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How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style | Format & Example
Published on November 5, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 21, 2023.
An APA Style citation for a journal article includes the author name(s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format.
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Table of contents, basic format for an apa journal citation, citing an article with an elocator or article number, citing unpublished journal articles, special issue of a journal, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.
The article title appears in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name is italicized and in title case (all major words capitalized).
When viewing a journal article online, the required information can usually be found on the access page.
Linking to online journal articles
A DOI should always be used where available. Some databases do not list one, but you may still find one by looking for the same article on another database. You don’t need to include the name of the database in your citation.
If no DOI is available and the article was accessed through a database, do not include a URL.
If the article is not from a database, but from another website (e.g. the journal’s own website), you should ideally use a stable URL: this is often provided under a “share” button. Otherwise, copy the URL from your browser’s address bar.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
Articles published only in PDF form may provide an article number or “eLocator” instead of a page range; in this case, include the number in your citation, preceded by the word “Article.”
When citing from an article that has not yet been formally published, the format varies depending on whether or not it has already been submitted to a journal. Note that different formats are used for unpublished dissertations and raw data .
The text of an article which has not yet appeared online or in publication (i.e. which is only available directly from the author) should be cited as an “Unpublished manuscript.” The title is italicized and information about the author’s university is included if available:
Article submitted for publication
An article that has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as a “Manuscript submitted for publication.” The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included:
Article in press
An article that has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as “in press.” Here, the name of the journal is included, university information is omitted, and “in press” is written in place of the year (both in the reference list and the in-text citation):
If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author’s name and article title:
Note that if you want to cite an individual article from the special issue, it can just be cited in the basic format for journal articles.
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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
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In an APA journal citation , if a DOI (digital object identifier) is available for an article, always include it.
If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a database or in print, just omit the DOI.
If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a website other than a database (for example, the journal’s own website), include a URL linking to the article.
Include the DOI at the very end of the APA reference entry . If you’re using the 6th edition APA guidelines, the DOI is preceded by the label “doi:”. In the 7th edition , the DOI is preceded by ‘https://doi.org/’.
- 6th edition: doi: 10.1177/0894439316660340
- 7th edition: https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0894439316660340
APA citation example (7th edition)
Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2016). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review , 35 (5), 576–586. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439316660340
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:
Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
You may include up to 20 authors in a reference list entry .
When an article has more than 20 authors, replace the names prior to the final listed author with an ellipsis, but do not omit the final author:
Davis, Y., Smith, J., Caulfield, F., Pullman, H., Carlisle, J., Donahue, S. D., James, F., O’Donnell, K., Singh, J., Johnson, L., Streefkerk, R., McCombes, S., Corrieri, L., Valck, X., Baldwin, F. M., Lorde, J., Wardell, K., Lao, W., Yang, P., . . . O’Brien, T. (2012).
In an APA reference list , journal article citations include only the year of publication, not the exact date, month, or season.
The inclusion of volume and issue numbers makes a more specific date unnecessary.
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Caulfield, J. (2023, June 21). How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style | Format & Example. Scribbr. Retrieved October 2, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/journal-article/
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APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources
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This guide pertains to the 7th edition of the APA Manual.
This guide is designed to support the citation and reference needs of USC students, staff, and faculty. The 7th edition of the manual does make distinctions between formatting certain components for academic use over publication. This guide will distinguish student/academic formatting where applicable.
This guide is designed as a "quick" reference to common APA citation, reference and formatting criteria. When in doubt, we encourage users to consult with the APA publication manual or APA website for further clarification as the authority on formatting.
Attribution for guide: Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
What is the purpose of citations?
Citations help readers locate your sources. They help to continue the scholarly conversation. To learn more about how citations can help you avoid plagiarism, view this interactive tutorial:
USC Library Lessons: Avoiding Plagiarism through Citations
When considering citations and references for your papers, you can ask yourself, "could someone find this information in the future?"
A client's personal file would not need a citation because your reader cannot go find that information again. Census statistics would require a citation because your reader could go locate that information again.
APA requires FOUR ELEMENTS of every citation:
- Who- Author of content
- When- Date content was published
- What- Title of content
- Where- Publication information. This can be the website you got it from or the journal or book's publication information.
If any of the elements listed above are unavailable, check out "Missing Reference Information" from APA for more information.
- APA Style Website As part of our Style and Grammar Guidelines, we explain the basics of paper format, grammar, punctuation, in-text citations, references, bias-free language, and more. Much of what you used to find on the sixth edition blog, you can now find on the APA Style website.
- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper by Robert V. Labaree Last Updated Oct 2, 2023 1650784 views this year
- Owl Purdue 7th Edition Style Guide and Formatting Writing guide from Owl Purdue covering the 7th edition of the APA Manual
- Quick Reference Guide Quick guide on how to identify components to configure a reference for Journal article, book, and chapter from an edited book.
- Annotated Sample Student Paper Sample student paper with formatting annotations.
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- Last Updated: Sep 15, 2023 2:41 PM
- URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/APA7th
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Citation Examples
APA Citation Examples
This guide will show you how to structure APA citations according to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) and will show you example citations for different source types. For information on other APA topics—such as formatting your paper, creating a title page, etc.—check out the EasyBib APA format guide. It even has an example paper.
Table of Contents
- The Basics of APA Citations
- References vs. Citations
Formatting Author Information
- Formatting Titles and Dates
- Citing Books
- Citing Journals and Articles
- Citing Various Digital Sources
- Citing Various Media Sources
- Citing Additional Sources
- APA Citation Template
The basics of apa.
We’re going to start from the beginning for all of you newbies out there, or for those of you looking for a refresher.
APA is an abbreviation which stands for American Psychological Association. This is a massive organization, responsible for creating and sharing psychology-related publications, research, and databases.
Basically, they keep psychologists and other similar roles in the loop with what’s happening in the world of psychology. With close to 120,000 members, this is THE leading world organization related to psychology.They are not officially associated with this guide, but the information here talks about their citing format and rules in depth.
Why were APA citations created and why did my teacher ask me to use this style?
Are you scratching your head, wondering what is APA style is and how this all relates to your research project? To make a long story short, the American Psychological Association did something really cool. Back in 1952, they created a way for ALL psychology researchers to structure their citations. This standard method did three things:
- Psychology researchers were all able to display the sources they used in a systematic way.
