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What is the Purpose of an Argumentative Essay?


Argumentative writing requires students to learn and examine their ideas in a methodical and clear way. By looking at an issue objectively, they have to draw reasonable conclusions based on justifiable evidence to convince an audience that their side of the issue is true than the position the audience currently holds.

The purpose of the argumentative essay is to evaluate how students conduct their research process to establish credible opinion and persuade readers to share those thoughts. It requires a careful evaluation of claims and judgment of methods of investigation and evidence.

The structure of an argumentative essay remains the same regardless of the topic a student would like to investigate. More importantly, the entire argument must revolve around a clear and a well-defined thesis statement , which appears in the last one or two sentences of the introduction paragraph of your argument.

What is the Main Focus of an Argumentative Essay?

The main focus of an argumentative essay is to convince an audience to understand your side of the argument and support your ideas.

This type of an essay requires you to take only one side, which your audience may not initially agree with. Your job is to use concrete, objective evidence to support your claims and get them to consider your contradicting perspective so you can promote a new belief.

While you’ll defend your position throughout your essay, you also have to recognize the significance of the opposing side. This is where counterarguments often come in.

Looking at both sides of the argument often demonstrates that you took your time to consider the counterclaims that may arise as you explore your topic, and that’s a great way to make your work more authentic and credible.

What are the Four Uses of Arguments?

Think of an argument as a means of developing what you have to say about a subject or an issue rather than an end of communication. More often than not, an argument will help you to inquire, convince, persuade, and negotiate.

One aim of an argument is to form new opinions or questions those you already have. Doing so helps you to reason your way through conflicting ideas and contradictions. You’re on a journey to pursue the truth and you must do so with patience and under normal circumstances.

The primary audience for this type of argumentative writing is you (the writer) and an inquirer who sees the same issue as a concern. If you’ve already learned how to write an exploratory essay , then arguing to convince shouldn’t be difficult.

To Negotiate

In an argument, negotiation is the exploration of varied opinion in an attempt to reach an agreement. This helps with conflict resolution and maintains a reasonable working relationship.

Since dialogues lay the most fundamental role in negotiation, each side of the negotiation has the responsibility to listen to and support a case. It’s only by doing so that both sides can come to a solid agreement.

To Convince

An argument can help you to convince an audience to consider your position on an issue. You do that by making a reasonable case for the position you take. It’s important to understand that convincing is competitive. You’re trying to get people to agree with what you stand for even if they don’t share those beliefs in the first place.

To make a strong conviction, you have to do thoughtful research, analysis, and discussion. Then you have to put your case against that if your readers and try to win their attention. This pretty much one of the strongest aims of an argumentative essay.

To Persuade  

A writer uses rational and stylistic appeals to influence an audience to act upon the persuasion.

While conviction relies heavily on the logic of an argument, persuasion tends to depend on a writer’s persona appeals and emotions. Also, it’s important to note that persuasion tends to exploit the resources of language more than convincing does.

Only one of these four arguments will appear in your argumentative essay. In this type of an essay, you speak to an academic audience with a higher level of intellect and therefore your primary goal should be to convince rather than to negotiate, inquire, or persuade them.

An argumentative essay requires you to base your arguments on reason and evidence without which it’s impossible to convince an audience to accept your view or position on an issue.

What Do You Think is the Primary Concern to Win an Argument?

You need to make a logical case to win an argument. Remember, your audience is a composition of people with a higher level of intellect and they need more than just your thoughts to accept your position on an issue.

If you fail to organize your thoughts in a local way, you may have a difficult time convincing them to consider your position.

Furthermore, your audience has a number of people who aren’t going to buy into your argument at first. They’ll try as much as they can to spot flaws in your logic and use them as weaknesses against your argument. In such a case, you should be ready to use reason and evidence to respond to their counterclaims.

One of the most important things to keep in mind when trying to win an argument is not to take anything personal.

A debate isn’t an opportunity to attack another person in an argument. Rather, it’s your chance to present concrete evidence to support your claim and defend your position.

So as you write your argumentative essay, you should focus on convincing your audience to think of the possibility that your stand in an issue could be more reasonable than the position they currently hold.

What Should Do and Not Do in an Argumentative Essay?

To write a good argumentative essay:

  • You should read the assignment guideline before you start writing. If you’re not sure about any part of the assignment, consult your instructor.
  • Don’t use phrases such as “I think” or “I believe”. Such phrases only serve to weaken your argumentative essay.
  • Do cite sources used in writing your argumentative essay

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  • Using Personal Pronouns in an Argumentative Essay

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purpose of an argumentative essay

How to Write an Argumentative Essay: Easy Guide with Tips and Examples

purpose of an argumentative essay

What Is an Argumentative Essay

Argumentative essays involve a strong stance on an issue to sway the reader toward the author's viewpoint. This differs from a persuasive essay, which relies more on the writer's emotions and views.

This kind of essay typically necessitates a deep study of argumentative essay topics and is structured in three main parts consisting of five paragraphs: one opening, three body, and one closing. Argumentative essays aim to get the reader to agree with the thesis statement, which is backed by evidence, facts, and data. At that point, you should specify your main thought or thesis statement while considering this. It will be the focus of attention for whatever comes after this juncture.

A student is given this kind of paper to practice debating. As a result, it may significantly impact a person's ability to speak in front of an audience later in life. Concentrating on facts and information while writing an argumentative essay rather than your opinions or preferences is crucial. The author may choose to present opposing views equally or to favor one over the other. Nevertheless, the thesis must contain all the main arguments and rebuttals discussed in the paper. It is similar to a political dialogue with oneself in many aspects. Now that you understand what is an argumentative essay let's browse through more interesting details that make up an argumentative essay.

Elements of an Argumentative Essay

The key elements of an argument include the following:


1. Problem Statement - Academic papers often begin with an unanswered question, a contradiction, or an explanation of a crucial concept. This is standard practice in academic writing to grab the reader's attention, highlight the importance of the study, and identify the literature to which the study will add.

2. Literature Review - After stating the problem, describe a gap in the literature that the research is trying to fill. This gap can be an unresolved question, a paradox, a missing piece of information, a theoretical inconsistency, or any other flaw in the existing understanding of the phenomenon in question.

3. The Research Focus - A statement describing the specific emphasis of the research is included after the literature review. This might be expressed in various ways, such as a question, a hypothesis, or—more frequently—a declaration of the research's goals or objectives.

4. Method and Methodology - The approach and methodology explain how you would answer the inquiry or how you achieved your results. Normally, the argumentative essay introduction and abstract concisely summarize the procedure and methodology. Here you outline your extensive research process, present conclusions, and explain why these steps were essential for the project. You should aim to concisely provide the most pertinent information using a few terms.

5. Results/Evidence - You're informing the reader of what you discovered. Evidence may be arranged according to methodological components, major topics, theories, concepts, case studies, historical eras, laws, literary genres, contexts, geographic regions, or other categories. The discussion must be directly related to the thesis's issue or argument, which is crucial.

6. Discussion and Conclusion - The last part of the storyline involves providing the answer to the inquiry or summarizing the argument and the primary proof used to validate it. This is then followed by a review of the importance of the research and the implications that result from it.

