? It was question whether man shall be treated as leather? whether the Negroes shall be as the Indians were in Spanish America, a piece of money?” Emerson wondered at the apostasy of Daniel Webster, How came he there? The answer was that Webster had deluded himself by projecting a possible right from serial compromise with wrong.

Two ways lie open to correct the popular will without a relapse into docile assent and the rule of oligarchy. You may widen the terms of discourse and action by enlarging the community of participants. Alternatively, you may strengthen the opportunities of dissent through acts of exemplary protest—protest in speech, in action, or both. Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. remain the commanding instances in this regard. Both led movements that demanded of every adherent that the protest serve as an express image of the society it means to bring about. Nonviolent resistance accordingly involves a public disclosure of the work of conscience—a demonstrated willingness to make oneself an exemplary warrior without war. Because they were practical reformers, Gandhi and King, within the societies they sought to reform, were engaged in what Michael Oakeshott calls “the pursuit of intimations.” They did not start from a model of the good society generated from outside. They built on existing practices of toleration, friendship, neighborly care, and respect for the dignity of strangers.

Nonviolent resistance, as a tactic of persuasion, aims to arouse an audience of the uncommitted by its show of discipline and civic responsibility. Well, but why not simply resist? Why show respect for the laws of a government you mean to change radically? Nonviolence, for Gandhi and King, was never merely a tactic, and there were moral as well as rhetorical reasons for their ethic of communal self-respect and self-command. Gandhi looked on the British empire as a commonwealth that had proved its ability to reform. King spoke with the authority of a native American, claiming the rights due to all Americans, and he evoked the ideals his countrymen often said they wished to live by. The stories the nation loved to tell of itself took pride in emancipation much more than pride in conquest and domination. “So,” wrote King from the Birmingham City Jail, “I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court because it is morally right, and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances because they are morally wrong.”

A subtler enemy of liberty than outright prejudice and violent oppression is the psychological push toward conformity. This internalized docility inhabits and may be said to dictate the costume of manners in a democracy. Because the rule of mass opinion serves as a practical substitute for the absolute authority that is no longer available, it exerts an enormous and hidden pressure. This dangerous “omnipotence of the majority,” as Tocqueville called it, knows no power greater than itself; it resembles an absolute monarch in possessing neither the equipment nor the motive to render a judgment against itself. Toleration thus becomes a political value that requires as vigilant a defense as liberty. Minorities are marked not only by race, religion, and habits of association, but also by opinion.

“It is easy to see,” writes Walter Bagehot in “The Metaphysical Basis of Toleration,” “that very many believers would persecute sceptics” if they were given the means, “and that very many sceptics would persecute believers.” Bagehot has in mind religious belief, in particular, but the same intolerance operates when it is a question of penalizing a word, a gesture, a wrongly sympathetic or unsympathetic show of feeling by which a fellow citizen might claim to be offended. The more divided the society, the more it will crave implicit assurances of unity; the more unified it is, the more it wants an even greater show of unity—an unmistakable signal of membership and belonging that can be read as proof of collective solidarity. The “guilty fear of criticism,” Mary McCarthy remarked of the domestic fear of Communism in the 1950s, “the sense of being surrounded by an unappreciative world,” brought to American life a regimen of tests, codes, and loyalty oaths that were calculated to confirm rather than subdue the anxiety.

Proscribed and persecuted groups naturally seek a fortified community of their own, which should be proof against insult; and by 1870 or so, the sure method of creating such a community was to found a new nation. George Eliot took this remedy to be prudent and inevitable, in her sympathetic early account of the Zionist quest for a Jewish state, yet her unsparing portrait of English anti-Semitism seems to recognize the nation-remedy as a carrier of the same exclusion it hopes to abolish. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to a widened sense of community is the apparently intuitive—but in fact regularly inculcated—intellectual habit by which we divide people into racial, religious, and ethnic identities. The idea of an international confederation for peace was tried twice, without success, in the 20th century, with the League of Nations and the United Nations; but some such goal, first formulated in the political writings of Kant, has found memorable popular expression again and again.