- Readers were able to easily understand the information shown in citations.
- There was enough information displayed in the citations for readers to go out and find the exact sources on their own.
APA citations were such a hit, they were so good, that other science disciplines soon adopted the citation format as well. In fact, other disciplines outside of the science world use APA style today, too. So, whether you’re creating a psychology-related research project or not, there’s a good chance you were asked to create your citations in APA style.
Currently in its 7th edition, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is one of the most frequently used style guides for academic writing today!
With the 7th edition just coming onto the scene in 2020, the American Psychological Association does not expect to see widespread usage of the 7th edition until later in 2020. This is why you should always double-check with your teacher on whether they want you to use the 6th edition or the 7th edition for your projects.
Click here for more basics on this style.
Another widely used style is MLA format . Believe it or not, there are thousands of other styles, so perhaps your teacher or professor requested a completely different one. If you’re in that boat, head to EasyBib.com to check out more styles . While you’re at it, poke around and check out our APA reference generator. It may be just what you’re looking for.
References vs. Citations – What’s the difference?
References and citations are two terms that are thrown around a lot and quite often mean the same thing. A reference, or citation, shows the reader that a piece of information originated elsewhere. But, along came APA and decided to throw a curveball at us. In APA, the two terms have two different meanings.
A citation is found in the actual writing of an APA research paper.
In-text citation example:
“Lecture-rooms are numerous and large, but the number of young people who genuinely thirst after truth and justice is small” (Einstein, 2007, p. 5).
A reference is found on the reference page, which is the last page of a research paper.
Reference Page Example:
Einstein, A. (2007). The world as I see it. Google Books. https://books.google.com/books?id=aNKOo94tO6cC&source=gbs_navlinks_s (Original work published 1934)
The information included in an APA citation is just a snapshot of the information found in the full reference. For more information on when it’s appropriate to include a citation in your paper, head to section 8.1-8.10 of the Publication manual.
Now, what makes things even trickier is that most teachers and professors use the term “APA citations” when they’re actually talking about the full references. How many times have you heard your teacher say, “Make sure you have your citations on the last page!”
Eek! So, to stay on the same page as your teacher, this guide shows you how to make references for an APA reference page, but we’re calling the page “APA Citations.” Someone’s gotta give in, right? Looks like it’s us.
If you’re looking for a quick read on the citations found in the body of the paper, check out our APA Parenthetical Citation page. It’s just one of the many free APA citation guides available on EasyBib.com. Need an APA citation generator? You can find one at EasyBib.com as well!
If you’re looking for help with the writing or grammar in your paper, check out our research , pronoun , and determiner pages. We have tons of other free grammar pages too!
A rundown on references
Before we get into the nitty-gritty details on how to structure references for your APA paper, let’s get one more quick piece of information off the table.
References are added to research papers and projects only when a source is included in the writing itself.
We don’t add references to a reference page if we want to simply suggest other, similar titles. No! We create references when an actual piece of information from another source is added into the project.
Does your paper include a piece of data from a report? Great! You copied a line of text from a case study and put it in your project (with quotation marks around it)? Perfect! You included a bar graph you found in a brochure? Fantastic! Make sure you create an APA citation in the text of your paper and include the reference on the final page.
The only exception to the above rule is if you’re creating an “annotated bibliography.” For more on that, check out our APA annotated bibliography page.
In case you were wondering, the same goes for MLA in-text & parenthetical citations on the MLA works cited page.
Ready to get started? The next section of the guide is going to explain, step-by-step, how to structure every nook and cranny of your references.
But, if you’re dreaming of an APA citation maker to help make the pain go away from building your references from scratch, you’re in luck. EasyBib.com has an APA citation maker! In just a few clicks, our technology structures and styles each and every APA citation for you. If you don’t know much about it, head to the EasyBib homepage to learn more.
While you’re at it, try out our APA cover page maker, found on the main page as well!
Fundamentals of an APA citation
This entire section goes into detail on each component of a reference. If you’re looking to learn how to style the names of the authors, the title, publishing information, and other aspects related to the reference, this section is for you!
If you want to skip the small talk and see an APA style paper example, go to the “Citation Resources” menu on this page and select “APA Format Guide.” It includes a title page example, an APA paper example, and an APA reference page example.It’s all there for you and the best part about it is it’s free! Do yourself a favor and take a peek at it now!
The very first piece of information in most references is the author’s name(s). We say “most,” because some sources may not have an author (such as websites, the Bible…). If your source doesn’t have an author, do not include any information about an author in your reference.
Citing a Source with 1 Author
Last name of the Author, First initial. Middle initial.
To see some examples, scroll down to the bottom half of this page.
Citing a Source with 2 Authors
Does your source have two authors? Do not put the names in alphabetical order. They should be written in the order they’re displayed on the source.
Last name of the 1st listed Author, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Last name of the 2nd listed Author, First initial. Middle initial.
Doe, J. B. & Chen, W. I.
For an example of a reference with two authors according to the 7th edition of the Publication manual , scroll down to the “Journal Articles found in Print” section, or check out section 9.7-9.12 in the Publication manual.
Citing a Source with 3 to 20 Authors
Does your source have three to twenty authors? The American Psychological Association has made some updates on how to list multiple authors in your citations. If you have between three to twenty authors, list all the authors names (Last Name, Initials). Put them in the same order they’re listed in the source. Commas separate names, and put an ampersand right before the last name.
Bos, G., Hajek, S., Kogman-Appel, K., & Mensching, G. (2019). A Glossary of Latin and Italo-Romance Medico-Botanical Terms in Hebrew Characters on an Illustrated Manuscript Page (Ms. Oxford, Bodleian Opp. 688, fol. 177b). Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism 19 (2), 169-199. https://www.muse.jhu.edu/article/747571
Citing a Source with 21+ Authors
If your source has over twenty authors, list the last name and initials of the first 19 authors, placing a comma between each name. After the name of the 19th author, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining authors’ names. Then, list the final author’s name in front of it.
Here’s a formatting example for 21+ names using the U.S. presidents (this is NOT a reference example):
Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J., Taylor, Z., Fillmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., … Trump, D. J.