How to Write an Argumentative Essay with Steps

For an argumentative essay to be effective, having more than one opinion isn't enough. A strong stance won't be impactful if improperly organized and supported with sound reasons and facts. With this easy-to-follow guide, let us discover how to write an argumentative essay tailored to your target audience!

In the meantime, you can always ask us - ' write essay for me ' without putting in your effort!

argumentative essay 1

Choose Your Research Sources for Your Argumentative Essay

Researching the available literature in-depth is necessary for an argumentative essay. Additionally, they call for empirical study, where a writer gathers the data through the following techniques.

  • Interviews.
  • Experiments.
  • Observations.

Present your readers with dependable sources that back up your assertions. It's wise to read material from both sides of the subject. For the most current data, try and use sources released within the last two decades unless there is a distinct reason why not. Here are some good sources to look at:

  • Books produced by scholarly presses
  • Scholarly journals
  • Academic resources such as EBSCO and JSTOR
  • Nationally distributed publications like The New York Times

And if you struggle with finding good academic sources, feel free to use our research paper help !

Consider the Argumentative Essay Outline

As the argumentative essay structure is contingent upon its content and argument, each essay will have its particular structural difficulties. However, a fundamental part of the writing process is honing the ability to put forth an argument that is both convincing and lucid. Let's take a look at the argumentative essay format:

Start with the main claim in the introduction – The core thesis you want to support. Establishing your claim is one of the most crucial components of any academic work, whether a movie review essay , a presentation, a dissertation, a research paper, or a thesis. A strong assertion should be audacious, captivating, and, most crucially, debatable.

Present the proofs in the body paragraphs - Facts, data, sources, and examples must be provided as evidence and correctly connected. It is essential to acknowledge that just because there is evidence, it does not necessarily make the proposition true. You must contribute some effort to convince your reader of the relationship between the data and your reasoning.

Find opposing arguments and respond to them - Taking other perspectives into account and looking for potential objections is also essential. We may favor ideas that endorse our views, which can result in one-sided or faulty arguments. If we take the time to actively consider opposing opinions and incorporate them into our own thinking, we can create arguments with more depth and complexity.

Conclusion - The last piece of your argumentative essay outline is the conclusion, which should be an informed summary of the argument, using language that is in line with the reliability of your discoveries. You may use this as a chance to make predictions or recommendations, offer some practical applications, or identify potential further research.

Add Transitions within Argumentative Essay Paragraphs

At this point, you should have at least three strong body paragraphs, each containing 3-5 pieces of supporting evidence and your personal analysis/synthesis. It's a good idea to ensure that the paragraph's topic sentences still reflect the rest of the content. And consider the relationship between these arguments.

If needed, reorganize your paragraphs for the most logical order. To take your entire essay to the next level, add some sentences at the beginning or end of each paragraph to link the argumentative essay ideas together.

Add Bibliography to Your Argumentative Essay

See what bibliographic style your teacher wants you to use. Generally, the instructions will include 'MLA style,' 'APA,' etc., or they will give you their own rules.

These guidelines will specify how to structure your 'works cited' section after your essay with the complete bibliographic information and how to format your citations in the body of your essay.

Revise Your Final Argumentative Essay

As you are editing, look through your work from start to finish. Does everything make sense? Are there any quotations or paraphrases that don't have a context? Are there any sudden changes in the subject? Fix it up!


Verify your thesis statement twice, as your essay's success hinges on the clarity of this statement, and without a clear thesis, it is difficult to write an outstanding essay. Make sure it is:

  • Debatable because someone could disagree with this assertion notwithstanding the facts.
  • Narrow & specific: Avoids a stance that is too wide to support.
  • Complex: demonstrates your profound thought processes by taking into account the qualifiers and/or objections in your argument.

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3 Ways to Approach Argumentative Writing

Classical Approach - This is the most common approach and where you should:

  • Introduce your issue. Most lecturers will want you to deliver a strong thesis statement after your introductory paragraph. The goal is to introduce your main points to your audience before delving further.
  • Explain the problem in detail. Provide the reasons why a certain course of action or thinking is required to make your case. This will happen throughout several sentences.
  • Address the opposition. Briefly describe the opposing viewpoint in a few paragraphs. Make each argument against the adversary.
  • Provide your proof. After addressing the opposing viewpoint, explain why your side is superior.
  • Present your conclusion. Reiterate your core claim or thesis and highlight the important aspects of your argument in your conclusion. This is a good time to urge your audience to act if you advocate for change. Inform them of the changes they might make.

Rogerian Approach - The Rogerian method works well for argumentative pieces on contentious issues like global warming, gender identity, and philosophical problems. In contrast to other approaches, there is no set framework to adhere to. Instead, it involves giving both sides of an argument equal weight when presenting the facts. A broader view is essential, and finding a compromise is more significant than finding a solution.

Toulmin Approach - Polemical debates can benefit greatly from this tactic. It seeks to reduce pointless debates by locating areas of agreement within a discussion. For instance, if your topic is whether animal testing is banned, you would need to examine the most important points on both sides of the debate. You may discuss the benefits and drawbacks here.

Good Argumentative Essay Topics

Here are some good argumentative essay topics from our dissertation writing services you can consider for your next assignment:

  • Are virtual personalities expected to adhere to the same ethical codes as human influencers?
  • Should businesses be mandated to offer retraining and educational opportunities for workers that have been laid off?
  • Do social media networks bear any responsibility for the harm caused to their users?
  • Is remote work a workable solution for contemporary workplaces?
  • Is gene editing appropriate to remove inherited illnesses or improve physical characteristics?
  • Is it wise to prioritize sustainable agriculture and plant-based diets to lessen carbon emissions?
  • Who should be held liable for incidents involving autonomous cars?
  • Are gig workers deserving of the same advantages and security as regular workers?
  • Does playing violent video games correlate with aggressive behavior in children and adolescents?
  • Should corporations be permitted to secure exclusive rights to genes and genetic data for commercial gain?

Read also an informative article about the movie review essay .

Argumentative Essay Examples

Below you can find some good argumentative essay examples from our argumentative essay writer . The first essay talks about the value that comes with the freedom of being able to strike for public workers.

Argumentative Essay Example: Should Public Workers be Allowed to Strike?

Say goodbye to 'stress at work' and welcome the 'freedom to express yourself.' Most public workers are denied their right to expression even after being exposed to bad working conditions and rights violations. These violations deny them the morale to perform well in their duties. Enabling workers to strike motivates them to work since it encourages them to speak out whenever they feel their rights, safety, and/or regulations have been compromised. Countries across the globe should always allow public workers to strike. ‍

The second essay from our dissertation writing services discusses the importance of economic equality in a nation, alongside possible repercussions and potential threats if not met.

At this point, you should be well aware of the argumentative essay definition and the ways you can structure it perfectly. You might even have already composed your argumentative essay and would like to have it evaluated. In this case, don't hesitate to contact us. We can review your academic essays and help you gain the grade you deserve. If you haven't written it yet, our essay writing service can assist you. Even if you want to know how to write an autobiography , all you need to do is submit your essay writing help request, and we'll take care of it in a flash!

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Argumentative Essays

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

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Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.

What is an argumentative essay?

The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.

Please note : Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Expository essays are often used for in-class writing exercises or tests, such as the GED or GRE.

Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.

The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.

  • A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay.

In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important ( exigence ) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.

  • Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion.

Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.

  • Body paragraphs that include evidential support.

Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis ( warrant ).

However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date.

  • Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).

The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.

  • A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.

It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work.

A complete argument

Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.

The five-paragraph essay

A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.

Longer argumentative essays

Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment.

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  • Online Guide to Writing

Writing Arguments

Purposes of Argument

Purpose Word In Wooden Cube

Why do we write argument essays? This form of writing may be challenging but it will strengthen your writing skills. An argument has two purposes:

change people’s points of view or persuade them to accept new points of view

persuade people to a particular action or new behavior

Because people don’t always agree on a single point of view, an effectively worded argument helps us arrive at what is fair or true. It is used to settle disputes and discover truth. Instructors assign argumentative writing so students can learn to examine their own and others’ ideas in a careful, methodical way. 

Argument teaches us how to evaluate conflicting claims and judge evidence and methods of investigation. Argument helps us learn to clarify our thoughts and articulate them accurately. Arguments also consider the ideas of others in a respectful and critical manner.

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Table of Contents: Online Guide to Writing

Chapter 1: College Writing

How Does College Writing Differ from Workplace Writing?

What Is College Writing?

Why So Much Emphasis on Writing?

Chapter 2: The Writing Process

Doing Exploratory Research

Getting from Notes to Your Draft


Prewriting - Techniques to Get Started - Mining Your Intuition

Prewriting: Targeting Your Audience

Prewriting: Techniques to Get Started

Prewriting: Understanding Your Assignment

Rewriting: Being Your Own Critic

Rewriting: Creating a Revision Strategy

Rewriting: Getting Feedback

Rewriting: The Final Draft

Techniques to Get Started - Outlining

Techniques to Get Started - Using Systematic Techniques

Thesis Statement and Controlling Idea

Writing: Getting from Notes to Your Draft - Freewriting

Writing: Getting from Notes to Your Draft - Summarizing Your Ideas

Writing: Outlining What You Will Write

Chapter 3: Thinking Strategies

A Word About Style, Voice, and Tone

A Word About Style, Voice, and Tone: Style Through Vocabulary and Diction

Critical Strategies and Writing

Critical Strategies and Writing: Analysis

Critical Strategies and Writing: Evaluation

Critical Strategies and Writing: Persuasion

Critical Strategies and Writing: Synthesis

Developing a Paper Using Strategies

Kinds of Assignments You Will Write

Patterns for Presenting Information

Patterns for Presenting Information: Critiques

Patterns for Presenting Information: Discussing Raw Data

Patterns for Presenting Information: General-to-Specific Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Specific-to-General Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Summaries and Abstracts

Supporting with Research and Examples

Writing Essay Examinations

Writing Essay Examinations: Make Your Answer Relevant and Complete

Writing Essay Examinations: Organize Thinking Before Writing

Writing Essay Examinations: Read and Understand the Question

Chapter 4: The Research Process

Planning and Writing a Research Paper

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Ask a Research Question

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Cite Sources

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Collect Evidence

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Decide Your Point of View, or Role, for Your Research

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Draw Conclusions

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Find a Topic and Get an Overview

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Manage Your Resources

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Outline

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Survey the Literature

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Work Your Sources into Your Research Writing

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Human Resources

Research Resources: What Are Research Resources?

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found?

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Electronic Resources

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Print Resources

Structuring the Research Paper: Formal Research Structure

Structuring the Research Paper: Informal Research Structure

The Nature of Research

The Research Assignment: How Should Research Sources Be Evaluated?

The Research Assignment: When Is Research Needed?

The Research Assignment: Why Perform Research?

Chapter 5: Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity

Giving Credit to Sources

Giving Credit to Sources: Copyright Laws

Giving Credit to Sources: Documentation

Giving Credit to Sources: Style Guides

Integrating Sources

Practicing Academic Integrity

Practicing Academic Integrity: Keeping Accurate Records

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Paraphrasing Your Source

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Quoting Your Source

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Summarizing Your Sources

Types of Documentation

Types of Documentation: Bibliographies and Source Lists

Types of Documentation: Citing World Wide Web Sources

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - APA Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - CSE/CBE Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - Chicago Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - MLA Style

Types of Documentation: Note Citations

Chapter 6: Using Library Resources

Finding Library Resources

Chapter 7: Assessing Your Writing

How Is Writing Graded?

How Is Writing Graded?: A General Assessment Tool

The Draft Stage

The Draft Stage: The First Draft

The Draft Stage: The Revision Process and the Final Draft

The Draft Stage: Using Feedback

The Research Stage

Using Assessment to Improve Your Writing

Chapter 8: Other Frequently Assigned Papers

Reviews and Reaction Papers: Article and Book Reviews

Reviews and Reaction Papers: Reaction Papers

Writing Arguments: Adapting the Argument Structure

Writing Arguments: Purposes of Argument

Writing Arguments: References to Consult for Writing Arguments

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Anticipate Active Opposition

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Determine Your Organization

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Develop Your Argument

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Introduce Your Argument

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - State Your Thesis or Proposition

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Write Your Conclusion

Writing Arguments: Types of Argument

Appendix A: Books to Help Improve Your Writing


General Style Manuals

Researching on the Internet

Special Style Manuals

Writing Handbooks

Appendix B: Collaborative Writing and Peer Reviewing

Collaborative Writing: Assignments to Accompany the Group Project

Collaborative Writing: Informal Progress Report

Collaborative Writing: Issues to Resolve

Collaborative Writing: Methodology

Collaborative Writing: Peer Evaluation

Collaborative Writing: Tasks of Collaborative Writing Group Members

Collaborative Writing: Writing Plan

General Introduction

Peer Reviewing

Appendix C: Developing an Improvement Plan

Working with Your Instructor’s Comments and Grades

Appendix D: Writing Plan and Project Schedule

Devising a Writing Project Plan and Schedule

Reviewing Your Plan with Others

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Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you’ll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view. If you’re struggling to write an argumentative essay or just want to learn more about them, seeing examples can be a big help.

After giving an overview of this type of essay, we provide three argumentative essay examples. After each essay, we explain in-depth how the essay was structured, what worked, and where the essay could be improved. We end with tips for making your own argumentative essay as strong as possible.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made.

A good argumentative essay will use facts and evidence to support the argument, rather than just the author’s thoughts and opinions. For example, say you wanted to write an argumentative essay stating that Charleston, SC is a great destination for families. You couldn’t just say that it’s a great place because you took your family there and enjoyed it. For it to be an argumentative essay, you need to have facts and data to support your argument, such as the number of child-friendly attractions in Charleston, special deals you can get with kids, and surveys of people who visited Charleston as a family and enjoyed it. The first argument is based entirely on feelings, whereas the second is based on evidence that can be proven.

The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model.

  • The Toulmin model is the most common. It begins with an introduction, follows with a thesis/claim, and gives data and evidence to support that claim. This style of essay also includes rebuttals of counterarguments.
  • The Rogerian model analyzes two sides of an argument and reaches a conclusion after weighing the strengths and weaknesses of each.

3 Good Argumentative Essay Examples + Analysis

Below are three examples of argumentative essays, written by yours truly in my school days, as well as analysis of what each did well and where it could be improved.