W. E. B. Du Bois’s essay “Of the Ruling of Men” affords a prospect of international liberty that seems to the author simply the next necessary advance of common sense in the cause of humanity. Du Bois noticed in 1920 how late the expansion of rights had arrived at the rights of women. Always, the last hiding places of arbitrary power are the trusted arenas of privilege a society has come to accept as customary, and to which it has accorded the spurious honor of supposing it part of the natural order: men over women; the strong nations over the weak; corporate heads over employees. The pattern had come under scrutiny already in Harriet Taylor Mill’s “Enfranchisement of Women,” and its application to the hierarchies of ownership and labor would be affirmed in William Morris’s lecture “Useful Work Versus Useless Toil.” The commercial and manufacturing class, wrote Morris, “ force the genuine workers to provide for them”; no better (only more recondite in their procedures) are “the parasites” whose function is to defend the cause of property, “sometimes, as in the case of lawyers, undisguisedly so.” The socialists Morris and Du Bois regard the ultimate aim of a democratic world as the replacement of useless by useful work. With that change must also come the invention of a shared experience of leisure that is neither wasteful nor thoughtless.

A necessary bulwark of personal freedom is property, and in the commercial democracies for the past three centuries a usual means of agreement for the defense of property has been the contract. In challenging the sacredness of contract, in certain cases of conflict with a common good, T. H. Green moved the idea of “freedom of contract” from the domain of nature to that of social arrangements that are settled by convention and therefore subject to revision. The freedom of contract must be susceptible of modification when it fails to meet a standard of public well-being. The right of a factory owner, for example, to employ child labor if the child agrees, should not be protected. “No contract,” Green argues, “is valid in which human persons, willingly or unwillingly, are dealt with as commodities”; for when we speak of freedom, “we mean a positive power or capacity of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying.” And again:

When we measure the progress of a society by its growth in freedom, we measure it by the increasing development and exercise on the whole of those powers of contributing to social good with which we believe the members of the society to be endowed; in short, by the greater power on the part of the citizens as a body to make the most and best of themselves.

Legislation in the public interest may still be consistent with the principles of free society when it parts from a leading maxim of contractual individualism.

The very idea of a social contract has usually been taken to imply an obligation to die for the state. Though Hobbes and Locke offered reservations on this point, the classical theorists agree that the state yields the prospect of “commodious living” without which human life would be unsocial and greatly impoverished; and there are times when the state can survive only through the sacrifice of citizens. May there also be a duty of self-sacrifice against a state whose whole direction and momentum has bent it toward injustice? Hannah Arendt, in “Personal Responsibility Under Dictatorship,” asked that question regarding the conduct of state officials as well as ordinary people under the encroaching tyranny of Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Citizens then, Arendt observes, had live options of political conduct besides passive obedience and open revolt. Conscientious opposition could show itself in public indications of nonsupport . This is a fact that the pervasiveness of conformism and careerism in mass societies makes harder to see than it should be.

Jonathan Swift, a writer as temperamentally diverse from Arendt as possible, shows in “A Modest Proposal” how the human creature goes about rationalizing any act or any policy, however atrocious. Our propensity to make-normal, to approve whatever renders life more orderly, can lead by the lightest of expedient steps to a plan for marketing the babies of the Irish poor as flesh suitable for eating. It is, after all—so Swift’s fictional narrator argues—a plausible design to alleviate poverty and distress among a large sector of the population, and to eliminate the filth and crowding that disgusts persons of a more elevated sort. The justification is purely utilitarian, and the proposer cites the most disinterested of motives: he has no financial or personal stake in the design. Civility has often been praised as a necessity of political argument, but Swift’s proposal is at once civil and, in itself, atrocious.