Citing an Author that is an organization or company
If your source is written by an organization or company:
Some sources are written and released by companies, not necessarily individual people. For example, most brochures at museums only display the institution’s name. Advertisements also only show the company’s name. If the source you’re attempting to cite only shows a group or organization’s name, place it in the reference in the place you’d normally include an individual person’s name.
Write out the name of the group in full; do not use abbreviations. For example, it may seem okay to use USDA, but APA writing style prefers you write out United States Department of Agriculture.
If you’re looking for information on how to style your own name in APA headings, find the example paper on EasyBib.com.
Formatting Titles & Dates
Formatting the date of publication.
The date the source was published is the next item shown in a reference. It’s directly after the author’s name.
For the majority of sources, include only the year in parentheses.
If you’re citing an article in a magazine, include the year and the month.
Peterzell, J. (1990, April). Better late than never. Time, 135 (17), 20–21.
Check out the examples towards the bottom of the page, or head to sections 9.13-9.17 of the Publication manual to see how dates are displayed.
Title rules and capitalization
Titles are the next piece of information shown in a reference. Titles are often tricky for people to style. Students often wonder, “Should I type out the title as it’s shown on the source?” “Should the title be written in italics or underlined?” Here are the answers to (hopefully) all of your title-related questions:
Which letters are capitalized?
Most titles are written with a capital letter in these places:
- At the beginning of the title
- At the beginning of a proper noun
- At the beginning of the subtitle
It may be tempting to write the title as you see it shown on the source, or with capital letters at the beginning of every important word, but that’s not how APA referencing does it.
Here are a few examples of proper lettering:
- A star is born
- Spider-Man: Into the spiderverse
- Harry Potter and the deathly hallows
The only source types that are written with a capital letter at the beginning of every important word are periodicals. Some examples include the titles of newspapers, journals, and magazines.
- The New York Times
- School Library Journal,
How should I style the title?
- Anything that stands alone is written in italics. When we say “stands alone,” we mean it isn’t part of a larger collection. Most books are a single source, so they’re written in italics. Other examples include movies, brochures, dissertations, and music albums.
- Sources that are part of a collection are written without italics. Website pages, journal articles, chapters in books, and individual songs (from an album) are written without italics.
- Remember, the styling information above is for the APA reference page only! Citations in the text of the paper are styled differently. If you need to see a full APA sample paper, check out the other resources on EasyBib.com!
Check out some of the examples below to see how the titles are typed out and styled. You can also head to section 9.18-9.22 of the Publication Manual for more details
If it’s not the actual title, but an APA title page for your paper that you need help with, check out the Title Page APA creator on the homepage of EasyBib.com! Or, check out the main guide for this style, which includes an APA cover page template.
Additional information about a source
It can be difficult to understand a source type just by looking at an APA style citation. Sometimes it isn’t clear if you’re looking at a citation for a presentation, a blog post, lecture notes, or a completely different source type.
To clear up any confusion for your reader, you can include additional information directly after the title. This additional information about the source type is written in brackets with the first word having a capital letter.
Wilson, T. V. & Frey, H. (2019, May 13). Godzilla: The start of his story [Audio podcast]. iHeart Radio. https://www.missedinhistory.com/podcasts/godzilla-the-start-of-his-story.htm
Thanks to the information in the brackets, the reader can easily see that the source is an audio podcast.
Check out the various examples towards the bottom of this page.
Publication information includes the name of the publisher. In most cases, the publication information is only included for print sources. Check out the book reference below to see the publication information in action.
Citing Books in APA
You’ll find plenty of source types below. If you don’t see what you’re looking for, try out our APA reference generator on EasyBib.com! Or, here’s a great informative site we like. If you’d like to see a full APA sample paper, take a glance at the main citation guide for this style on EasyBib.com.
Citing books in print in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of the book . Publisher.
Gaiman, N. (1996). Neverwhere . HarperCollins.
Looking for more examples? Check out our APA book citation page.
Citing a chapter in a print book in APA
A reference page APA citation for a chapter in a print book is styled the same way as the entire book. It is not necessary to showcase or display the individual chapter. However, in the text of the paper, the chapter is shown like this: (Author’s Last name, Year, Chapter #).
Citing a chapter in an edited book in print in APA
An edited book is one that was compiled by an author. Each individual chapter, or section, is written by someone else. Since you’re probably citing the specific chapter, rather than the whole entire book, place the name of the chapter’s author in the first position.
Chapter Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Chapter title. In F. M. Editor’s Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (Xrd ed., pp. x-x). Publisher.
Alexander, G. R. (2015). Multicultural education in nursing. In D. M. Billings, & J. A. Halstead (Eds.), Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (5th ed., pp. 263-281). Google Books. https://books.google.com/books?id=YxzmCgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=edited+book&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwja47-0kL_iAhUV7XMBHXzQBxAQ6AEIODAD#v=onepage&q&f=false
Citing an e-book in APA
To cite an eBook, cite it the same way as you would a print book.
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Publisher. URL
Alcott, L. M. (1905). Under the lilacs. Little, Brown, and Company. https://archive.org/stream/underlilacs00alco2?ref=ol#page/n9/mode/2up
If you’re using the EasyBib APA citation generator to cite your e-books, click on the “book” source type.
Gaiman, N. (2009). Coraline . HarperCollins. https://amzn.to/3cQqXAL
If you’re using EasyBib.com’s APA citation generator to cite your e-books, click on the “book” source type.
Wondering what to do if you’re using a book that was reprinted? Check out the example of Einstein’s book, found towards the top of this guide.
Citing The Bible in APA
Since the bible is considered a “classical work,” and widely known, it is not necessary to create a full reference. Only include a citation in the text of the paper.
Two items need to be included:
- The title and version of the source, such as the New Living Bible
- The names, verses, chapters, or any numbers associated with the section you’re referring to.
“Then the king asked her, “What do you want, Esther? What is your request? I will give it to you, even if it’s half the kingdom” (Esther 5:5 New Living Translation).
Citing Journals and Articles in APA
Citing journal articles found in print in apa.
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of journal article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), page range.
Reeve, A. H., Fjeldsa, J., & Borregaard, M. K. (2018). Ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. Journal of Biogeography, 45 (8), 1980-1982.
Your APA style paper is easy to piece together with the tools and services on EasyBib.com. Try out our APA citation machine, which structures your references in just a few clicks. If you’re looking for the perfect APA cover page, give our APA title page maker a whirl.