Argumentative Essay Example 1

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain. They also believe it will encourage more people to read because they won’t have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are. They could also access more materials because libraries won’t have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets. First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources. A study done on tablet vs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20% less information, and understand 10% less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print. Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain, at much higher instances than reading print does. People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and muscle strain. I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts. We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people, more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending. Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location. Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people a way to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected. One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community. Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community. People see libraries as a way to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can’t offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution, it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them. It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to rely on. In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

The author begins by giving an overview of the counter-argument, then the thesis appears as the first sentence in the third paragraph. The essay then spends the rest of the paper dismantling the counter argument and showing why readers should believe the other side.

What this essay does well:

  • Although it’s a bit unusual to have the thesis appear fairly far into the essay, it works because, once the thesis is stated, the rest of the essay focuses on supporting it since the counter-argument has already been discussed earlier in the paper.
  • This essay includes numerous facts and cites studies to support its case. By having specific data to rely on, the author’s argument is stronger and readers will be more inclined to agree with it.
  • For every argument the other side makes, the author makes sure to refute it and follow up with why her opinion is the stronger one. In order to make a strong argument, it’s important to dismantle the other side, which this essay does this by making the author's view appear stronger.
  • This is a shorter paper, and if it needed to be expanded to meet length requirements, it could include more examples and go more into depth with them, such as by explaining specific cases where people benefited from local libraries.
  • Additionally, while the paper uses lots of data, the author also mentions their own experience with using tablets. This should be removed since argumentative essays focus on facts and data to support an argument, not the author’s own opinion or experiences. Replacing that with more data on health issues associated with screen time would strengthen the essay.
  • Some of the points made aren't completely accurate , particularly the one about digital books being cheaper. It actually often costs a library more money to rent out numerous digital copies of a book compared to buying a single physical copy. Make sure in your own essay you thoroughly research each of the points and rebuttals you make, otherwise you'll look like you don't know the issue that well.


Argumentative Essay Example 2

There are multiple drugs available to treat malaria, and many of them work well and save lives, but malaria eradication programs that focus too much on them and not enough on prevention haven’t seen long-term success in Sub-Saharan Africa. A major program to combat malaria was WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme. Started in 1955, it had a goal of eliminating malaria in Africa within the next ten years. Based upon previously successful programs in Brazil and the United States, the program focused mainly on vector control. This included widely distributing chloroquine and spraying large amounts of DDT. More than one billion dollars was spent trying to abolish malaria. However, the program suffered from many problems and in 1969, WHO was forced to admit that the program had not succeeded in eradicating malaria. The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa who contracted malaria as well as the number of malaria deaths had actually increased over 10% during the time the program was active.

One of the major reasons for the failure of the project was that it set uniform strategies and policies. By failing to consider variations between governments, geography, and infrastructure, the program was not nearly as successful as it could have been. Sub-Saharan Africa has neither the money nor the infrastructure to support such an elaborate program, and it couldn’t be run the way it was meant to. Most African countries don't have the resources to send all their people to doctors and get shots, nor can they afford to clear wetlands or other malaria prone areas. The continent’s spending per person for eradicating malaria was just a quarter of what Brazil spent. Sub-Saharan Africa simply can’t rely on a plan that requires more money, infrastructure, and expertise than they have to spare.

Additionally, the widespread use of chloroquine has created drug resistant parasites which are now plaguing Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used widely but inconsistently, mosquitoes developed resistance, and chloroquine is now nearly completely ineffective in Sub-Saharan Africa, with over 95% of mosquitoes resistant to it. As a result, newer, more expensive drugs need to be used to prevent and treat malaria, which further drives up the cost of malaria treatment for a region that can ill afford it.

Instead of developing plans to treat malaria after the infection has incurred, programs should focus on preventing infection from occurring in the first place. Not only is this plan cheaper and more effective, reducing the number of people who contract malaria also reduces loss of work/school days which can further bring down the productivity of the region.

One of the cheapest and most effective ways of preventing malaria is to implement insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs).  These nets provide a protective barrier around the person or people using them. While untreated bed nets are still helpful, those treated with insecticides are much more useful because they stop mosquitoes from biting people through the nets, and they help reduce mosquito populations in a community, thus helping people who don’t even own bed nets.  Bed nets are also very effective because most mosquito bites occur while the person is sleeping, so bed nets would be able to drastically reduce the number of transmissions during the night. In fact, transmission of malaria can be reduced by as much as 90% in areas where the use of ITNs is widespread. Because money is so scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa, the low cost is a great benefit and a major reason why the program is so successful. Bed nets cost roughly 2 USD to make, last several years, and can protect two adults. Studies have shown that, for every 100-1000 more nets are being used, one less child dies of malaria. With an estimated 300 million people in Africa not being protected by mosquito nets, there’s the potential to save three million lives by spending just a few dollars per person.

Reducing the number of people who contract malaria would also reduce poverty levels in Africa significantly, thus improving other aspects of society like education levels and the economy. Vector control is more effective than treatment strategies because it means fewer people are getting sick. When fewer people get sick, the working population is stronger as a whole because people are not put out of work from malaria, nor are they caring for sick relatives. Malaria-afflicted families can typically only harvest 40% of the crops that healthy families can harvest. Additionally, a family with members who have malaria spends roughly a quarter of its income treatment, not including the loss of work they also must deal with due to the illness. It’s estimated that malaria costs Africa 12 billion USD in lost income every year. A strong working population creates a stronger economy, which Sub-Saharan Africa is in desperate need of.  

This essay begins with an introduction, which ends with the thesis (that malaria eradication plans in Sub-Saharan Africa should focus on prevention rather than treatment). The first part of the essay lays out why the counter argument (treatment rather than prevention) is not as effective, and the second part of the essay focuses on why prevention of malaria is the better path to take.

  • The thesis appears early, is stated clearly, and is supported throughout the rest of the essay. This makes the argument clear for readers to understand and follow throughout the essay.
  • There’s lots of solid research in this essay, including specific programs that were conducted and how successful they were, as well as specific data mentioned throughout. This evidence helps strengthen the author’s argument.
  • The author makes a case for using expanding bed net use over waiting until malaria occurs and beginning treatment, but not much of a plan is given for how the bed nets would be distributed or how to ensure they’re being used properly. By going more into detail of what she believes should be done, the author would be making a stronger argument.
  • The introduction of the essay does a good job of laying out the seriousness of the problem, but the conclusion is short and abrupt. Expanding it into its own paragraph would give the author a final way to convince readers of her side of the argument.


Argumentative Essay Example 3

There are many ways payments could work. They could be in the form of a free-market approach, where athletes are able to earn whatever the market is willing to pay them, it could be a set amount of money per athlete, or student athletes could earn income from endorsements, autographs, and control of their likeness, similar to the way top Olympians earn money.

Proponents of the idea believe that, because college athletes are the ones who are training, participating in games, and bringing in audiences, they should receive some sort of compensation for their work. If there were no college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, college coaches wouldn’t receive there (sometimes very high) salaries, and brands like Nike couldn’t profit from college sports. In fact, the NCAA brings in roughly $1 billion in revenue a year, but college athletes don’t receive any of that money in the form of a paycheck. Additionally, people who believe college athletes should be paid state that paying college athletes will actually encourage them to remain in college longer and not turn pro as quickly, either by giving them a way to begin earning money in college or requiring them to sign a contract stating they’ll stay at the university for a certain number of years while making an agreed-upon salary.  