An absorbing concern of Arendt’s, as of several of the other essay writers gathered here, was the difficulty of thinking. We measure, we compute, we calculate, we weigh advantages and disadvantages—that much is only sensible, only logical—but we give reasons that are often blind to our motives, we rationalize and we normalize in order to justify ourselves. It is supremely difficult to use the equipment we learn from parents and teachers, which instructs us how to deal fairly with persons, and apply it to the relationship between persons and society, and between the manners of society and the laws of a nation. The 21st century has saddled persons of all nations with a catastrophic possibility, the destruction of a planetary environment for organized human life; and in facing the predicament directly, and formulating answers to the question it poses, the political thinkers of the past may help us chiefly by intimations. The idea of a good or tolerable society now encompasses relations between people at the widest imaginable distance apart. It must also cover a new relation of stewardship between humankind and nature.

Having made the present selection with the abovementioned topics in view—the republican defense against arbitrary power; the progress of liberty; the coming of mass-suffrage democracy and its peculiar dangers; justifications for political dissent and disobedience; war, as chosen for the purpose of domination or as necessary to destroy a greater evil; the responsibilities of the citizen; the political meaning of work and the conditions of work—an anthology of writings all in English seemed warranted by the subject matter. For in the past three centuries, these issues have been discussed most searchingly by political critics and theorists in Britain and the United States.

The span covers the Glorious Revolution and its achievement of parliamentary sovereignty; the American Revolution, and the civil war that has rightly been called the second American revolution; the expansion of the franchise under the two great reform bills in England and the 15th amendment to the US constitution; the two world wars and the Holocaust; and the mass movements of nonviolent resistance that brought national independence to India and broadened the terms of citizenship of black Americans. The sequence gives adequate evidence of thinkers engaged in a single conversation. Many of these authors were reading the essayists who came before them; and in many cases (Burke and Paine, Lincoln and Douglass, Churchill and Orwell), they were reading each other.

Writing Politics contains no example of the half-political, half-commercial genre of “leadership” writing. Certain other principles that guided the editor will be obvious at a glance, but may as well be stated. Only complete essays are included, no extracts. This has meant excluding great writers—Hobbes, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and John Stuart Mill, among others—whose definitive political writing came in the shape of full-length books. There are likewise no chapters of books; no party manifestos or statements of creed; nothing that was first published posthumously. All of these essays were written at the time noted, were meant for an audience of the time, and were published with an eye to their immediate effect. This is so even in cases (as with Morris and Du Bois) where the author had in view the reformation of a whole way of thinking. Some lectures have been included—the printed lecture was an indispensable medium for political ideas in the 19th century—but there are no party speeches delivered by an official to advance a cause of the moment.

Two exceptions to the principles may prove the rule. Abraham Lincoln’s letter to James C. Conkling was a public letter, written to defend the Emancipation Proclamation, in which, a few months earlier, President Lincoln had declared the freedom of all slaves in the rebelling states; he now extended the order to cover black soldiers who fought for the Union: “If they stake their lives for us, they must be prompted by the strongest motive—even the promise of freedom. And the promise being made, must be kept.” Lincoln was risking his presidency when he published this extraordinary appeal and admonition, and his view was shared by Frederick Douglass in “The Mission of the War”: “No war but an Abolition war, no peace but an Abolition peace.” The other exception is “The Roots of Honour,” John Ruskin’s attack on the mercenary morality of 19th-century capitalism . He called the chapter “Essay I” in Unto This Last , and his nomenclature seemed a fair excuse for reprinting an ineradicable prophecy.


writing politics

From Writing Politics , edited by David Bromwich. Copyright © 2020 by David Bromwich; courtesy of NYRB Classics.

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  • Essay on Politics


Essay on Politics for Students in English

Politics is a hugely important domain in the world and it has a profound impact on the functioning as well as the policies of the governments. Politics has an effect on all types of government including democratic, autocratic, monarchical, theocratic and others. The government is responsible for making decisions on different matters of public interest, issuing orders for the public health, directing the citizens towards development and growth, and performing a wide range of other related functions.