Citing journal articles found online in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of journal article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), page range. //dx.doi.org/10xxxxxxx
Reeve, A. H., Fjeldsa, J., & Borregaard, M. K. (2018). Ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. Journal of Biogeography, 45 (8), 1980-1982. //dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13384
For more on journals, take a peek at our APA journal page. Or, make your citations in just a few clicks with our APA citation generator.
Citing newspaper articles in print in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article’s title. Title of Newspaper, pp. xx-xx.
Boutilier, A. (2019, May 29). Facebook won’t pull fake content for election: Official says it’s not company’s role to draw line as MPs blast Zuckerberg for not testifying. Toronto Star, p. 1.
Citing newspaper articles found on the Internet in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article’s title. Title of Newspaper . URL
Boutilier, A. (2019, May 28). Facebook refuses to remove false content during Canadian election. The Star . https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2019/05/28/facebook-wont-remove-doctored-content-during-canadian-election.html
Kale, S. (2020, March 9). How to keep your hands clean – without getting dry skin. The Guardian . https://www.theguardian.com/society/shortcuts/2020/mar/09/how-to-keep-your- hands-clean-without-getting-dry-skin
Citing magazines read in print in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month or Season). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range.
Freedman, A. (2019, June). How to choose a gaming laptop: You can play your game and take it with you. TechLife Australia, 90, 78-81.
Citing magazine articles read over the internet in APA
Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year, Month). Title of magazine article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. URL
Savage, P. (2019, May). Double dragon: Yakuza Kiwami 2 is a return to form for the singular crime series. PC Gamer , 319, 80. https://www-pressreader-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/usa/pc-gamer-us/20190521
Citing a Source on the Internet in APA
Citing digital sources in this style is much easier than other styles. If you’re wondering why, it’s because a lot of information isn’t included in the reference.
For most digital sources, only five items are usually needed:
- The name of the author
- The date the source was published
- The title of the source
- The medium (blog post, audio file, pdf, etc.)
- The website address
Here’s some more information related to web content:
- Only include the medium if it’s unique or if it will help the reader understand the source type.
- Include the website address at the end of the citation.
- Do not place a period at the end of the website address.
Have a digital source? Need to cite APA? Check out some of the examples below.
Citing a blog in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title of post. Blog or Website name. URL
Chockrek, E. (2019, May 29). 7 summer activities that help boost your college applications. EasyBib. https://www.easybib.com/guides/7-summer-activities-that-help-boost-your-college-applications/
See another example on our APA citation website page.
Citing social media in APA
Here’s the APA template for most social media platforms:
Last name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of posting). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Describe any attachment] [Tweet OR Facebook page OR Instagram photo OR Instagram post] . Site Name. URL
Lem, E. [@lemesther]. (2019, October 2). Spotted @Chegg promo celebration. Ladies who…”leopard.” Cheers to all the upcoming promos. #marketing #UEx. [Image attached [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/lemesther/status/1179549293289627650
If the name of the individual is unknown or unlisted on the profile (such as Lady Gaga), place the username first, without brackets
Ladygaga. (2019, May 20). I’m so proud of @momgerm for being asked to serve as Goodwill Ambassador for @WHO. The goal of @btwfoundation is [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/ladygaga/status/1130578727539052544
If there are emojis, try to recreate them or describe them in brackets.
Hawaii Volcanoes NPS [@Volcanoes_NPS]. (2020, February 26). Half the park is after dark! [flashlight emoji] In addition to dark night skies, evening in the park provides a great chance. [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/Volcanoes_NPS/status/1232776372801589248
For more about citing social media, head to section 10.15 of the Publication manual.
Citing online encyclopedias & dictionaries – Group author
If you conducted or watched a personal interview and the transcript or audio is not available for the reader, then there really isn’t any point to create a full reference. These types of sources are not recoverable and the reader would be unable to find the interview on their own. Instead, only create a citation in the text of the paper. Use the first initial, middle initial, and last name of the person being interviewed, along with “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.
Institution or organization name. (n.d.). Entry title. In Title of Website or reference . Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Doleful. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 1, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/doleful
Citing online encyclopedias & dictionaries – Known author
If there is a known author, cite the source this way:
Last name, F. M. (Date published). Entry title. In F. M. Last name (ed.), In Title of Website or reference . Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Mann, M. E. & Selin, H. (n.d.). Global warming. In Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved March 1, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/science/global-warming
Cite a Wikipedia page just like a normal webpage, but use an archived version. Go to the “View history” tab at the top of a Wikipedia page to find these archived versions, their publishing date, and their URL.
Article title. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia . URL
Kinetic energy (2019, December 27). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kinetic_energy&oldid=932724138
If you want to learn how to cite websites in MLA , click on the link.
An APA generator is available to you on EasyBib.com Take the stress out of building the references for your APA style paper and try it out!
While you’re at it, it may be helpful to take a glance at our APA paper template. It can be found on the EasyBib Writing Center page. You can use the APA paper example to help structure your own APA title page and paper.
Citing Media Sources in APA
Citing a song or music listened to online in apa.
Modern songs (e.g., that song you heard on the radio this morning) should list the name of the recording artist’s name. Classical music lists the song’s composer (e.g., think Mozart, Beethoven, etc.).
Note: include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval (like if they only post their music to SoundCloud or on their own specific website). If the song is available across multiple platforms, no URL is needed.
APA Structure for a modern song:
Artist’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Song’s title [Song]. On Title of album . Publisher(s).
Grande, A. (2019). 7 rings [Song]. On thank u, next . Republic Records.
APA Structure for a classical song:
Artist’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Song’s title [Song recorded by Artist’s Name]. On Title of album . Publisher.
Bach, J. S. (1997). Toccata and Fugue in D minor [Song recorded by William McVicker]. On Great organ classics. Sony Music Entertainment UK Limited.
Sheet music in APA
To cite APA sheet music, cite it exactly the same as a book. If it’s found online, cite it as a website.
Citing streamed videos in APA
Use this format if you’re citing a video found online (such as an APA citation for a YouTube video ).
Person who posted the video’s Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of posting or publishing). Video’s title [Video]. URL
Vliegenthart, S. [booksandquills]. (2018, December 3). Books from uni we didn’t hate [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9G52GCgpEZg
If the name of the individual isn’t available, start with the username, and remove the brackets.