Supporters of this idea point to Zion Williamson, the Duke basketball superstar, who, during his freshman year, sustained a serious knee injury. Many argued that, even if he enjoyed playing for Duke, it wasn’t worth risking another injury and ending his professional career before it even began for a program that wasn’t paying him. Williamson seems to have agreed with them and declared his eligibility for the NCAA draft later that year. If he was being paid, he may have stayed at Duke longer. In fact, roughly a third of student athletes surveyed stated that receiving a salary while in college would make them “strongly consider” remaining collegiate athletes longer before turning pro.

Paying athletes could also stop the recruitment scandals that have plagued the NCAA. In 2018, the NCAA stripped the University of Louisville's men's basketball team of its 2013 national championship title because it was discovered coaches were using sex workers to entice recruits to join the team. There have been dozens of other recruitment scandals where college athletes and recruits have been bribed with anything from having their grades changed, to getting free cars, to being straight out bribed. By paying college athletes and putting their salaries out in the open, the NCAA could end the illegal and underhanded ways some schools and coaches try to entice athletes to join.

People who argue against the idea of paying college athletes believe the practice could be disastrous for college sports. By paying athletes, they argue, they’d turn college sports into a bidding war, where only the richest schools could afford top athletes, and the majority of schools would be shut out from developing a talented team (though some argue this already happens because the best players often go to the most established college sports programs, who typically pay their coaches millions of dollars per year). It could also ruin the tight camaraderie of many college teams if players become jealous that certain teammates are making more money than they are.

They also argue that paying college athletes actually means only a small fraction would make significant money. Out of the 350 Division I athletic departments, fewer than a dozen earn any money. Nearly all the money the NCAA makes comes from men’s football and basketball, so paying college athletes would make a small group of men--who likely will be signed to pro teams and begin making millions immediately out of college--rich at the expense of other players.

Those against paying college athletes also believe that the athletes are receiving enough benefits already. The top athletes already receive scholarships that are worth tens of thousands per year, they receive free food/housing/textbooks, have access to top medical care if they are injured, receive top coaching, get travel perks and free gear, and can use their time in college as a way to capture the attention of professional recruiters. No other college students receive anywhere near as much from their schools.

People on this side also point out that, while the NCAA brings in a massive amount of money each year, it is still a non-profit organization. How? Because over 95% of those profits are redistributed to its members’ institutions in the form of scholarships, grants, conferences, support for Division II and Division III teams, and educational programs. Taking away a significant part of that revenue would hurt smaller programs that rely on that money to keep running.

While both sides have good points, it’s clear that the negatives of paying college athletes far outweigh the positives. College athletes spend a significant amount of time and energy playing for their school, but they are compensated for it by the scholarships and perks they receive. Adding a salary to that would result in a college athletic system where only a small handful of athletes (those likely to become millionaires in the professional leagues) are paid by a handful of schools who enter bidding wars to recruit them, while the majority of student athletics and college athletic programs suffer or even shut down for lack of money. Continuing to offer the current level of benefits to student athletes makes it possible for as many people to benefit from and enjoy college sports as possible.

This argumentative essay follows the Rogerian model. It discusses each side, first laying out multiple reasons people believe student athletes should be paid, then discussing reasons why the athletes shouldn’t be paid. It ends by stating that college athletes shouldn’t be paid by arguing that paying them would destroy college athletics programs and cause them to have many of the issues professional sports leagues have.

  • Both sides of the argument are well developed, with multiple reasons why people agree with each side. It allows readers to get a full view of the argument and its nuances.
  • Certain statements on both sides are directly rebuffed in order to show where the strengths and weaknesses of each side lie and give a more complete and sophisticated look at the argument.
  • Using the Rogerian model can be tricky because oftentimes you don’t explicitly state your argument until the end of the paper. Here, the thesis doesn’t appear until the first sentence of the final paragraph. That doesn’t give readers a lot of time to be convinced that your argument is the right one, compared to a paper where the thesis is stated in the beginning and then supported throughout the paper. This paper could be strengthened if the final paragraph was expanded to more fully explain why the author supports the view, or if the paper had made it clearer that paying athletes was the weaker argument throughout.


3 Tips for Writing a Good Argumentative Essay

Now that you’ve seen examples of what good argumentative essay samples look like, follow these three tips when crafting your own essay.

#1: Make Your Thesis Crystal Clear

The thesis is the key to your argumentative essay; if it isn’t clear or readers can’t find it easily, your entire essay will be weak as a result. Always make sure that your thesis statement is easy to find. The typical spot for it is the final sentence of the introduction paragraph, but if it doesn’t fit in that spot for your essay, try to at least put it as the first or last sentence of a different paragraph so it stands out more.

Also make sure that your thesis makes clear what side of the argument you’re on. After you’ve written it, it’s a great idea to show your thesis to a couple different people--classmates are great for this. Just by reading your thesis they should be able to understand what point you’ll be trying to make with the rest of your essay.

#2: Show Why the Other Side Is Weak

When writing your essay, you may be tempted to ignore the other side of the argument and just focus on your side, but don’t do this. The best argumentative essays really tear apart the other side to show why readers shouldn’t believe it. Before you begin writing your essay, research what the other side believes, and what their strongest points are. Then, in your essay, be sure to mention each of these and use evidence to explain why they’re incorrect/weak arguments. That’ll make your essay much more effective than if you only focused on your side of the argument.

#3: Use Evidence to Support Your Side

Remember, an essay can’t be an argumentative essay if it doesn’t support its argument with evidence. For every point you make, make sure you have facts to back it up. Some examples are previous studies done on the topic, surveys of large groups of people, data points, etc. There should be lots of numbers in your argumentative essay that support your side of the argument. This will make your essay much stronger compared to only relying on your own opinions to support your argument.

Summary: Argumentative Essay Sample

Argumentative essays are persuasive essays that use facts and evidence to support their side of the argument. Most argumentative essays follow either the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. By reading good argumentative essay examples, you can learn how to develop your essay and provide enough support to make readers agree with your opinion. When writing your essay, remember to always make your thesis clear, show where the other side is weak, and back up your opinion with data and evidence.

What's Next?

Do you need to write an argumentative essay as well?  Check out our guide on the best argumentative essay topics for ideas!

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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

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  • How to write an essay outline | Guidelines & examples

How to Write an Essay Outline | Guidelines & Examples

Published on August 14, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An essay outline is a way of planning the structure of your essay before you start writing. It involves writing quick summary sentences or phrases for every point you will cover in each paragraph , giving you a picture of how your argument will unfold.

Table of contents

Organizing your material, presentation of the outline, examples of essay outlines, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about essay outlines.

At the stage where you’re writing an essay outline, your ideas are probably still not fully formed. You should know your topic  and have already done some preliminary research to find relevant sources , but now you need to shape your ideas into a structured argument.

Creating categories

Look over any information, quotes and ideas you’ve noted down from your research and consider the central point you want to make in the essay—this will be the basis of your thesis statement . Once you have an idea of your overall argument, you can begin to organize your material in a way that serves that argument.