There are numerous definitions of what politics means. Politics can be described as the disagreement between the various groups on what they like. One of the broad definitions of politics, which is widely agreed, is the art of governance. The government is the entity having the legal authority of regulating people’s actions. The word politics is usually used for defining how the countries are governed and how the governments make the rules and the laws. 

Defining laws and regulations that tell people what they can or cannot do is one of the ways in which the government leads the people. These regulations and laws are enacted by the government for ensuring order and protection in the society. Beyond the laws, the government might also regulate the citizens and the functioning of the country in other ways. Most of the countries have specific groups or political parties for expressing their views and policies. 

The political parties form a consensus on the common policies or path that they should take in communicating their ideas or policies to the people. These parties support legislative bills or reforms and the candidates based on the agenda agreed upon by the members. The election is usually contested or fought between the opposite political parties of different spectrum. 

One of the conventional explanations of politics refers to politics being conducted within the system of checks and balances for avoiding misuse of political power. The several institutions that exist within the governing system include the legislative body that is responsible for making laws, executive body that imposes them, and judiciary that interprets them thus providing a powerful and well-rounded political spectrum.

If you want to study in detail about politics and its various concepts of applications for your essay in English then you can refer to it on the Vedantu website or app. Vedantu is a leading learning platform with a wide range of learning resources, tutorials, solutions, reference notes, and sample questions papers with solutions for students of different branches.

Short Politics Essay in English

Politics, in general, is the platform by which people create, maintain, and change the laws that govern their lives. As a result, conflict and collaboration are inextricably connected in politics. On the one hand, the presence of conflicting views, competing expectations, competing needs, and competing interests is expected to result in conflict over the rules under which people live.

Politics is fascinating because everyone has a different perspective on life and its rules. They have differing opinions about how they should live. What money should go to whom? What is the best way to disperse power to help the powerless? Is it better for society to be built on collaboration or conflict? And so forth. They also talk about how such disputes can be resolved. What is the best way to make decisions as a group? In what conditions does who have a say? How much say should each person have in decisions? The list goes on.

This, according to Aristotle, made politics the "master science," which he described as "the action by which human beings strive to better their lives and build and contribute to a Good Society." Politics is, first and foremost, a social practice. It's still a conversation, but the parties have reduced it to a monologue.

Any effort to grasp the sense of the word "politics" must always grapple with two major issues. The first is the different connotations that this word has in everyday speech. Unlike economics, geography, history, and biology, which most people think of as academic subjects, few people approach politics without preconceptions. The second, more complicated issue is that even well-respected authorities cannot agree about what politics is all about. It has infiltrated nearly every aspect of society.

Hence, we can say that the exercise of authority, the sacred science of governance, the making of unified decisions, the distribution of limited resources, the art of deceit and exploitation, and so on are all terms used to describe politics.


FAQs on Essay on Politics

1. How do we define politics?

Politics is the collection of activities connected with community decision-making or other types of power relations between individuals, such as resource allocation or status.

2. Name the Various national-level political parties in india.

There are several national-level political parties in India. The major ones include:

All India Trinamool Congress(AITC)

Bahujan Samaj Party(BSP)

Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP)

Communist Party of India(CPI)

Communist Party of India(Marxist)

Indian National Congress(INC)

National People’s Party(NPP)

Nationalist Congress Party(NCP)

3. What is the definition of politics?

Politics has numerous definitions and explanations. In the basic broad term politics can be defined as the art of governance through a collection of activities that are associated with society, decision-making, and power relations between the individuals, like status or resource allocation. The concept of politics is very important in the governance of a country and it is an important topic related to public life that the students must learn about.

4.  Which are the different major political parties in India?

There are several major political parties in India. Some of these political parties include All India Trinamool Congress (AITMC), Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India (CPI), and National People’s Party (NPP) amongst a host of others. Each of these political parties have their own political manifesto based on which they conduct their operations.