Chegg. (2018, November 15). One common grammar error to avoid [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bfx50f853g
Maroon 5. (2018, May 30). Girls like you ft. Cardi B [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/aJOTlE1K90k
If you’re in need of an APA citation machine to do the work for you, check out the homepage on EasyBib.com! We even have a free Title Page APA creator on the main page as well!
Citing a film or movie in APA
Director’s Last Name. F. M. (Director). (Year published). Film’s title [Film]. Publisher(s) or URL
Gerwig, G. (Director). (2017). Lady bird [Video]. IAC Films; Scott Rudin Productions.
Citing Additional Sources in APA
Citing a published thesis or dissertation from a database in apa.
Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year created). Thesis or Dissertation’s title [Master’s thesis OR Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution]. Name of database or archive.
Schluckebier, M. E. (2013). Dreams worth pursuing: How college students develop and articulate their purpose in life [Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa]. ERIC.
If you’re looking for an APA citation builder to do the work for you, check out EasyBib.com’s APA generator!
Citing a conference paper in APA
Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Days of Conference). Title of conference paper [Type of presentation]. Conference Name, Location. URL or DOI.
Fowle, M. (2018, September). The entrepreneurial dream: Happiness, depression, and freedom [Conference presentation]. European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreunership, Aviero, Portugal.
Citing an interview in APA
W. I. Ikemoto (personal communication, June 2, 2019)
If the interview is recoverable, include the full reference on the final page of the project. If the interview was found in a magazine, use the magazine structure. If the interview was read on a blog, use the blog structure. Look for the APA headings above that match your specific source type.
Don’t forget, our APA citation machine structures pretty much everything for you. Find it on EasyBib.com’s homepage and give our APA citation generator a try.
Didn’t find what you needed? Still a bit confused? Learn more here . You can also take the guesswork out of making your references with our handy APA citation generator, found at the top of this page.
Putting it All Together
You’ve structured your sources correctly, right? You have the periods, italics, and commas where they belong? Capital letters where they’re supposed to be? Great! You’re almost through! The last step is organizing your citations properly on the page. For easy to follow, in-depth instructions on structuring the last page in your project, check out our APA reference page . If you’d like to see a sample APA paper, check out the main guide for this style on EasyBib.com!
Before you hit submit, make sure you run your paper through our plagiarism checker . It checks for instances of accidental plagiarism and scans for spelling and grammatical errors. Even if you think you have every verb , adverb , or interjection where it belongs, you may be surprised with what our innovative technology suggests.
Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.
Solution #1: How to cite a photo with no creator, date, or title in APA
- Describe the photo and place brackets around it.
- Add “n.d” with parentheses around it.
- List where the reference was found without italics.
- Follow with the URL information of where you found the photo if it was found online.
Example of a photo citation with no creator, date, or title
[Photograph of two hens in a barn]. (n.d). Theoretical Prints. http://Theoretical_Prints.org/two-hypothetical-hens/
Solution #2: How to cite a dictionary entry in APA
Dictionary entry in print
- List the organization or the author’s name in last name, first name initial, and middle name initial (if there is one) with a period following.
- Use n.d if the date is not listed.
- List the name of the dictionary term. Capitalize the first letter and use a period after.
- Write “In” followed by the name of the dictionary used. The dictionary name should be italicized.
- In parentheses, write the volume abbreviated as “Vol.” followed by the volume number and page number. Add a period after it.
Examples for a printed dictionary entry citation
Hypothetical Association of Learning. (2014). Cake. In The Hypothetical Learner’s Dictionary (Vol. 2, p. 3).
Johnson, C. K. (2014). Cake. In The Hypothetical Learner’s Dictionary (Vol. 2, p. 3).
Dictionary entry from an online source
- Use “n.d” if the date is not listed.
- Write the name of the dictionary in italics and follow it with a period.
- Write “Retrieved” then the date you accessed the entry online in this format: Month Day, Year. End it with a comma.
- Write “from” and add the page URL.
Examples for an online dictionary entry citation
Hypothetical Association of Learning. (2014). Cake. In The Hypothetical Learner’s Dictionary. Retrieved November 7, 2021, from https;//dictionary.hypothetical.org/dictionary/English/cake
Johnson, C. K. (2014). Cake. In The Hypothetical Learner’s Dictionary. Retrieved November 7, 2021, from https;//dictionary.hypothetical.org/dictionary/English/cake
Solution #3: How to ensure that an auto-generated citation in APA style is correct
- Ensure that the correct number of people are accredited by counting the names in the source and the website citation.
- Ensure that all names are spelled correctly.
- If 2-20 authors are used, ensure that an ampersand is used before the last name.
- If more than twenty authors are used, ensure that an ellipsis is used before the final author.
- Check to make sure that the date is correct and that the month or year do not need to be adjusted.
- Generally, works cited as a whole, such as books, are written in italics, while shorter works that are part of a bigger work, such as a chapter in a book or articles from a periodical (e.g., journal, magazine, newspaper, etc.), are usually in regular font.
- The title of webpages are italicized, while the title of the site they are on is in regular font.
- Social media post citations use the written post content (up to 20 words) as the title. This “title” should be italicized.
- If using a chapter, make sure that the editor is accredited.
- If using an article, make sure that the journal number is italicized and that the volume number is in parentheses.
- Make sure that your links are active and that they bring you to the correct location. You may need to rewrite the link.
Published August 2, 2019. Updated March 10, 2020.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau . Michele Kirschenbaum is a dedicated school library media specialist and one of the in-house EasyBib librarians. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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Go to www.easybib.com and follow the directions to create a citation. After you create a citation or citation list, you can choose APA as your citation style (default is MLA). APA is a premium style, so you will need a subscription or trial to EasyBib Plus in order to create citations in APA. Upgrade your account at https://www.easybib.com/upgrade .
Other Citation Styles
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Thursday, February 23: The Clark Library is closed today.
APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Journal Articles
- Journal Articles
- Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Books & Ebooks
- Government & Legal Documents
- Biblical Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Films/Videos/TV Shows
- How to Cite: Other
- Additional Help
Table of Contents
Journal article from library database with doi - one author, journal article from library database with doi - multiple authors, journal article from a website - one author.
Journal Article- No DOI
Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
This Microsoft support page contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.
- APA 7th. ed. Journal Article Reference Checklist
If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.