Try to arrange your material into categories related to different aspects of your argument. If you’re writing about a literary text, you might group your ideas into themes; in a history essay, it might be several key trends or turning points from the period you’re discussing.

Three main themes or subjects is a common structure for essays. Depending on the length of the essay, you could split the themes into three body paragraphs, or three longer sections with several paragraphs covering each theme.

As you create the outline, look critically at your categories and points: Are any of them irrelevant or redundant? Make sure every topic you cover is clearly related to your thesis statement.

Order of information

When you have your material organized into several categories, consider what order they should appear in.

Your essay will always begin and end with an introduction and conclusion , but the organization of the body is up to you.

Consider these questions to order your material:

  • Is there an obvious starting point for your argument?
  • Is there one subject that provides an easy transition into another?
  • Do some points need to be set up by discussing other points first?

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Within each paragraph, you’ll discuss a single idea related to your overall topic or argument, using several points of evidence or analysis to do so.

In your outline, you present these points as a few short numbered sentences or phrases.They can be split into sub-points when more detail is needed.

The template below shows how you might structure an outline for a five-paragraph essay.

  • Thesis statement
  • First piece of evidence
  • Second piece of evidence
  • Summary/synthesis
  • Importance of topic
  • Strong closing statement

You can choose whether to write your outline in full sentences or short phrases. Be consistent in your choice; don’t randomly write some points as full sentences and others as short phrases.

Examples of outlines for different types of essays are presented below: an argumentative, expository, and literary analysis essay.

Argumentative essay outline

This outline is for a short argumentative essay evaluating the internet’s impact on education. It uses short phrases to summarize each point.

Its body is split into three paragraphs, each presenting arguments about a different aspect of the internet’s effects on education.

  • Importance of the internet
  • Concerns about internet use
  • Thesis statement: Internet use a net positive
  • Data exploring this effect
  • Analysis indicating it is overstated
  • Students’ reading levels over time
  • Why this data is questionable
  • Video media
  • Interactive media
  • Speed and simplicity of online research
  • Questions about reliability (transitioning into next topic)
  • Evidence indicating its ubiquity
  • Claims that it discourages engagement with academic writing
  • Evidence that Wikipedia warns students not to cite it
  • Argument that it introduces students to citation
  • Summary of key points
  • Value of digital education for students
  • Need for optimism to embrace advantages of the internet

Expository essay outline

This is the outline for an expository essay describing how the invention of the printing press affected life and politics in Europe.

The paragraphs are still summarized in short phrases here, but individual points are described with full sentences.

  • Claim that the printing press marks the end of the Middle Ages.
  • Provide background on the low levels of literacy before the printing press.
  • Present the thesis statement: The invention of the printing press increased circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation.
  • Discuss the very high levels of illiteracy in medieval Europe.
  • Describe how literacy and thus knowledge and education were mainly the domain of religious and political elites.
  • Indicate how this discouraged political and religious change.
  • Describe the invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg.
  • Show the implications of the new technology for book production.
  • Describe the rapid spread of the technology and the printing of the Gutenberg Bible.
  • Link to the Reformation.
  • Discuss the trend for translating the Bible into vernacular languages during the years following the printing press’s invention.
  • Describe Luther’s own translation of the Bible during the Reformation.
  • Sketch out the large-scale effects the Reformation would have on religion and politics.
  • Summarize the history described.
  • Stress the significance of the printing press to the events of this period.

Literary analysis essay outline

The literary analysis essay outlined below discusses the role of theater in Jane Austen’s novel Mansfield Park .

The body of the essay is divided into three different themes, each of which is explored through examples from the book.

  • Describe the theatricality of Austen’s works
  • Outline the role theater plays in Mansfield Park
  • Introduce the research question : How does Austen use theater to express the characters’ morality in Mansfield Park ?
  • Discuss Austen’s depiction of the performance at the end of the first volume
  • Discuss how Sir Bertram reacts to the acting scheme
  • Introduce Austen’s use of stage direction–like details during dialogue
  • Explore how these are deployed to show the characters’ self-absorption
  • Discuss Austen’s description of Maria and Julia’s relationship as polite but affectionless
  • Compare Mrs. Norris’s self-conceit as charitable despite her idleness
  • Summarize the three themes: The acting scheme, stage directions, and the performance of morals
  • Answer the research question
  • Indicate areas for further study

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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  • Appeal to authority fallacy
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You will sometimes be asked to hand in an essay outline before you start writing your essay . Your supervisor wants to see that you have a clear idea of your structure so that writing will go smoothly.

Even when you do not have to hand it in, writing an essay outline is an important part of the writing process . It’s a good idea to write one (as informally as you like) to clarify your structure for yourself whenever you are working on an essay.

If you have to hand in your essay outline , you may be given specific guidelines stating whether you have to use full sentences. If you’re not sure, ask your supervisor.

When writing an essay outline for yourself, the choice is yours. Some students find it helpful to write out their ideas in full sentences, while others prefer to summarize them in short phrases.

You should try to follow your outline as you write your essay . However, if your ideas change or it becomes clear that your structure could be better, it’s okay to depart from your essay outline . Just make sure you know why you’re doing so.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, July 23). How to Write an Essay Outline | Guidelines & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved September 11, 2023, from

Is this article helpful?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield

Other students also liked, how to create a structured research paper outline | example, a step-by-step guide to the writing process, how to write an argumentative essay | examples & tips.

Do the letters (A, B, C, etc.) in the outlines above, especially of the body, have a one-to-one correspondance with a paragraph each within the essay?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)

Hi Michael,

In the examples here, the letters are used to show parts within a single paragraph, with Roman numerals (I, II, etc.) used to show paragraphs. For a longer essay, you could certainly use Roman numerals for sections and letters for paragraphs—whatever suits your argument and structure best.

Abasiofiok Ignatius

How can I use footnote and document my essay writing Without bibliography?

Hi Abasiofiok,

You should always check with your teacher or university whether you're required to use a specific citation style in your essay. If you're allowed to choose your own style, Chicago notes and bibliography style is one you could use where citations appear in footnotes and the bibliography is optional. You can find more information about this style here .

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purpose of an argumentative essay

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What is the purpose of an argumentative essay.

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The skill of writing is needed and follows us through life. We start practicing in kindergarten and continue at school, university, and work. You often have to attach your statements with facts and details in routine life, is not it?

In this article, we will reveal all the aspects and issues of an argumentative essay , its purposes, structure, classifications, etc. In general: this is full guidance for writing a quality argumentative text. Follow the reading to find explanations and tips to become all pants in this rubric!

The Definition Of An Argumentative Essay: What Is It?

The argumentative essay is similar to an opinion one. The purpose of an argumentative essay is to show your own position on a specified issue. However, it’s not only about sharing your statement with attached proofs and strong arguments.

First of all, the real purpose of an argumentative essay is:

  • Showing your position.
  • Navigation through it.
  • Making the reader understand and support it.

Writing such types of texts is common for high school and college students. Some of them prefer to use the services of writing and buy an argumentative research essay , where you can choose the author of the essay according to your budget, terms, and other aspects. Nonetheless, here we mentioned how to write an excellent product on your own, even if its topic demands some specific knowledge.