5. Why is politics an important subject for students to learn?

Politics is related to day-to-day functioning of a country or a society and thus it is important for students to learn and be well informed about it. Politics includes vital policies and decisions that have a direct impact on people and as a responsible citizen it is crucial for students to have a basic grasp of developments in the country that charts out the future path of the nation.

6. How can I prepare for an essay on politics?

If you want to write an essay on politics then you would need to prepare well by understanding the definitions and various other aspects related to politics. One of the ways you can do this is by learning and reading about politics on the internet. You can also find a detailed essay on politics for students in English at Vedantu. This essay incorporates all the important points and provides an excellent guide on how the essay should be done.

7. How can I download the English essay on politics from Vedantu?

If you want to download the English essay on Politics provided by Vedantu then you can do it from either the website or the app. All you need to do is go to the English section and browse to the essay on politics. Here you will have the “Download PDF” option and you just need to click on that button to download the English essay by Vedantu on your device for free. Once you downloaded the PDF file you can access it offline any time you want.

Essay on Politics for Students and Children

500+ words essay on politics.

When we hear the term politics, we usually think of the government, politicians and political parties. For a country to have an organized government and work as per specific guidelines, we require a certain organization. This is where politics comes in, as it essentially forms the government. Every country, group and organization use politics to instrument various ways to organize their events, prospects and more.

Essay on Politics

Politics does not limit to those in power in the government. It is also about the ones who are in the run to achieve the same power. The candidates of the opposition party question the party on power during political debates . They intend to inform people and make them aware of their agenda and what the present government is doing. All this is done with the help of politics only.

Dirty Politics

Dirty politics refers to the kind of politics in which moves are made for the personal interest of a person or party. It ignores the overall development of a nation and hurts the essence of the country. If we look at it closely, there are various constituents of dirty politics.

The ministers of various political parties, in order to defame the opposition, spread fake news and give provocative speeches against them. This hampers with the harmony of the country and also degrades the essence of politics . They pass sexist remarks and instill hate in the hearts of people to watch their party win with a majority of seats.

Read 500 Words Essay on Corruption Here

Furthermore, the majority of politicians are corrupt. They abuse their power to advance their personal interests rather than that of the country. We see the news flooded with articles like ministers and their families involving in scams and illegal practices. The power they have makes them feel invincible which is why they get away with any crime.

Before coming into power, the government makes numerous promises to the public. They influence and manipulate them into thinking all their promises will be fulfilled. However, as soon as they gain power, they turn their back on the public. They work for their selfish motives and keep fooling people in every election. Out of all this, only the common suffers at the hands of lying and corrupt politicians.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Lack of Educated Ministers

If we look at the scenario of Indian elections, any random person with enough power and money can contest the elections. They just need to be a citizen of the country and be at least 25 years old. There are a few clauses too which are very easy.

The strangest thing is that contesting for elections does not require any minimum education qualification. Thus, we see how so many uneducated and non-deserving candidates get into power and then misuse it endlessly. A country with uneducated ministers cannot develop or even be on the right path.

We need educated ministers badly in the government. They are the ones who can make the country progress as they will handle things better than the illiterate ones. The candidates must be well-qualified in order to take on a big responsibility as running an entire nation. In short, we need to save our country from corrupt and uneducated politicians who are no less than parasites eating away the development growth of the country and its resources. All of us must unite to break the wheel and work for the prosperous future of our country.

FAQs on Politics

Q.1 Why is the political system corrupt?

A.1 Political system is corrupt because the ministers in power exercise their authority to get away with all their crimes. They bribe everyone into working for their selfish motives making the whole system corrupt.

Q.2 Why does India need educated ministers?

A.2 India does not have a minimum educational qualification requirement for ministers. This is why the uneducated lot is corrupting the system and pushing the country to doom. We need educated ministers so they can help the country develop with their progressive thinking.

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world politics essay

Presidents Day is fast approaching, which may signal to many a relaxing three-day weekend and plenty of holiday sales and bargains .

But next to Independence Day, there may not exist another American holiday that is quite so patriotic.