When an article has one to twenty authors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When an article has twenty-one or more authors list the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.
Cite author names in the order in which they appear on the source, not in alphabetical order (the first author is usually the person who contributed the most work to the publication).
Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize or use quotation marks for the titles of articles.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.
If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.
Volume and Issue Numbers
Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers.
Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.
If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)
Do not include the name of a database for works obtained from most academic research databases (e.g. APA PsycInfo, CINAHL) because works in these resources are widely available. Exceptions are Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations, and UpToDate.
Include the DOI (formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/...) if it is available. If you do not have a DOI, include a URL if the full text of the article is available online (not as part of a library database). If the full text is from a library database, do not include a DOI, URL, or database name.
In the Body of a Paper
Books, Journals, Reports, Webpages, etc.: When you refer to titles of a “stand-alone work,” as the APA calls them on their APA Style website, such as books, journals, reports, and webpages, you should italicize them. Capitalize words as you would for an article title in a reference, e.g., In the book Crying in H Mart: A memoir , author Michelle Zauner (2021) describes her biracial origin and its impact on her identity.
Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter “Where’s the Wine,” Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.
The APA Sample Paper below has more information about formatting your paper.
- APA 7th ed. Sample Paper
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number
Smith, K. F. (2022). The public and private dialogue about the American family on television: A second look. Journal of Media Communication, 50 (4), 79-110. https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.x
Note: The DOI number is formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.xIf.
(Author's Last Name, Year)
Example: (Smith, 2000)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)
Example: (Smith, 2000, p. 80)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number
Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.
Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including 20 authors. When a source has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. Don't include an ampersand (&) between the ellipsis and final author.
Note : For works with three or more authors, the first in-text citation is shortened to include the first author's surname followed by "et al."
Reference List Examples
Two to 20 Authors
Case, T. A., Daristotle, Y. A., Hayek, S. L., Smith, R. R., & Raash, L. I. (2011). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3 (2), 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010
21 or more authors
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetma, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 77 (3), 437-471. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
Direct Quote: (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more Authors/Editors
(Case et al., 2011)
Direct Quote: (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number if given). URL
Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1 (30). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4
Example: (Flachs, 2010)
Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)
Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, in this case you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. If there are no page or paragraph numbers and no marked section, leave this information out.
Journal Article - No DOI
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. URL [if article is available online, not as part of a library database]
Full-Text Available Online (Not as Part of a Library Database):
Steinberg, M. P., & Lacoe, J. (2017). What do we know about school discipline reform? Assessing the alternatives to suspensions and expulsions. Education Next, 17 (1), 44–52. https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/
Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)
Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017, p. 47)
Full-Text Available in Library Database:
Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463 (2), 433-434.
Example: (Jungers, 2010)
Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)
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- Next: Magazine/Newspaper Articles >>
- Last Updated: Sep 11, 2023 3:31 PM
- URL: https://libguides.up.edu/apa
APA Style Guide: Citing an Article
- APA Style: Home
- Getting Started
- Citing a Book
- Citing an Article
- Citing a Website
- In-Text Citations
- Reference Page
- Terms & Definitions
- APA Frequently Asked Questions
- Handouts & Tutorials
- Math Center This link opens in a new window
- Research Center
- Writing Center
- Scholarly Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Physical Newspaper Article
- Electronic Newspaper Article
Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. Author's Middle Initial. (Year). Title of article.
Title of periodical, volume number (issue number) , pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy .
Note that the citations for print journal articles and online journal articles are extremely similar. Keep in mind that a DOI or URL should be included for online journal article citations.
Online Journal Article
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002) . A study of enjoyment of peas. Jo urnal of Abnormal Eating, 8 (3), 120-125 . http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/
Print Journal Article
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , 893-896.
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (3) , 5-13.
Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Magazine Title,
Volume (issue), page(s)..
Note that citations for articles accessed electronically (online) follow the same basic format for article citations, but with a URL added to the citation.
Physical Magazine Article
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135 , 28-31.
Electronic Magazine Article
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149 . Retrieved from
- If the article comes from a website that is freely available to all, the URL should be provided after the words "Retrieved from". If the article comes from a subscription resources, the URL should be provided after the words "Available from".
Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article Title. Newspaper Title ,
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. 1A, 2A.
- When citing more than one page in a newspaper article, the page numbers should be preceded by "pp.". When citing only one page in a newspaper article, the page should be preceded by "p." (for example, p.1A).
Wait till ice cream trucks get wind of this. (2007, November 21). The New York Times , p. F2.
- When a newspaper article has no author, list the title of the article first.
Author's Last name, Author's First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Newspaper Title .
Shoop, B. (2013, February 26). Weather effects on small businesses: why it pays to be small. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from
- If the article comes from a website that is freely available to all, the URL should be provided after the words "Retrieved from". If the article comes from a subscription resource, the URL should be provided after the words "Available from".
The citation examples on this page and on subsequent pages have been borrowed from the Purdue Online Writing Lab ( https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/ ), and from the Defiance College Pilgrim Library Writing Center APA Style Guide ( http://library.defiance.edu/c.php?g=333902&p=2243144 ).
- << Previous: Citing a Book
- Next: Citing a Website >>
- Last Updated: Apr 11, 2022 10:06 AM
- URL: https://library.an.edu/apastyle
- MJC Library & Learning Center
- Research Guides
Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources
- APA Style, 7th Edition
- Citing Basics
- MLA Style (8th/9th ed.)
Formatting your paper, headings organize your paper (2.27), video tutorials, reference list format (9.43).
- Elements of a Reference
Reference Examples (Chapter 10)
Dois and urls (9.34-9.36), in-text citations.
- In-Text Citations Format
- In-Text Citations for Specific Source Types
- Chicago Style
- Harvard Style
- Other Styles
- Annotated Bibliographies
- How to Create an Attribution
What is APA Style?
APA style was created by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing. APA style is most often used in:
- social sciences (sociology, business), and
If you're taking courses in any of these areas, be prepared to use APA style.
For in-depth guidance on using this citation style, refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed. We have several copies available at the MJC Library at the call number BF 76.7 .P83 2020 .
APA Style, 7th ed.
In October 2019, the American Psychological Association made radical changes its style, especially with regard to the format and citation rules for students writing academic papers. Use this guide to learn how to format and cite your papers using APA Style, 7th edition.