What Is The Outline Of An Argumentative Essay

The outline of an argumentative essay is:

  • Introduction. Here we mention a blurred key of the sense of the article. It has to make the reader curious.
  • Thesis statement. It is a summary at the beginning of the text, which tells about the leading point and argument.
  • Body paragraphs. Here are mentioned the arguments which correspond to the issue. The body makes the reader support your point of view.
  • Conclusion. It sums up the essay. Here is also mentioned the key sentence, the task of which is making the reader’s emotions.

Making Thesis For An Argumentative Essay In 3-Steps:

A thesis is only two sentences in the full essay. It is mentioned in such parts as the introduction and conclusion. The aim is to suggest the idea of the essay and summarize it. Below are mentioned 3 steps for making a thesis. Follow them to complete an excellent argumentative essay .

Step 1: Answer On The Topic Question

Orally transform the topic of the article into a question. For instance, the topic is: “Writing the quality essay”. The question will be: “How to write a quality essay?”. Practice such modifications on some topics, and you will be prepared. It benefits from other methods which grab the reader’s attention.

Step 2: State The Argument And Then Disprove It

Make an argument and then start disproving it. For instance: “Most of the teachers assure that the quality essay consists of 300 words, however, I count that 250 words are enough because:

  • For the reason of…
  • The reason is…
  • Because…etc.”.

Such a scheme allows presenting your credibility in all beauty and assures the reader that your evidence is trusted.

Step 3: Highlight The Main Points

Present to the reader the main idea of the article and expose the scheme to prop it up. Let’s reveal the example in context: “Firstly, you have to consider the article’s topic. Then, develop the structure and start writing. Remember about proofreading”.

For the reader, it seems as a summing up of mentioned information. It is like a clear brief of an essay in one sentence. For its part, you keep on navigating it.

Everything About Arguments In Essay

In this partition, we will navigate you through arguments in the argumentative essay . Read about its classification, types of claims, and their three main categories. We will also present you with some useful tips about its utilization.

Classification Of Arguments And Its Usage

Proposal argument.

It is similar to classical arguments, however, its feature is the proposal to find a solution to the issue. Such arguments also include:

  • The conception of the problem.
  • The idea of the proposal and details of it.
  • Solid reasons why this solution is needed or is the most beneficial/ win-win.

For example, you are the owner of an Instagram shop. Rapidly, the activeness in your profile statistic decreased. You purpose to your team some arguments with proposals. One such is SMM, and you have to explain why this is the best one.

Narrative Argument

This type of argument includes the demonstration of your personal experience. You have to illustrate your point, comparing it to your personal experience. It relies on facts, figures, and situations. Imagine that you are an employee, who wants to open his own company of staff services, and you also need to answer what is the purpose of such a decision for the public. Before the performance, you will definitely prepare the essay, where you should share your own experience with employers.

Toulmin Arguments

Toulmin arguments are especially efficient for the topics which polarize. For instance, now, all the politicians have to know English, and you have to present this topic in your article. First, demonstrate the claim, then present the ground and show the linking between these two points.

In context: “Modern politics must speak English. There is no secret to their fast learning, just have a peek at these guys , who will make you speak and sound like a native faster. Most of them continue using it and developing their skills”.

Rogerian Arguments

Rogerian arguments are suitable for polarizing topics. It allows you to demonstrate your issue and standpoint and show it from the beneficial side to the reader. It also confesses both sides and demonstrates the middle ground.

Classical Arguments

Classical arguments allow demonstrating the main point and suggesting your own opinion. It’s the best type of argument to convenience the reader that your thought is the right one. Not for nothing, it is also called Aristotelian! You shouldn’t present a volume part of the information, just let the readers follow through the Aristotelian structure line. Also Read –  College Student’s Guide to Budgeting Based on Your Personality

5-Types Of The Argument Claims

Considering how to present your argument is crucial and depends on the occasion. So, meet 5 types for the various claims:

  • Cause & Effect.
  • Definition.

Try the various methods one by one. Now it may seem unclear and blurred, but you will become orientated in this issue after some attempts. You can check over here and ensure that hard work is necessary to achieve success. Structuring has a key role there!

In this article, we revealed the topic of writing an argumentative essay . We presented to you:

  • What is an argumentative essay ?
  • How to outline it?
  • 3-step guidance for making a thesis.
  • Other details about arguments.

However, what is the main purpose of an argumentative essay ? Surely, it’s not only about presenting your own position. You have to make the reader support your point of view for the first turn. And useful keys for it, we already mentioned above!

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What Is The Purpose Of An Argumentative Essay?

The argumentative essay is a genre of writing where the students need to investigate a particular topic. In order to do that the evidences are first collected, then generated. After evaluation, a position on the topic is established in a concise manner. The ultimate aim is always to convince a group of audience to understand the argument that support a new idea or belief.

In the first paragraph of an argumentative essay students are required to set the context in a general way by reviewing the topic. Next, the importance of the topic is explained by author and lastly the clear, concise and defined thesis is presented. This part of essay is most vital and if a student fails to master this, then there will be challenges to make the essay convincing.

A transition with clarity and proper reasoning is required to sum up the idea from the previous part and interject the idea to be followed in the next part. Each paragraph in an argument essay should discuss one general idea and should be limited to that in order to enable clarity and direction throughout the essay. The individual paragraph in the body needs to be coherently connected to the thesis statement in the introductory part. 

Apart from this, another important thing is to elucidate why the evidences support the statement and how. Since the topic can have different points of view, the argumentative essay should also consider that and explain accordingly. A student need to consider multiple points of view while collecting evidences. A successful argument essay also discusses opinions which are not aligned with the thesis statement.

Therefore it is unprincipled to exclude evidences that might not support the same. The conclusion part is another vital section where the student most of the time begins to struggle. This portion of essay leaves an immediate impression on reader’s mind. Therefore it should be logical as well as effective. 

To avoid unnecessary complications and confusions, it is always better not to intimate any new information into the conclusion rather unify all the information provided in the previous part. An argument essay, considered in terms of a debate with another student, is always helpful to make it specific and successful. The purposes of argumentative essay are thus considered in the following ways:

•    Logical and Convincing: An argumentative essay aims at developing a persuasive person who can argue an issue in a logical and effective way. This helps the audience for better understanding of the topic in order to make decision. For instance, if an issue is complex, then it may not be understood or perceived clearly by the readers if not explained logically, and as a result the reader may not able to get the right insight about the underlying concept.

•    Critical Thinking: This is considered as a very important skill for not only leadership but also for real life challenges. In an argumentative essay, this skill makes a student capable of understanding both the weaknesses and strength of their position. This also helps them to explore alternative perspectives about the issue to arrive at the best idea.

•    Research Skills: In the academic world solutions for scientific and natural phenomena is obtained through research works. To establish an argumentative about a concept, what matters the most is how best a student can coherent analysis using appropriate methodology.

•    Evidences for claiming your position: The base of an argumentative essay is the process and not the product. It is not about your claim about idea but the fact or reasons behind your position. As long as you can verify the reason for your stand, the argument shall serve the purposes effectively in our daily lives.