While Presidents Day has come to be a commemoration of all the nation's 46 chief executives, both past and present, it wasn't always so broad . When it first came into existence – long before it was even federally recognized – the holiday was meant to celebrate just one man: George Washington.

How has the day grown from a simple celebration of the birthday of the first president of the United States? And why are we seeing all these ads for car and furniture sales on TV?

Here's what to know about Presidents Day and how it came to be:

When is Presidents Day 2024?

This year, Presidents Day is on Monday, Feb. 19.

The holiday is celebrated on the third Monday of every February because of a bill signed into law in 1968 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Taking effect three years later, the Uniform Holiday Bill mandated that three holidays – Memorial Day, Presidents Day and Veterans Day – occur on Mondays to prevent midweek shutdowns and add long weekends to the federal calendar, according to Britannica .

Other holidays, including Labor Day and Martin Luther King Jr. Day , were also established to be celebrated on Mondays when they were first observed.

However, Veterans Day was returned to Nov. 11 in 1978 and continues to be commemorated on that day.

What does Presidents Day commemorate?

Presidents Day was initially established in 1879 to celebrate the birthday of the nation's first president, George Washington. In fact, the holiday was simply called Washington's Birthday, which is still how the federal government refers to it, the Department of State explains .

Following the death of the venerated American Revolution leader in 1799, Feb. 22, widely believed to be Washington's date of birth , became a perennial day of remembrance, according to History.com .

The day remained an unofficial observance for much of the 1800s until Sen. Stephen Wallace Dorsey of Arkansas proposed that it become a federal holiday. In 1879, President Rutherford B. Hayes signed it into law, according to History.com.

While initially being recognized only in Washington D.C., Washington's Birthday became a nationwide holiday in 1885. The first to celebrate the life of an individual American, Washington's Birthday was at the time one of only five federally-recognized holidays – the others being Christmas, New Year's, Thanksgiving and the Fourth of July.

However, most Americans today likely don't view the federal holiday as a commemoration of just one specific president. Presidents Day has since come to represent a day to recognize and celebrate all of the United States' commanders-in-chief, according to the U.S. Department of State .

When the Uniform Holiday Bill took effect in 1971, a provision was included to combine the celebration of Washington’s birthday with Abraham Lincoln's on Feb. 12, according to History.com. Because the new annual date always fell between Washington's and Lincoln's birthdays, Americans believed the day was intended to honor both presidents.

Interestingly, advertisers may have played a part in the shift to "Presidents Day."

Many businesses jumped at the opportunity to use the three-day weekend as a means to draw customers with Presidents Day sales and bargain at stores across the country, according to History.com.

How is the holiday celebrated?

Because Presidents Day is a federal holiday , most federal workers will have the day off .

Part of the reason Johnson made the day a uniform holiday was so Americans had a long weekend "to travel farther and see more of this beautiful land of ours," he wrote. As such, places like the Washington Monument in D.C. and Mount Rushmore in South Dakota – which bears the likenesses of Presidents Washington, Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson and Theodore Roosevelt – are bound to attract plenty of tourists.

Similar to Independence Day, the holiday is also viewed as a patriotic celebration . As opposed to July, February might not be the best time for backyard barbecues and fireworks, but reenactments, parades and other ceremonies are sure to take place in cities across the U.S.

Presidential places abound across the U.S.

Opinions on current and recent presidents may leave Americans divided, but we apparently love our leaders of old enough to name a lot of places after them.

In 2023, the U.S. Census Bureau pulled information from its databases showcasing presidential geographic facts about the nation's cities and states.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the census data shows that as of 2020 , the U.S. is home to plenty of cities, counties and towns bearing presidential names. Specifically:

  • 94 places are named "Washington."
  • 72 places are named "Lincoln."
  • 67 places are named for Andrew Jackson, a controversial figure who owned slaves and forced thousands of Native Americans to march along the infamous Trail of Tears.

Contributing: Clare Mulroy

Eric Lagatta covers breaking and trending news for USA TODAY. Reach him at [email protected]


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