You can start by viewing the video tutorial .
For help on all aspects of formatting your paper in APA Style, see The Essentials page on the APA Style website.
- sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, or
- serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or normal (10-point) Computer Modern (the default font for LaTeX)
- There are exceptions for the title page , tables , figures , footnotes , and displayed equations .
- Margins : Use 1-in. margins on every side of the page.
- Align the text of an APA Style paper to the left margin . Leave the right margin uneven, or “ragged.”
- Do not use full justification for student papers.
- Do not insert hyphens (manual breaks) in words at the end of line. However, it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically inserts breaks in long hyperlinks (such as in a DOI or URL in a reference list entry).
- Indent the first line of each paragraph of text 0.5 in . from the left margin. Use the tab key or the automatic paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program to achieve the indentation (the default setting is likely already 0.5 in.). Do not use the space bar to create indentation.
- There are exceptions for the title page , section labels , abstract , block quotations , headings , tables and figures , reference list , and appendices .
Student papers generally include, at a minimum:
- Title Page (2.3)
- Text (2.11)
- References (2.12)
Student papers may include additional elements such as tables and figures depending on the assignment. So, please check with your teacher!
Student papers generally DO NOT include the following unless your teacher specifically requests it:
- Running head
- Author note
For complete information on the order of pages , see the APA Style website.
Number your pages consecutively starting with page 1. Each section begins on a new page. Put the pages in the following order:
- Page 1: Title page
- Page 2: Abstract (if your teacher requires an abstract)
- Page 3: Text
- References begin on a new page after the last page of text
- Footnotes begin on a new page after the references (if your teacher requires footnotes)
- Tables begin each on a new page after the footnotes (if your teacher requires tables)
- Figures begin on a new page after the tables (if your teacher requires figures)
- Appendices begin on a new page after the tables and/or figures (if your teacher requires appendices)
Sample Papers With Built-In Instructions
To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions.
- Sample Student Paper
- Sample Professional Paper
APA Style uses five (5) levels of headings to help you organize your paper and allow your audience to identify its key points easily. Levels of headings establish the hierarchy of your sections just like you did in your paper outline.
APA tells us to use "only the number of headings necessary to differentiate distinct section in your paper." Therefore, the number of heading levels you create depends on the length and complexity of your paper.
See the chart below for instructions on formatting your headings:
Use Word to Format Your Paper:
Use Google Docs to Format Your Paper:
Placement: The reference list appears at the end of the paper, on its own page(s). If your research paper ends on page 8, your References begin on page 9.
Heading: Place the section label References in bold at the top of the page, centered.
Arrangement: Alphabetize entries by author's last name. If source has no named author, alphabetize by the title, ignoring A, An, or The. (9.44-9.48)
Spacing: Like the rest of the APA paper, the reference list is double-spaced throughout. Be sure NOT to add extra spaces between citations.
Indentation: To make citations easier to scan, add a hanging indent of 0.5 in. to any citation that runs more than one line. Use the paragraph-formatting function of your word processing program to create your hanging indent.
See Sample References Page (from APA Sample Student Paper):
Elements of Reference List Entries: (Chapter 9)
References generally have four elements, each of which has a corresponding question for you to answer:
- Author: Who is responsible for this work? (9.7-9.12)
- Date: When was this work published? (9.13-9.17)
- Title: What is this work called? (9.18-9.22)
- Source: Where can I retrieve this work? (9.23-9.37)
By using these four elements and answering these four questions, you should be able to create a citation for any type of source.
For complete information on all of these elements, checkout the APA Style website.
This infographic shows the first page of a journal article. The locations of the reference elements are highlighted with different colors and callouts, and the same colors are used in the reference list entry to show how the entry corresponds to the source.
To create your references, you'll simple look for these elements in your source and put them together in your reference list entry.
American Psychological Association. Example of where to find reference information for a journal article [Infographic]. APA Style Center. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/basic-principles
Below you'll find two printable handouts showing APA citation examples. The first is an abbreviated list created by MJC Librarians. The second, which is more comprehensive, is from the APA Style website. Feel free to print these for your convenience or use the links to reference examples below:
- APA Citation Examples Created by MJC Librarians for you.
- Common References Examples (APA Handout) Printable handout from the American Psychological Association.
- APA Style Quick Reference Guide See how to format three typical types of references.
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Edited Book Chapter
- Webpage on a Website
Classroom or Intranet Sources
- Classroom Course Pack Materials
- How to cite ChatGPT
- Dictionary Entry
- Government Report
- Legal References (Laws & Cases)
- TED Talk References
- Religious Works
- Open Educational Resources (OER)
- Archival Documents and Collections
You can view the entire Reference Examples website below and view a helpful guide to finding useful APA style topics easily:
- APA Style: Reference Examples
- Navigating the not-so-hidden treasures of the APA Style website
- Missing Reference Information
Sometimes you won't be able to find all the elements required for your reference. In that case, see the instructions in Table 9.1 of the APA style manual in section 9.4 or the APA Style website below:
- Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers
The DOI or URL is the final component of a reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.
- A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
- A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.
When to Include DOIs and URLs:
- Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
- If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
- For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
- For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
- For works from databases that publish original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as the UpToDate database) or for works of limited circulation in databases (such as monographs in the ERIC database), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session-specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. (See APA Section 9.30 for more information).
- If the URL is no longer working or no longer provides readers access to the content you intend to cite, try to find an archived version using the Internet Archive , then use the archived URL. If there is no archived URL, do not use that resource.
Format of DOIs and URLs:
Your DOI should look like this:
Follow these guidelines from the APA Style website.
APA Style uses the author–date citation system , in which a brief in-text citation points your reader to the full reference list entry at the end of your paper. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. This method enables your reader to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of your paper.
Each work you cite must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) except for the following (See APA, 8.4):
- Personal communications (8.9)
- General mentions of entire websites, whole periodicals (8.22), and common software and apps (10.10) in the text do not require a citation or reference list entry.
- The source of an epigraph does not usually appear in the reference list (8.35)
- Quotations from your research participants do not need citations or reference list entries (8.36)
- References included in a statistical meta-analysis, which are marked with an asterisk in the reference list, may be cited in the text (or not) at the author’s discretion. This exception is relevant only to authors who are conducting a meta-analysis (9.52).