Primarily argument has two purposes. First, it aims at changing people’s points of view or convince them to accept new points of view. Second, an argument also persuades people to a new behavior or action. A well-constructed argumentative essay helps us to clear our thoughts and articulate them accurately to consider the ideas of others in a respectful manners. mainly focuses on challenges in writing different types of research papers and articles. Among those, argumentative assignments are considered, mainly as a part of students’ course works. We intend to offer best essay services in order to provide guidelines to students and writes such a way, so that they can understand the purposes of an argumentative essay clearly. This actually enables them to write it properly and effectively and also help them to establish the argument logically to the readers, which is the main objective of writing the argument. 

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What Is The Importance of An Argumentative Essay

What Is The Importance of An Argumentative Essay

Table of Contents

Argumentative essay writing 101.

Argumentative essay writing is one of the most common types of writing employed in schools and colleges. It is employed by instructors to gauge the research and writing skills of the students. 

In simple terms, argumentative essay writing is about persuading readers and convincing them to agree with the writer’s point of view through arguments, evidence, and proof. Many writers make the mistake of thinking that an argumentative essay is an emotionally-charged piece of writing that tries to convince the readers by hook or by crook. The reality is the opposite of this notion. 

One of the hallmarks of argumentative essays is their reliance on the structure to convey crucial information. Descriptive and narrative essays can follow a loose or no structure at all and they will still be able to connect with the readers. This is hard for an argumentative essay to accomplish.

There are different approaches to developing arguments and different types of argumentative essays to cover the topics and their scopes.

Rationale Behind Argument Building

An argumentative essay is as good as the argument it is based on. This is a fact that students should keep in mind because the quality and scope of the essay will depend on it. Argument building is both an art and a science, but before developing one, it is necessary to understand the rationale behind one. 

Argument building allows writers to present their stance forcefully and make sure that the readers will understand it and agree with it without any issues. It also helps them in anticipating dissent and disagreement because it is at the heart of argumentative essay writing. In the end, argument building is the block or foundation that helps science and art progress academically.

Writing A Thesis Statement In 3 Simple Steps

A thesis statement is the distillation of the main idea or the stance of the writer expressed boldly and briefly. It is written in the introduction of the essay, mostly around the closing lines to bridge the introduction with the main body of the essay. 

It is an essential part of every essay, especially an argumentative essay , because it will provide the writer’s stance to the readers. This section is dedicated to the writing of a thesis statement in an argumentative essay.

Ask A Question

The first step in writing a thesis statement is to ask a question. This is either explicitly asked in the topic of the essay or it can be assumed to get the answer. In schools and colleges, students mostly have to cover essays with clear topics in interrogative forms. If that is already the case with your essay, you can move forward to the next step.

Develop Your Answer

A thesis statement is about answering a question. As far as  argumentative essay writing  is concerned, a thesis statement is about showing the stance of the writer to the readers in a succinct form. Writers are advised to scour through both primary and secondary sources of data to find and strengthen their theses.

Refine It Into A Statement

Simply developing an answer to the hypothetical question is not enough. It should have the capability to cover the premise of the topic and the impact on readers’ convictions. The best thing to form a statement is to make it bold and brief with concrete wording. Otherwise, it will not be a thesis statement and writers would not get the desired effects from it.

How To Develop An Argument

Essay topics or problems often have multiple sides or dimensions to them. Before setting to write the whole essay, writers need to identify the main kernel of the idea and then work on it. This will make the following steps much easier for the writer as it will help him look at multiple sides.

Like literature review in a dissertation, argument building requires prior knowledge the writer puts to the test. That’s why before moving on to the main argument or stance, writers should identify one, in the beginning, to move forward in a certain direction. Brainstorming is the key to this step.

This is where the research and collection of necessary data begins. These days, a simple Google search can help writers come up with a simple yet elegant view of the problem. Still, it is best to look and curate for credible sources to check what has already been done in the field.

The original stance is often understandably incomplete, if not outright incorrect. Based on the research and uncovering of the latest data, writers should review and refine their stances to come up with a well-rounded argument. At this point, there is no need to edit out parts because this will be covered in the next step.

After covering the bases, it is time to convert the answer to the question into an imposing statement. This should directly answer the question and ensure that everything surrounding the main topic is covered and even directly answered. Also, it should have room to become better with further refinements and revisions.

An argumentative essay is often more about what is the wrong answer compared to the right answer. Writers need to cover all the counterpoints in the essay, whether they agree with them or not. This will also help them in coming up with better ways to elucidate a point through evidential information.

Importance of Argumentative Essay Writing

An argumentative essay is about convincing the readers or persuading them about a topic. Writers go through multiple steps to develop an argument so that readers become convinced about the topic. Argument building is a complete science where writers need to cover different bases surrounding a subject.

In this section, we have covered the importance of argumentative essay writing in this section.

Convincing Readers About A Stance

Readers go through an argumentative essay to get the answers to the questions put forward by the instructors. Many phenomena do not have simple positive or negative answers. For grey areas, writers need to come up with solutions by brainstorming and digging through credible sources. This skill helps students in their further studies and professional lives.

Persuading Scholars To A Particular Action

Argumentative writing is vastly employed in academics and fields because it helps writers to build a foundation beyond an established set of knowledge. Writers can persuade scholars to a particular action by highlighting the merits and showcasing the soundness of their arguments. This allows better understanding and development of the subject leading to exceptional truths about matters.

What is the importance of knowing an argumentative essay or speech so we can use it in our real-life situations?

Argumentative essay writing is about forming a stance or erecting an argument based on facts and figures. When a writer employs all the academic tools to come up with solutions like these, they allow him to take better decisions in real-life situations including law, medicine, and so on.

What is the purpose of a conclusion in an argumentative essay?

A conclusion is the section of an argumentative essay where writers need to tie all the loose ends. They can reiterate the main argument with proof in the concluding remarks. This is true about the section as it helps the section be more readable and memorable for the readers.

Why ask a question in the beginning an important part of argumentative writing?

Asking a question, in the beginning, is important because writers need to come up with a solution in the first place. This could be difficult when they do not know what is the problem or the question. That’s why asking a question sets a premise and draws lines between different sections, resulting in a better grip on the topic.

What is the purpose of an argumentative paragraph?

The purpose of argumentative writing is simple – to convince or persuade readers about a certain stance or point of view. Whether you are writing an essay or a paragraph, it helps writers to know the purpose behind the toil.

What is the main point of an argument?

The main point of an argument is that it presents a solution or an answer to a problem. In addition to this, the argument also involves showing the readers that a certain answer is the best answer. But writers can acknowledge other solutions without decommissioning their own.

What are three important things to include in an argumentative paper?

Here are three main things that must be included in an argumentative paper:

  • Asking a question
  • Developing an answer
  • Refining the answer into a statement

Summing It Up

Writing an argumentative essay is about convincing the readers about a particular problem or question. It is different from other essay types as it sticks to a strict structure and format to convey a point. It requires a lot of research and the collection of relevant data to ensure that arguments are well-founded.

In this blog, we have covered multiple aspects of writing an argumentative essay, including the importance of argument writing. Students will find it extremely helpful in developing a thesis statement in simple steps. In addition to this, we have covered the section where writers can learn how to develop an argument.

If students ever stumble upon writing an argumentative essay, this is the definitive guide to cover all the bases and secure maximum marks!

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