Formatting Your In-Text Citations
Parenthetical and Narrative Citations: ( See APA Section 8.11)
In APA style you use the author-date citation system for citing references within your paper. You incorporate these references using either a parenthetical or a narrative style.
- In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses, separated by a comma. (Jones, 2018)
- A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence.
- When the parenthetical citation is at the end of the sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis.
- If there is no author, use the first few words of the reference list entry, usually the "Title" of the source: ("Autism," 2008) See APA 8.14
- When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated materials in the text (Santa Barbara, 2010, p. 243). See APA 8.13
- For most citations, the parenthetical reference is placed BEFORE the punctuation: Magnesium can be effective in treating PMS (Haggerty, 2012).
In narrative citations, the author name or title of your source appears within your text and the publication date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name.
- Santa Barbara (2010) noted a decline in the approval of disciplinary spanking of 26 percentage points from 1968 to 1994.
In-Text Citation Checklist
- In-Text Citation Checklist Use this useful checklist from the American Psychological Association to ensure that you've created your in-text citations correctly.
In-Text Citations for Specific Types of Sources
Quotations from Research Participants
Use NoodleTools to Cite Your Sources
NoodleTools can help you create your references and your in-text citations.
- NoodleTools Express No sign in required . When you need one or two quick citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago style, simply generate them in NoodleTools Express then copy and paste what you need into your document. Note: Citations are not saved and cannot be exported to a word processor using NoodleTools Express.
- NoodleTools (Login Full Database) This link opens in a new window Create and organize your research notes, share and collaborate on research projects, compose and error check citations, and complete your list of works cited in MLA, APA, or Chicago style using the full version of NoodleTools. You'll need to Create a Personal ID and password the first time you use NoodleTools.
See How to Use NoodleTools Express to Create a Citation in APA Format
Additional NoodleTools Help
- NoodleTools Help Desk Look up questions and answers on the NoodleTools Web site
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- Next: Chicago Style >>
- Last Updated: Aug 29, 2023 6:31 PM
- URL: https://libguides.mjc.edu/citeyoursources
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical International 4.0 License .
APA Style & Citation 7th edition
- What's new with the 7th edition
- Annotated Bibliography
- PowerPoint and APA
- Citations: References
- Citations: In-Text
- Library Databases
- Books and Ebooks
- Media (includes videos)
- Other types of sources
- Numbers, Capitalization, Italics
- Additional Resources
Chat with a Librarian
Contact the library.
The Library is open Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, & Friday from 10AM - 5PM and Wednesday from 1PM - 8PM.
If you need help from the librarian or need to access the library resources outside of those hours let us know!
Call or text 717-728-2500 or email [email protected] to make an appointment.
Remember the Learning Hub is also open with lots of great faculty and staff willing to help with tutoring, advising, and general questions.
Editable APA Template
- APA 7th edition student sample paper To use this as a template, open the document with Word and replace the text with your own, but keep the formatting.
General APA Rules
Rules for all apa papers:.
- Margins: 1"
- Recommended font: 12-point Times New Roman, or 11-point Calibri, Arial or Georgia; or 10-point Lucida sans Unicode or Computer Modern
- Make sure that there is no extra space after each paragraph (Microsoft Word defaults to including one. Fix this by: highlighting your entire paper, clicking the Paragraph Settings button [bottom-right corner of Paragraph section at top of the page/screen], then selecting "Don't add space between paragraphs of the same style" or making the Spacing After = 0.
Sections of an APA Paper
- Title Page - check with your instructor if they are requiring a title page
- Text of your paper
- Appendices - check with your instructor to see if they want you to include appendices
Major Sections of Your Paper
If a title page is required for your assignment, follow these steps:
- Place your cursor at the top of the first page Hit Enter on the keyboard 4 times
- Capitalize the first letter of all important words (but not words like a, the, of, etc.)
- Title may be up to 2 lines (Main Title on First Line: Subtitle on Second)
- Title should be no more than 12 words
- Title should contain no abbreviations (spell out United States of America instead of using U.S.A.)
- Title should contain no unnecessary words
- Title font should be bold, and centered on page
- Press ENTER twice, then type your full name (with middle initial if you want to include it)
- Press ENTER, then type Central Penn College
- Press ENTER, then type the course name and number this assignment is for
- Press ENTER, type the Instructor's name - check with them for their preferred form
- Press ENTER, type the due date in month, date, year format
First Page of Your Essay
1. Type the title of your paper as it appears on the title page - bold font, title case, and centered
2. On the first line of your paragraph, click the left align button to move your cursor back to the left margin
3. Begin writing your paper. Once you have a few lines done, highlight the lines you've written (do NOT include the title), then click the Paragraph Formatting button
4. Under Indentation: Special, choose First Line. The default indentation is 0.5", which is correct
Your References should begin at the top of a new page immediately after your essay has ended.
1. Type in bold font and center the title: References
2. Press enter, then select the left align button to move your cursor to the left margin
3. Write (or paste) all of your citations. Each citation should begin on a new line. Double line spacing, like the rest of your paper. Do not add any extra spaces between citations.
4. Highlight all of your citations, then click the Sort button in the Paragraph section of the menu. The defaults are correct to sort alphabetically. Click OK. [The sort option is not available in Word online, open your document in the desktop app or manually copy and paste your citations in alphabetical order.]
5. Highlight all of your citations, then select Paragraph options. Under Indentation: Special, select Hanging. The default setting is 0.5", which is correct. Click OK.
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- Next: Annotated Bibliography >>
- Last Updated: Apr 18, 2023 5:31 PM
- URL: https://guides.centralpenn.edu/APA7th
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
MLA Formatting Quotations
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced .
To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.
Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:
When using short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). If a stanza break occurs during the quotation, use a double slash ( // ).
For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented 1/2 inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark . When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples :
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
When citing long sections of poetry (four lines of verse or more), keep formatting as close to the original as possible.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:
The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. We Romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother's countenance Could not unfrown itself. (qtd. in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202)
When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. If you cite more than one paragraph, the first line of the second paragraph should be indented an extra 1/4 inch to denote a new paragraph:
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues,
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination. . . .
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widening number of citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . . (3)
Adding or omitting words in quotations
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text:
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipses, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space. For example:
Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless they would add clarity.
When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem: