Pros and Cons of Abortion to the Society Argumentative Essay

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If you’re studying the pros and cons of abortion, the essay below will be a great place to start your research.

For a very long time now, the right to abortion has been one of the most controversial topics on the planet, pitying two major sides. On one side, pro-lifers insist that it is immoral and amounts to murdering an innocent child, while pro-abortionists argue that it is just a form of birth control. The latter claim that there is absolutely nothing wrong with it as all children should be born when they are wanted.

The numerous legislations, policies by governments and even hard-line stands by some organizations like the church have made this subject more controversial instead of offering solutions. At one point, one may argue that there would never be a consensus on abortion’s pros and cons in any essay or discussion.

This debate is likely to go on for several years unless the sturdy stands taken by both pro-lifers and pro-abortionists are softened. People have to find ways of accommodating the views of each other regarding the subject. The author will evaluate the issues surrounding the abortion debate. Analyzing the pros and examining the cons of abortion, the essay will seek to find solutions to the conflicting ideas.

There are several arguments that one forward in support of abortion. First of all, any birth of a child should occur when the parents want and not by chance (Potts et al. 229). This way it would go a long way in assisting the world to have an environment where all children that are born in this world have an environment conducive for proper development.

There is no need for inflating the world with many children who cannot have access to basic needs like adequate clothing, food, shelter, and education. It should also be noted that when a person decides to carry out an abortion it is not out of her dislike for children but because she feels that it would not be a wise decision to proceed with the pregnancy as it is still not yet the right time to have a baby (Potts et al. 229).

In the case of rape or incest, keeping a pregnancy is very traumatizing to the person raped as no one would wish to keep a child that is a result of this, and the best solution to this problem would be to abort the unborn child.

For the case of rape, the emotional effects of the occurrence are too traumatizing and take time to heal, and some rape victims do not recover at all. Adding a child to the rape victim is like adding more salt to a wound and would be a constant reminder that is likely to add more emotional trauma to the victim (Khoster 35).

Many studies on the morality or immoralities of abortion have found that some of those against the morality of abortion tend to agree that it is acceptable to abort a pregnancy that is a result of rape.

For instance, the gulp poll carried out in Canada found only 13% of the respondents were against the practice completely while interestingly a whopping 65% were of the view that it is acceptable to abort an unwanted pregnancy in certain conditions like if it is a result of rape (Flanagan 130).

There has also been an unending debate on the exact time that a fetus acquires life and becomes a person with rights and ability to have feelings (Sather 159). Sather further argues that before the 24 th – 28 th week, the fetus has not yet acquired human features and it does not amount to murder if you perform an abortion before this time.

Pro-lifers led by the Catholic Church insist that life begins at conception and anyone who is found guilty of having performed an abortion could be excommunicated from the church because of committing murder (Kohmescher 137). That is not all several studies when life stars in the case of an unborn child have resulted in conflicting dates.

The impending standoff as to, when a person can and cannot have an abortion, have left it possible for anyone to conduct an abortion. It is not clear as to when life begins, and as so long as a woman feels that she cannot have a baby, she has the freedom to do it since it is not yet clear when the life of a person begins.

Sometimes complications can occur to a pregnancy that may put the life of the mother or unborn child in danger and even at times all of them. In this case, abortion ought to be permitted to save the physical health of the mother although some of those advocating for abortion have often argued that the mental health of the mother ought to be included when talking about health (white & Baldwin 113).

At this point, the life of the mother is given first consideration as the fetus cannot survive without the mother, and in any case, the chances are that the mother can always get other children if she wants, but there is no way a fetus can survive on its leave alone getting other parents which is impossible.

Several disadvantages of abortion are argued out by pro-lifers. Most of the books on the subject are mostly in support of the drawbacks of abortion as compared to the advantages. According to Koster abortion is only a temporary and irrational decision that make women feel that they have gotten some relief to an unwanted child against chances of permanent loss of infertility (Koster 304).

She further argues that although removing an unwanted pregnancy may somehow offer relief to the woman the possibility of becoming infertile especially if an unqualified person performed the operation is very significant and once you lose your fertility there is zero chance that you will regain it.

Even when performed by a qualified medical doctor there is a chance that complications may arise like in some medical procedures and if this happens, you could definitely lose your fertility. In fact, interviews conducted on women who had complications when performing an abortion revealed that a majority of them had lost the ability to conceive or hard a miscarriage (Koster 304)

The relief that one feels after procuring an abortion is usually short-lived, and it dies after some time leading to a permanent feeling of guilt and sadness. In fact, in most of the times, this feeling of relief is just a deliberate attempt by the psychology of a person to delete the sense of guilt and shame that creeps in immediately one procures an abortion (Holman 321).

Holman further adds that although most of the legislation and policies concerning abortion allow the practice in the case of schoolgirls the idea that you once killed part of you is not likely to go away and will haunt you forever.

A lot of pro-lifers would equate abortion to murder, and it is therefore morally wrong and should be outlawed. Genovesi defines murder as an intentional act of taking away the life of a human being (Genovesi 340). Fro this he further adds that since the fetus of a person has life, then taking it away will amount to killing it, which is the same as murder.

Of course from this reason arguments are bound to arise as to when the life of a person actually begins. To all Christians led by the Catholic Church, it is completely unacceptable to allow a person to take away another person’s life for whichever reason and at whatever stage in life as it is still murder.

The late Pope John Paul is on record as having condemned the practice and even stating that it would threaten the freedom and dignity of humankind as it promotes a culture of accepting death as a normal thing (Zastrow & Kirst 82)

Procuring an abortion is not the only solution in the event of unwanted pregnancy as the child could also be put to adoption. It is estimated that in all married couples in the United States alone, between 10% -15% of them do not have the ability to have children (Grunlan 217).

This figure is so high that more and more Americans are turning to other countries overseas in order to get children of their own and as Grunlan further adds; this figure has been increasing in the recent years as more mothers turn to abortion as a way of controlling birth.

Furthermore, as Zastrow & Kirst add, in this age where there are so many available contraceptive methods; there should be very minimal unwanted pregnancies that warrant the need to abort a baby who has already been conceived (Zastrow & Kirst 82).

The main concern in the abortion controversy is whether it is morally and ethically right or wrong. Ethics and morality are significantly discussed in unit one of the course.

In unit one, the main issue discussed is how to know what is right and what is wrong. As argued by Aristotle in part of the course, to become ethical he should first reason well and have good character, and total happiness can only be achieved if people are noble.

The abortion debate centers on ethics in that while those who are for abortion argue that it offers a solution to lots of problems that could be brought about by having unwanted children, those against it argue that this relief is only temporary.

Unit three of the course is mainly on how to live a good life as Christians. In this essential part, the unit deals on acceptable Christian virtues and values. One such virtue is having unconditional love towards others. On abortion, it is argued that when one performs an abortion automatically, she does not have love for that child regardless of the conditions.

Moreover, all Christians should preserve human life and have respect for Gods creations, and failure to do so is a sin. People are also supposed to think critically of their actions and be held accountable to these actions, and, as discussed in the unit, they should avoid searching for quick-fix solutions to problems facing them.

The Catholic Church has been the most vocal in speaking against abortion for a long time, and as it stands, there is no chance that this sturdy stand will be reverted. In the book Catholic morality and human sexuality, the author argues that immediately after fertilization, the resulting zygote has human features and should be respected as a human being. Removing it from the uterus amounts to murder (Genovesi 344).

Furthermore, if you reject human life at any point, it is like rejecting God as humans are created in the image of God (Ferrara & Ireland 20). Accepting abortion has been argued by the church as accepting a culture of death and living without Jesus Christ as it amounts t killing an innocent creature of God who has not yet performed any sin.

Even in cases of rape or incest, the church does not permit abortion (Kohmescher 138). In this case, a woman may seek treatment immediately after the incident but not abortion weeks after the incident, and even if the pregnancy is a threat to human life, there should be an attempt to save both lives human lives are sacred and equal before God an none is unique to the other.

As it stands today, it seems the debate on abortion will not come to an end soon. The stands taken by both the pro-abortionists and anti-abortionists are so rigid, and there have not been any attempts to build a consensus.

For instance, the church will certainly not relent on its claim that abortion is murder and therefore a capital sin while pro-abortionists argue that having a child should be a choice. The conflicting policies by different governments regarding the issue have added more controversy to this subject instead of offering guidelines.

There should be efforts to provide a clear policy on this issue that would be acceptable in the whole world through an international body like the United Nations. Apart from that the church and other organizations that are anti-abortion ought to soften their stand in some incidences like rape which are too traumatizing.

Ferrara, Jennifer & Ireland, Patricia. The catholic mystique: fourteen women find fulfillment in the Catholic Church. Huntington: Sunday visitor publishing, 2004. Print.

Flanagan, Thomas . Game theory and Canadian politics . Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. Print.

Genovesi, Vincent. In pursuit of love: Catholic morality and human sexuality . Minnesota: Hutts Publishing, 2002. Print.

Grunlan, Stephen . Marriage and the family . Michigan: Zondervan. 1983. Print.

Holman, Thomas . The family in the new millennium . Westport: Praeger Publishers. 2007. Print liturgical press, 1996. Print.

Khoster, Winnie. Women and abortion in the Yoruba society, Nigeria . Amsterdam: Aksant academic publishers, 2003. Print.

Kohmescher, Matthew. Catholicism today: a survey of Catholic belief and practice the third edition. New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1999. Print.

Potts, Malcolm, Diggory Peter & Peel John . Abortion . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Print.

Sather, Trevor . Pros and cons: a debaters handbook 18 th edition . London: Routledge, 1999. Print.

White, Stuart & Baldwin, Timothy . Legal and ethical aspects of anesthesia, critical care, and preoperative medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2004. Print.

Zastrow, Charles & Kirst, Karen. Understanding human behavior and the social environment: 8 th edition. Belmont: Brookscole, 2007. Print.

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Key Arguments From Both Sides of the Abortion Debate

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Many points come up in the abortion debate . Here's a look at abortion from both sides : 10 arguments for abortion and 10 arguments against abortion, for a total of 20 statements that represent a range of topics as seen from both sides.

Pro-Life Arguments

  • Since life begins at conception,   abortion is akin to murder as it is the act of taking human life. Abortion is in direct defiance of the commonly accepted idea of the sanctity of human life.
  • No civilized society permits one human to intentionally harm or take the life of another human without punishment, and abortion is no different.
  • Adoption is a viable alternative to abortion and accomplishes the same result. And with 1.5 million American families wanting to adopt a child, there is no such thing as an unwanted child.
  • An abortion can result in medical complications later in life; the risk of ectopic pregnancies is increased if other factors such as smoking are present, the chance of a miscarriage increases in some cases,   and pelvic inflammatory disease also increases.  
  • In the instance of rape and incest, taking certain drugs soon after the event can ensure that a woman will not get pregnant.   Abortion punishes the unborn child who committed no crime; instead, it is the perpetrator who should be punished.
  • Abortion should not be used as another form of contraception.
  • For women who demand complete control of their body, control should include preventing the risk of unwanted pregnancy through the responsible use of contraception or, if that is not possible, through abstinence .
  • Many Americans who pay taxes are opposed to abortion, therefore it's morally wrong to use tax dollars to fund abortion.
  • Those who choose abortions are often minors or young women with insufficient life experience to understand fully what they are doing. Many have lifelong regrets afterward.
  • Abortion sometimes causes psychological pain and stress.  

Pro-Choice Arguments

  • Nearly all abortions take place in the first trimester when a fetus is attached by the placenta and umbilical cord to the mother.   As such, its health is dependent on her health, and cannot be regarded as a separate entity as it cannot exist outside her womb.
  • The concept of personhood is different from the concept of human life. Human life occurs at conception,   but fertilized eggs used for in vitro fertilization are also human lives and those not implanted are routinely thrown away. Is this murder, and if not, then how is abortion murder?
  • Adoption is not an alternative to abortion because it remains the woman's choice whether or not to give her child up for adoption. Statistics show that very few women who give birth choose to give up their babies; less than 3% of White unmarried women and less than 2% of Black​ unmarried women.
  • Abortion is a safe medical procedure. The vast majority of women who have an abortion do so in their first trimester.   Medical abortions have a very low risk of serious complications and do not affect a woman's health or future ability to become pregnant or give birth.  
  • In the case of rape or incest, forcing a woman made pregnant by this violent act would cause further psychological harm to the victim.   Often a woman is too afraid to speak up or is unaware she is pregnant, thus the morning after pill is ineffective in these situations.
  • Abortion is not used as a form of contraception . Pregnancy can occur even with contraceptive use. Few women who have abortions do not use any form of birth control, and that is due more to individual carelessness than to the availability of abortion.  
  • The ability of a woman to have control of her body is critical to civil rights. Take away her reproductive choice and you step onto a slippery slope. If the government can force a woman to continue a pregnancy, what about forcing a woman to use contraception or undergo sterilization?
  • Taxpayer dollars are used to enable poor women to access the same medical services as rich women, and abortion is one of these services. Funding abortion is no different from funding a war in the Mideast. For those who are opposed, the place to express outrage is in the voting booth.
  • Teenagers who become mothers have grim prospects for the future. They are much more likely to leave school; receive inadequate prenatal care; or develop mental health problems.  
  • Like any other difficult situation, abortion creates stress. Yet the American Psychological Association found that stress was greatest prior to an abortion and that there was no evidence of post-abortion syndrome.  

Additional References

  • Alvarez, R. Michael, and John Brehm. " American Ambivalence Towards Abortion Policy: Development of a Heteroskedastic Probit Model of Competing Values ." American Journal of Political Science 39.4 (1995): 1055–82. Print.
  • Armitage, Hannah. " Political Language, Uses and Abuses: How the Term 'Partial Birth' Changed the Abortion Debate in the United States ." Australasian Journal of American Studies 29.1 (2010): 15–35. Print.
  • Gillette, Meg. " Modern American Abortion Narratives and the Century of Silence ." Twentieth Century Literature 58.4 (2012): 663–87. Print.
  • Kumar, Anuradha. " Disgust, Stigma, and the Politics of Abortion ." Feminism & Psychology 28.4 (2018): 530–38. Print.
  • Ziegler, Mary. " The Framing of a Right to Choose: Roe V. Wade and the Changing Debate on Abortion Law ." Law and History Review 27.2 (2009): 281–330. Print.

“ Life Begins at Fertilization with the Embryo's Conception .”  Princeton University , The Trustees of Princeton University.

“ Long-Term Risks of Surgical Abortion .”  GLOWM, doi:10.3843/GLOWM.10441

Patel, Sangita V, et al. “ Association between Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Abortions .”  Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS , Medknow Publications, July 2010, doi:10.4103/2589-0557.75030

Raviele, Kathleen Mary. “ Levonorgestrel in Cases of Rape: How Does It Work? ”  The Linacre Quarterly , Maney Publishing, May 2014, doi:10.1179/2050854914Y.0000000017

Reardon, David C. “ The Abortion and Mental Health Controversy: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Common Ground Agreements, Disagreements, Actionable Recommendations, and Research Opportunities .”  SAGE Open Medicine , SAGE Publications, 29 Oct. 2018, doi:10.1177/2050312118807624

“ CDCs Abortion Surveillance System FAQs .” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Nov. 2019.

Bixby Center for Reproductive Health. “ Complications of Surgical Abortion : Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology .”  LWW , doi:10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181a2b756

" Sexual Violence: Prevalence, Dynamics and Consequences ." World Health Organizaion.

Homco, Juell B, et al. “ Reasons for Ineffective Pre-Pregnancy Contraception Use in Patients Seeking Abortion Services .”  Contraception , U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 2009, doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.05.127

" Working With Pregnant & Parenting Teens Tip Sheet ." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Major, Brenda, et al. " Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence ." American Psychological Association, doi:10.1037/a0017497

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The Morning Newsletter

How Abortion Views Are Different

With the Supreme Court set to hear a major abortion case, we look at the state of public opinion.

Supporters and opponents of abortion rights outside the Supreme Court last year.

By David Leonhardt

For nearly 50 years, public opinion has had only a limited effect on abortion policy. The Roe v. Wade decision, which the Supreme Court issued in 1973, established a constitutional right to abortion in many situations and struck down restrictions in dozens of states.

But now that the court has agreed to hear a case that could lead to the overturning of Roe , voters and legislators may soon again be determining abortion laws, state by state. This morning’s newsletter offers a guide to public opinion on the subject.

Americans’ views on abortion are sufficiently complex that both sides in the debate are able to point to survey data that suggests majority opinion is on their side — and then to argue that the data friendly to their own side is the “right” data. These competing claims can be confusing. But when you dig into the data, you discover there are some clear patterns and objective truths.

Here are five.

1. A pro-Roe majority …

Polls consistently show that a majority of Americans — 60 percent to 70 percent, in recent polls by both Gallup and Pew — say they do not want the Supreme Court to overturn Roe. Similarly, close to 60 percent of Americans say they favor abortion access in either all or most circumstances, according to Pew.

These are the numbers that abortion rights advocates often emphasize.

2. … and a pro-restriction majority

The most confounding aspect of public opinion is a contradiction between Americans’ views on Roe itself and their views on specific abortion policies: Even as most people say they support the ruling, most also say they favor restrictions that Roe does not permit .

Roe, for example, allows only limited restrictions on abortion during the second trimester, mostly involving a mother’s health. But less than 30 percent of Americans say that abortion should “generally be legal” in the second trimester, according to Gallup. Many people also oppose abortion in specific circumstances — because a fetus has Down syndrome, for example — even during the first trimester.

One sign that many Americans favor significant restrictions is in the Gallup data. Gallup uses slightly different wording from Pew, creating an option that allows people to say that abortion should be legal “in only a few” circumstances. And that is the most popular answer — with 35 percent of respondents giving it (in addition to the 20 percent who say abortion should be illegal in all circumstances).

This helps explain why many abortion rights advocates are worried that the Supreme Court will gut Roe without officially overturning it. Yes, the justices are often influenced by public opinion .

3. Remarkable stability

Opinion on some major political issues has changed substantially over the last half-century. On taxes and regulation, people’s views have ebbed and flowed. On some cultural issues — like same-sex marriage and marijuana legalization — views have moved sharply in one direction.

But opinion on abortion has barely budged . Here is Gallup’s four-category breakdown, going back to 1994:

Other survey questions show a similar pattern, with the stability stretching back to the 1970s , just after the Roe ruling.

A key reason is that abortion opinion differs only modestly by age group. Americans under 30 support abortion rights more strongly than Americans over 50, but the gap is not huge. The age gaps on marijuana legalization , same-sex marriage and climate change are all larger.

Abortion remains a vexing issue for large numbers of Americans in every generation — which suggests the debate is not likely to be resolved anytime soon.

4. A modest gender gap …

Gender plays a major role in American politics. Most women voted for Joe Biden, while most men voted for Donald Trump. On many issues, like gun control and the minimum wage , there is a large gender gap.

But the gap on abortion is not so large. If anything, it seems to be smaller than the partisan gap . That suggests, perhaps surprisingly, that there are more Democratic-voting women who favor significant abortion restrictions than Republican-voting women who favor almost universal access — while the opposite is true for men.

(One note: When people are asked whether they identify as “pro-choice” or “pro-life,” both the gender and age gaps grow. Those terms appear to prime people to think as Democrats or Republicans, rather than thinking through the details of their own policy views.)

5. … and a big class gap

One of the strongest predictors of a person’s view on abortion is educational attainment, as you can see in the chart above. Working-class Americans often favor restrictions. Many religiously observant people also favor restrictions.

It’s yet another way in which the Democratic coalition is becoming tilted toward college graduates and the Republican coalition is going in the other direction.

The bottom line

Both advocates and opponents of abortion access believe the issue is too important to be decided by public opinion. For advocates, women should have control over their bodies; after all, no major decision of men’s health is subject to a veto by politicians or other voters. And for opponents of abortion access, the life of an unborn child is too important to be subject to almost any other consideration.

If the Supreme Court overrules or substantially weakens Roe, this intense debate will play out state by state. Many states are likely to restrict abortion access substantially.

For more: Pew’s Jeff Diamant and Aleksandra Sandstrom look at opinion in each state . And The Upshot looks in detail at how and where laws may change if Roe falls .


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Republican-controlled states are cutting off federal pandemic unemployment benefits , arguing that they are making it hard for businesses to hire.

An estimated 40 percent of doctors in India have gotten Covid, and more than 250 have died since early April.

Many New York businesses are allowed to fully reopen today . Parts of Europe are also lifting restrictions .

Virus resources: How should you think about virus variants if you’re vaccinated ?

“The future of the auto industry is electric,” President Biden said during a visit to a Ford plant in Michigan.

The House passed a bill to help law enforcement agencies review hate crimes against Asian-Americans, sending it to Biden .

New York’s attorney general joined the Manhattan district attorney’s criminal inquiry into the Trump Organization .

House Republican leaders oppose creating a bipartisan commission to investigate the Jan. 6 Capitol attack.

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Diplomatic efforts to end the violence are gaining urgency , with the E.U., the U.N., and others calling on the Israeli military and Hamas militants to lay down their weapons.

Israeli airstrikes have damaged Gaza’s health and sewage systems and displaced tens of thousands of people, deepening a humanitarian crisis .

Biden was said to have sharpened his tone with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel in a private call.

Palestinians across the West Bank, Gaza and Israel went on strike .

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Climate change is forcing the National Park Service to decide which species and landscapes to save — and which to let slip away.

A North Carolina prosecutor said sheriff’s deputies were “justified” in the killing of Andrew Brown Jr., a Black man.

In Japan, a woman who overstayed her visa got sick and died alone in detention , causing criticism of the country’s treatment of migrants.

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Morning Reads

Anonymous no more: In 1944, they were children on a train to a Nazi death camp. Researchers identified them, and they’re still alive .

A Times classic: Eight things worth your time .

Lives Lived: With deadpan comedy and Everyman good looks, Charles Grodin first drew notice on Broadway. He went on to star onscreen in “The Heartbreak Kid,” “Midnight Run” and “Beethoven.” He died at 86 .


‘shrek’ at 20.

Nobody at DreamWorks, then a relatively new animation studio, expected “Shrek” to be a hit. “Getting sent to ‘Shrek’ felt like being sent to Siberia,” the director Vicky Jenson said.

Released 20 years ago, the movie was a departure from other animated features of the time. Its hero was a misanthropic ogre. The cheeky and crude humor made fun of fairy-tale tropes. And the film was loaded with pop culture references and contemporary songs .

Yet “Shrek” went on to spawn a billion-dollar franchise and win the first Academy Award for best animated feature. It “defined the kind of films the studio would go on to make: offbeat stories that, unlike Disney fairy tales, had more of an edge to them,” as Gina Cherelus writes in The Times .

Today, Shrek-related content is ubiquitous in memes and on social media, introducing the film to a new generation . At a sushi restaurant years ago, Jenson was delighted to overhear nearby diners talking about it. “One of them says, ‘Have you seen “Shrek”?’ And the other one is like, ‘No, no, I don’t go see kids’ stuff,’ and they go: ‘No, no, it’s not for kids. You have to go see it.’” — Sanam Yar, a Morning writer


What to cook.

This fried snapper is topped with thyme-laced Creole sauce. Eat it while reading Pete Wells on New York City’s return to full-scale indoor dining.

What to Read

The mainstream narrative is that Sinead O’Connor ripped up a photo of the pope on “Saturday Night Live” and derailed her music career. She’d like to set the record straight .

Virtual Travel

See a ghost town on a Norwegian archipelago in the High Arctic.

The hosts discussed the Giulianis .

Now Time to Play

The pangram from yesterday’s Spelling Bee was jocular . Here is today’s puzzle — or you can play online .

Here’s today’s Mini Crossword , and a clue: Euphoric feeling (four letters).

If you’re in the mood to play more, find all our games here .

Thanks for spending part of your morning with The Times. See you tomorrow. — David

P.S. Three of our colleagues’ stories appear in The Best American Food Writing 2020 : Amelia Nierenberg’s article on Hatch chiles , Kim Severson’s profile of Jamie Oliver and Pete Wells’s viral review of Peter Luger .

You can see today’s print front page here .

“ The Daily ” is about Gaza. On “ The Argument ,” a debate about critical race theory.

Lalena Fisher, Claire Moses, Ian Prasad Philbrick and Sanam Yar contributed to The Morning. You can reach the team at [email protected] .

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David Leonhardt writes The Morning, The Times's main daily newsletter. Previously at The Times, he was the Washington bureau chief, the founding editor of The Upshot, an Op-Ed columnist, and the head of The 2020 Project, on the future of the Times newsroom. He won the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for commentary. More about David Leonhardt

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Key facts about the abortion debate in america.

A woman receives medication to terminate her pregnancy at a reproductive health clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on June 23, 2022, the day before the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade, which had guaranteed a constitutional right to an abortion for nearly 50 years.

The U.S. Supreme Court’s June 2022 ruling to overturn Roe v. Wade – the decision that had guaranteed a constitutional right to an abortion for nearly 50 years – has shifted the legal battle over abortion to the states, with some prohibiting the procedure and others moving to safeguard it.

As the nation’s post-Roe chapter begins, here are key facts about Americans’ views on abortion, based on two Pew Research Center polls: one conducted from June 25-July 4 , just after this year’s high court ruling, and one conducted in March , before an earlier leaked draft of the opinion became public.

This analysis primarily draws from two Pew Research Center surveys, one surveying 10,441 U.S. adults conducted March 7-13, 2022, and another surveying 6,174 U.S. adults conducted June 27-July 4, 2022. Here are the questions used for the March survey , along with responses, and the questions used for the survey from June and July , along with responses.

Everyone who took part in these surveys is a member of the Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories.  Read more about the ATP’s methodology .

A majority of the U.S. public disapproves of the Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe. About six-in-ten adults (57%) disapprove of the court’s decision that the U.S. Constitution does not guarantee a right to abortion and that abortion laws can be set by states, including 43% who strongly disapprove, according to the summer survey. About four-in-ten (41%) approve, including 25% who strongly approve.

A bar chart showing that the Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe v. Wade draws more strong disapproval among Democrats than strong approval among Republicans

About eight-in-ten Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents (82%) disapprove of the court’s decision, including nearly two-thirds (66%) who strongly disapprove. Most Republicans and GOP leaners (70%) approve , including 48% who strongly approve.

Most women (62%) disapprove of the decision to end the federal right to an abortion. More than twice as many women strongly disapprove of the court’s decision (47%) as strongly approve of it (21%). Opinion among men is more divided: 52% disapprove (37% strongly), while 47% approve (28% strongly).

About six-in-ten Americans (62%) say abortion should be legal in all or most cases, according to the summer survey – little changed since the March survey conducted just before the ruling. That includes 29% of Americans who say it should be legal in all cases and 33% who say it should be legal in most cases. About a third of U.S. adults (36%) say abortion should be illegal in all (8%) or most (28%) cases.

A line graph showing public views of abortion from 1995-2022

Generally, Americans’ views of whether abortion should be legal remained relatively unchanged in the past few years , though support fluctuated somewhat in previous decades.

Relatively few Americans take an absolutist view on the legality of abortion – either supporting or opposing it at all times, regardless of circumstances. The March survey found that support or opposition to abortion varies substantially depending on such circumstances as when an abortion takes place during a pregnancy, whether the pregnancy is life-threatening or whether a baby would have severe health problems.

While Republicans’ and Democrats’ views on the legality of abortion have long differed, the 46 percentage point partisan gap today is considerably larger than it was in the recent past, according to the survey conducted after the court’s ruling. The wider gap has been largely driven by Democrats: Today, 84% of Democrats say abortion should be legal in all or most cases, up from 72% in 2016 and 63% in 2007. Republicans’ views have shown far less change over time: Currently, 38% of Republicans say abortion should be legal in all or most cases, nearly identical to the 39% who said this in 2007.

A line graph showing that the partisan gap in views of whether abortion should be legal remains wide

However, the partisan divisions over whether abortion should generally be legal tell only part of the story. According to the March survey, sizable shares of Democrats favor restrictions on abortion under certain circumstances, while majorities of Republicans favor abortion being legal in some situations , such as in cases of rape or when the pregnancy is life-threatening.

There are wide religious divides in views of whether abortion should be legal , the summer survey found. An overwhelming share of religiously unaffiliated adults (83%) say abortion should be legal in all or most cases, as do six-in-ten Catholics. Protestants are divided in their views: 48% say it should be legal in all or most cases, while 50% say it should be illegal in all or most cases. Majorities of Black Protestants (71%) and White non-evangelical Protestants (61%) take the position that abortion should be legal in all or most cases, while about three-quarters of White evangelicals (73%) say it should be illegal in all (20%) or most cases (53%).

A bar chart showing that there are deep religious divisions in views of abortion

In the March survey, 72% of White evangelicals said that the statement “human life begins at conception, so a fetus is a person with rights” reflected their views extremely or very well . That’s much greater than the share of White non-evangelical Protestants (32%), Black Protestants (38%) and Catholics (44%) who said the same. Overall, 38% of Americans said that statement matched their views extremely or very well.

Catholics, meanwhile, are divided along religious and political lines in their attitudes about abortion, according to the same survey. Catholics who attend Mass regularly are among the country’s strongest opponents of abortion being legal, and they are also more likely than those who attend less frequently to believe that life begins at conception and that a fetus has rights. Catholic Republicans, meanwhile, are far more conservative on a range of abortion questions than are Catholic Democrats.

Women (66%) are more likely than men (57%) to say abortion should be legal in most or all cases, according to the survey conducted after the court’s ruling.

More than half of U.S. adults – including 60% of women and 51% of men – said in March that women should have a greater say than men in setting abortion policy . Just 3% of U.S. adults said men should have more influence over abortion policy than women, with the remainder (39%) saying women and men should have equal say.

The March survey also found that by some measures, women report being closer to the abortion issue than men . For example, women were more likely than men to say they had given “a lot” of thought to issues around abortion prior to taking the survey (40% vs. 30%). They were also considerably more likely than men to say they personally knew someone (such as a close friend, family member or themselves) who had had an abortion (66% vs. 51%) – a gender gap that was evident across age groups, political parties and religious groups.

Relatively few Americans view the morality of abortion in stark terms , the March survey found. Overall, just 7% of all U.S. adults say having an abortion is morally acceptable in all cases, and 13% say it is morally wrong in all cases. A third say that having an abortion is morally wrong in most cases, while about a quarter (24%) say it is morally acceptable in most cases. An additional 21% do not consider having an abortion a moral issue.

A table showing that there are wide religious and partisan differences in views of the morality of abortion

Among Republicans, most (68%) say that having an abortion is morally wrong either in most (48%) or all cases (20%). Only about three-in-ten Democrats (29%) hold a similar view. Instead, about four-in-ten Democrats say having an abortion is morally  acceptable  in most (32%) or all (11%) cases, while an additional 28% say it is not a moral issue. 

White evangelical Protestants overwhelmingly say having an abortion is morally wrong in most (51%) or all cases (30%). A slim majority of Catholics (53%) also view having an abortion as morally wrong, but many also say it is morally acceptable in most (24%) or all cases (4%), or that it is not a moral issue (17%). Among religiously unaffiliated Americans, about three-quarters see having an abortion as morally acceptable (45%) or not a moral issue (32%).

argumentative essay on pros and cons of abortion

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Public Opinion on Abortion

Majority in u.s. say abortion should be legal in some cases, illegal in others, three-in-ten or more democrats and republicans don’t agree with their party on abortion, partisanship a bigger factor than geography in views of abortion access locally, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

Abortion - List of Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

Abortion is a highly contentious issue with significant moral, legal, and social implications. Essays on abortion could explore the various aspects of the debate including the ethical dimensions, the legal frameworks governing abortion, and the social attitudes surrounding it. They might delve into historical changes in public opinion, the different arguments presented by pro-life and pro-choice advocates, and the impact of legal rulings on the accessibility and safety of abortion services. Discussions could also explore the intersection of abortion with issues like gender equality, religious freedom, and medical ethics. We have collected a large number of free essay examples about Abortion you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Why Abortion is Wrong

Today, abortion is a big issue concerning women because for years it had been said that abortion should not be legal. Many people feel aborting an unwanted child, or killing an unwanted child should be against the law. Many people don't' know what abortion is, who can receive abortions, and why people would even choose to get them. I feel as though a woman's body is her own to do with whatever she wants. Therefore, on the topic of abortions, […]

Abortion: the most Debated Topic

There is no question that abortion is one of the most debated topics of the last 50 years. Women all over the United States tend to feel passionately over one side or the other, either pro-choice or anti-abortion. Not one to shy away from controversial subjects, I chose this topic to shed light on both sides of the ethical and moral decision of this important issue surrounding a termination of pregnancy. There is no question the gravity of this decision, […]

Women’s Rights in the United States in the 1970s

In the 1940’s-1960’s, there was a blurred distinction between clinical and sexual exams within the medical field (Wendy Kline, She’s Beautiful When She’s Angry). For example, many male doctors would provide pelvic exams as a means to teach women sex instruction, and were taught to assert their power over their patients. This led to women instituting new training programs for proper examinations, creating a more gentle and greatly-respected method of examining women and their bodies. There was also an increase […]

Abortion and Women’s Rights

In spite of women's activist desires, the matter of conceptive decision in the United States was not settled in 1973 by the important Supreme Court choice on account of Roe v. Wade. From the beginning there was animal-like restriction by the Catholic Church. Anyway, in the course of at least the last 20 years, the too early or soon birth discussion has changed into a definitely spellbound, meaningful debate between two differentiating societal talks that are moored to the problems […]

Abortion should be Illegal or Not?

"For many years, there has been a constant disagreement on whether abortion should be illegal or not. The solidification of abortion as a crime in the political agenda has affected women in various ways. This ideology has created fear and uncertainty in women’s choices. Before the Rode vs. Wade case, states in the mid-1800s began passing laws that made abortion illegal. The laws varied from state to state, yet motives initiated from religious or morality beliefs. The motives were than […]

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An Issue of Women’s Reproductive Rights

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that men and women are created equal (Elizabeth Cady Stanton). In America this has been the basis of what our nation stands for. It is stated that every citizen has the right to equality that shall not be stripped away, in many cases that is not true. Whether man or women you should possess the same rights, but more often than not the women's rights are taken away. There are many instances in […]

Abortion: a Woman’s Choice

Women have long been criticized in every aspect of their lives. They have even little to no choice about how to live their lives. Much like, abortion, which is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. It has been one of the most sensitive topics, society sees it as a murderous act. On, January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court ruled on making the availability of abortion […]

Don Marquis’s View on Abortion

Don Marquis begins his argument of abortion being immoral by mentioning the pro-choice premise, which was that the statement of a fetus is never a person being too narrow. It's too narrow because if the fetus is never a person, then what would be the difference of a 9-month-old fetus and a newborn baby? That would just mean that infanticide isn't considered murder because a 9-month-old fetus and newborn weren't ever considered to be a person. Marquis further mentions that […]

The Murder of Innocence

Abortion is a new generation's way of shrugging off accountability of their action at the cost of human life agreeing to the first revision to the structure that says we have the proper way to give of discourse. Me personally for one beyond any doubt that most of us would agree to the reality that ready to say and do what we need and select. For it is our choice to control of speech our conclusions. In connection, moms at […]

Abortion: Go or no Go

Premature birth ends a pregnancy by killing an actual existence yet the mother isn't accused of homicide. Is this right? Shockingly, this has happened roughly twenty million times in the previous twenty years. Tragically, in South Africa, an unborn human has been slaughtered lawfully because of the nation's insufficient laws! The enemy of a honest unprotected human is a killer, accordingly, the individual merits the discipline proportional to a killer by law. Premature birth on interest just gives a mother […]

Effects of Abortion on Young Women

Abortion is defined as the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. It is a controversial conversation that most people avoid having.  Abortion is different than most issues in politics, because it directly impacts women, rather than men. Young women being targeted over the last forty-five years, has changed the way the public views abortion and what it does to women. A rise in physical complications, mental health problems, and the modern wave of feminism are the effects of legalized abortion […]

Women’s Rights to Choose

Every person in the United States is granted inalienable rights, whether it be to practice their own religion or vote, which should include autonomy over their own bodies.  A woman should have the right to choose what she does with her own body, and in 1973 that became a possibility for American women.  In 1973 Roe v. Wade made it possible for women to legally choose to terminate unwanted pregnancies within their first two trimesters.  The government finally took into […]

A Theme of Abortion

Introduction "I've noticed that everyone who is for abortion has already been born." A quote from Ronald Reagan. Abortion has been the main topic for years and for many years to come. People have different views if abortion is the right or wrong thing. Many women don't know what they feel like after the abortion process. Abortion can cause many complications to females but they are not putting the child through a struggling life. People get an abortion for different […]

The Complex Debate: Exploring Abortion Laws and their Implications

There has been a disputed discussion in history among religious, political, ethical, moral and practical grounds when it comes to the case about abortion. Abortion law forbids, allows, limits and governs the availability of abortion. Abortion laws alter to a high degree by country. For example, three countries in Latin America and two others in Europe ban the act of abortion altogether. In other countries like the United Kingdom contains the abortion act of 1967 that clarifies and prescribes abortion […]

The History of Abortion

The history of abortion' is more complex than most people realize. There has been a lot of debate in the past few years about abortion being murder/not murder. Abortion has become illegal in most states. There are several women who believe in "pro-choice" which means they want to have a choice taking care of the baby. I, personally, believe abortion is murder. You are killing a fetus that is going to be born within months and they don't have a […]

Debates on Abortion Theme

Abortion has proved to be a highly controversial topic in religion, politics, and even ethics. Its debate has caused division between factions with some supporting and others opposing its practice. This issue has also landed in the realm of philosophy where several ethicists have tried to explain why they think the method should either be supported or opposed. This essay looks at the works of Judith Thomson and Don Marquis as a representation of both sides of arguments (advocates and […]

Reasons the Constitution of Texas should be Rewritten

The constitution of Texas was written in 1876 but this constitution is not successful in this modern time. Rules and set of protocols which are written in this constitution are not valid for urban Texas these rules need to be amended. From the time of the adoption of this constitution, a total number of 653 amendments were proposed and out of these 653 a total of 474 amendments were approved by the voters and 179 were rejected. Some ?urrent political […]

Abortion on Teens should be Abolished

Am sure we have all heard of the girl meets boy story, where the girl falls in love with the boy despite receiving plenty of warnings and criticism from any person who has ever mattered in the girl's life. Everything is merry and life is good for the girl until one day she realizes she has missed her period and rushes to her man's home telling herself that everything will be okay. Reality checks in, hard, when the boy declines […]

Get Rid of Abortion or Not?

The world includes a huge variety of people who share different beliefs and morals, however, the Bible states that no one should judge others. One is supposed to respect another for whom they are as a person. The people in this world are beginning to divide because of the debate concerning if abortion is right, or if it is wrong. People identifying themselves to be pro-choice are in support of abortion because they believe a woman should be allowed to […]

The Mother and Abortion

For Gwendolyn Brooks, writing poetry that would be considered out of the ordinary and frowned upon was a common theme for her. Her widespread knowledge on subjects like race, ethnicity, gender, and even abortion placed this African American poet apart from many others. Like many poets, Brooks based many of her works on her own life experiences. Although it's unclear whether or not Brooks had an abortion herself, she creates hints and provokes strong feelings towards the issue, revealing the […]

My Understanding of Abortion

Life has a beginning and an end and every individual knows this, as much as they may not want to know or understand it. An abortion, however, brings a thought to many people within our modern society: Is a baby alive before it is born? There are many ways to look at this but scientist have found out that there is an age of viability, where a baby is considered alive after a certain period of a woman's pregnancy. Before […]

Abotion: Right or Wrong

When does a person learn right from wrong?  Is someone that knows right from wrong, different from someone who does not? These questions bring up the topic of the difference between a "Human" and a "Person". A human would be of human genetics and have a certain build. On the other hand, a human can also not be a person at certain points in the stage of life. If you can distinguish right from wrong, and are able to make […]

Abortion and Fathers Rights

In this section I will be focusing on the fathers' situation before and after conception, and bring out arguments how he could effectively avoid becoming a parent in any way (biological, bearer of financial costs, emotional). The father after conception has no alternatives left, unlike the mother has. She is in a position that can terminate the pregnancy by opting for an abortion, or she can carry out (or at least try to) the pregnancy until the end. The father […]

Essay about Question of Abortion

Where does life truly begin? This is a controversial question with varied answers. Abortion is the termination of a life by removing the embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus. Some people believe that a child's life begins at the zygote stage, while others believe that it's not wrong to terminate a pregnancy before birth. I believe that a child's life begins at the moment of conception and it should not be terminated. Each child goes through […]

Issues of Abortion

I'm writing you in regards to an article I recently read. I would like for you, as the author of that said article, to take a few minutes to hear what I have to say in response. Through this response I hope to shed some Light on the dark choice of an abortion. In the fifth stanza of this article, you state that "medical evidence tells us fetuses cannot live unsupported even with a respirator before 21 weeks." You are […]

Restrictions against Abortion

Thesis: abortion restrictions have significant socioeconomic challenges in society compared to its approval. Foster, Diana Greene, et al. “Socioeconomic Outcomes of Women Who Receive and Women Who Are Denied Wanted Abortions in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 108, no. 3, Mar. 2018, pp. 407–413. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304247. The article’s authors highlight the socioeconomic effects of abortion approval or restriction. The authors agree that there are apparent socioeconomic repercussions in approving or declining abortion services. The main motive […]

Women’s Rights in China

Despite all the protest that international women's rights movement from the Seneca Falls in 1848 to the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890, and the National Women party in 1916. In China women never had the privilege to show what they are capable of doing because that was not a ladylike thing in their family. Women have always been the primary abduction target since the early 1900s to 2005 because it was unacceptable that they had a higher population […]

My Beliefs on Abortion

Society today condones the killing of a life, they call it abortion, but I will try to show you why this is wrong.  Life begins at conception.  The Bible provides proof that God knew us before we were even formed.  This provides truth that what is inside a woman's body is a human life. I believe that when you decide to have an abortion, you are deciding to kill an innocent baby.  Whether you're doing it because the baby may […]

Potential Factors that Influence Abortion

When it comes to women and unplanned pregnancies, there are alternatives other than abortions that a woman can use who and go for who isn't interested in having a child. Adoptions could be one of those alternatives; however, some women can't bear the thought of actually carrying a child. Therefore, they turn to their only option which is the abortion. For women, there are several reasons that may lead to them wanting to have an abortion. According to Stacey (2018), […]

Issue of Sex-Selective Abortion

Sex-selective abortion is the practice of ending a pregnancy due to the predicted gender of the baby. It has been occurring for centeriues in many countries many people believe that males are more valuable than females. This practice has been happening in many Asian countries but even in the US many Asians still hold strong to those beliefs. Due to these beleifs there is a huge shift in sex ratio in Asian countries. People are using the technology to determine […]

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Research Paper FAQ

Why abortion is legal.

Due to the outcome of a Supreme Court hearing, abortion is completely legal. In 1973, the Supreme Court's ruling on Roe vs Wade provided people legal access to abortion across the entire country. While legal, some doctors will not perform abortions.

How Abortion Affects Economy?

Women who have access to legal abortion will have the ability to continue their education and careers. Women denied an abortion because of gestational limits are more than 80% more likely to experience bankruptcy or face eviction.

Where Abortion is Illegal?

Abortion is legal in the entire country of the US, but some states have restrictions based on gestational status, fetal fatal conditions, and even rape. Other countries around the world have different laws and some have completely outlawed abortion, including Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and El Salvador.

Will Abortion Affect Health?

Women who have an abortion by a medical professional are at no risk for future pregnancies and there are no risks to overall health. Abortions do not increase any risk of breast cancer or have any effect on fertility.

Is Abortion Morally Justifiable?

This will depend on the person and their beliefs. Many women find abortion to be moral and a choice they are allowed to make in regards to their own bodies. Some religions have a strict stance on abortion and deem it immoral, regardless of the reason.

The world is actively discussing the ban on abortions in the United States. In such a controversial situation, opinions are divided. Women’s rights activists stand against abortion laws, while religious organizations vote for a ban on the termination of pregnancy. Women are outraged that they are being deprived of the ability to control their own body state and plan their parenting. A social issue may often plant different discussions and create various informative abortion essay topics. In such papers on debate topics, students are supposed to present their own opinion backed by facts, reasons, and arguments. To write a perfect essay, one should start the introduction with a topic sentence being a good hook to attract everyone’s attention. It’s extremely important to get acquainted with speech and persuasive abortion essay example on our website to get a complete idea of how to structure a correct outline for the paper and pick catchy titles, how to write introduction, conclusion for abortion essays. A student must consider many facts about birth laws, elaborate an idea of whether abortions should be legal or illegal, and write a summary for a research paper on abortion based on the information. If you need something to base on, you can familiarize yourself with free argumentative essay on abortion and abortion thesis statement examples on our website.

Essay About Abortion Abortion is the act of ending a pregnancy by removing the fetus of the embryo before it survives outside the before it can survive outside the uterus. However, there is a different situation where abortion can occur. The first one is a miscarriage, where it happens spontaneously (Bennett, 2001). The other form is when deliberate steps are taken to remove the pregnancy, this is termed as induced abortion, or in other terms is an induced miscarriage. The most common technique used in abortion is the surgical technique applied is using the suction device or dilating the cervix. Theodosius & Mitchell (2015) reviewed that it is recommendable to use the drug mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pills, intrauterine devices, and birth control can be used immediately after an abortion has been done. This act of abortion can lead to increased risks of long-term mental or physical problems when it is unsafely conducted. This is because these people involved perform it unskillfully with unsafe equipment, or in unsanitary facilities. According to statistics done, approximately 56 million abortions are done in each year in the whole world from this percentage only 45% done unsafely whereas the remaining portion is for the unsafe percentage. In the world’s abortion statistics conducted between the year 200 and the year 2008, it indicates that the rates of abortion have shifted due to the availability of family planning and birth control techniques. During the traditional days, abortions have been attempted using sharp tools, herbal medicines and by forceful massage, Abortion can be viewed from different perspectives in the world, it can be seen from cultural beliefs, religious beliefs or from the perspective around the globe. Theodosius & Mitchell (2015) reviewed that, different countries limit abortion depending on the situations like during rape cases, poverty, problems with the fetus, incest, or risk to a woman’s health. All through, there have been debate over, ethical, moral, and legal issues related to abortion. The obvious outcome is that there are those individuals who argue that an embryo is a human and therefore deserves a right to live, and consequently a person who performs an abortion has committed the same crime as the one who has murdered. On the other side, there are those who oppose arguing that women have a right to make their own decisions to carry the baby or to abort as it involves her own body. Abortions are either legal or illegal. They include vacuum aspiration, early Non-Surgical Abortion, vacuum aspiration, dilation and evacuation, partial-birth Abortion, labor induction, and hysterectomy. The illegal type of abortions is unsafe because it includes the termination of pregnancy by people without necessary skills or where there are minimal medical standards, due to there are abortion laws in countries for instance in the United States of America where it has a role in prohibiting, permits or restricts the availability of abortion. Abortion has ever been through the history of the United States it has been viewed from different perspectives, including moral, religious, practical, ethical and political grounds. Often, it has been regulated or entirely banned by law in various states. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the rates of abortion are almost equal in all the countries that consider it legal or illegal. Canada has also proved that no criminal law is practicable and acceptable. Sweden, as well as stating that abortions after 18 weeks can successfully be conducted provided excellent services (Miller 2016). Finally, web-based telemedicine services prove to us that clinic-based services are not essential to offer abortion pills safely and effectively. When women are given a right to abortion despite being contrary to the fundamentalist principles of the Christian religion and morality is a human right, which gives favor to women. The right to use contraception and to undergo a safe abortion cannot be discussed because they are known for their achievements of culture, which is related to battle related to the liberation of the women. According to Miller (2016), women’s right to comprehensive reproductive health services including abortion are rooted in international human rights standards guaranteeing the right to health, privacy and life, and non-discrimination. These rights are mostly violated when governments make abortion services inaccessible to the women who need them. Under international law, governments can be held accountable for highly restrictive abortion laws and for failure to ensure access to abortion when it is legal, for instance, in cases where a woman is sexually harassed. Governments also bear responsibility for high rates of death and injury among women forced to do unsafe abortions. Therefore, it is the government’s responsibility to ease restrictions and ensure access to safe services.

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Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Abortion

Introduction, works cited.

Abortion remains one of the most controversial topics in the world. Many people believe that it is wrong and consider it to be murder, where a significant number support it but for specific reasons. Abortion provides one of the unending and disturbing American moral and legal struggles. The topic introduces many ethical dilemmas relating to the moral status of the fetus and the meaning of human life (Kirkey). Arguments about pregnancy termination concentration on the rights and wrongs of intentionally ending a pregnancy before the scheduled childbirth is resulting in the demise of the fetus. Abortion remains to be a painful topic for both women and men facing the dilemma of making ethical decisions relating to whether or not to terminate the pregnancy. People continue to question whether abortions are morally wrong and whether it should be legal or illegal. Moral disagreements among critics do not stop people from performing abortions, even in countries where it is illegal. This research discussion argues that abortion is seriously wrong except for some instances.

As noted above, abortion is morally wrong except for some circumstances. Many exceptions have been raised that allow abortion; for example, pregnancy resulting from rape and abortion in the first 14 days after conception in which people argue that the fetus has not matured to a person. Another exception includes cases where the pregnancy endangers the life of the mother as well as when the fetus is anencephalic. Many arguments discussion about abortion is considered to be intractable based on the symmetries that emerge from the scrutiny of the major arguments on either side. For example, critics argue that fetuses are both human and alive, and every human has the right to life. Hence, fetuses have the right to life, whereas women have the right to control their bodies. Nonetheless, the right to life for the fetuses overrides the right of a woman to control her body meaning than abortion is morally wrong.

Many medical and scientific developments have occurred since the United States Supreme Court provided a ruling about the Roe v Wade in 1973. This case has significant implications on the future of abortion (Lipka, and Gramlich). One of the major developments has been the rise of the neonatal intensive care and the subsequent lowering of the time of fetal viability. There has also been increased utilization of the sonogram and growing concerns for the link between fetal health and women’s occupational health. The case has facilitated many medical changes and legal developments that concentrate on the assessment of the fetus rather than the rights of women. Abortion is a complex issue that has raised many controversies in the country. Recent studies point at different reasons for keeping abortion legal in the United States. For example, prohibiting it could result in high rates of illegal abortion throughout the country. Therefore, there is an increased need for open discussion regarding the moral nature of abortion decisions and recognition not conferred as moral wisdom by constitutional freedom.

Before the Supreme Court’s decision regarding the Roe. Wade , abortion was illegal in 46 states; 16 states had laws identical to the requirements of the Model Penal Code. Such laws allow abortion if necessary, to ensure women’s life and health are protected. The Model Penal Code also allows abortion if a fetus would be born with a grave physical or mental defect or if the pregnancy results from rape or incest. Prior to the Supreme Court’s ruling, 32 states forbidden abortion except when it would save a woman’s life. The supreme court failed to uphold some of these state laws; for example, it did not defend state laws that prohibit abortion on the grounds that the fetus is a live human being.

There are many arguments for and against abortion; for example, some people argue that women have the right to choose since it is their body. Abortions are not an easy decision for women, and it should be solely a woman’s choice, not the pressure of lawmakers. These women understand their situations and therefore are better suited for making such decisions. Opponents of abortion base their arguments on the right to life. The counter women’s right to chose by arguing that the fetus has the right to life. They claim that both the life of the mother and the unborn child are equal, and thus the life of the unborn child should be considered before terminating a pregnancy. Hence, the argument towards the right to life and the right to chose presents two sides about abortion in an attempt to explain whether it should be legal or illegal.

Banning abortion is regarded as condemning women to death, but those opposed to abortion argue that there are other options. Recent studies indicate that every 11 minutes, a female dies from problems linked with insecure or risky pregnancy termination from globally. It means that making abortion illegal does not reduce the total number of pregnancy termination; rather, it increases the number of illegal and unsafe abortions. On the other side, critics opposed to abortion propose other options that they consider to be better (Chavez). They argue that an unwanted pregnancy does not mean being forced to raise the child, especially if you are unable to support the child. They propose better options, such as foster care or adoption of the child. Recent studies indicate that many developed countries have social services that can place a child with suitable foster parents allowing the mother time to think regarding whether to keep the infant. Hence, though many people are against making abortion illegal, there are better options that women can focus on instead of terminating a pregnancy.

Some groups argue that legalizing abortion does not necessarily mean more miscarriages. Abortions are legal in many countries, such as Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland. The countries often record lower rates of abortion as compared to those nations where abortion is illegal. Countries that prohibit abortion heavily restrict access to contraceptives and sex education. Therefore, abortion represents one option alongside many family planning measures but should be performed safely and legally as well as on rare occasions. On the other side, some people argue that legalizing abortion is immoral based on religious grounds. They claim that life is sacred and begins at conception. Groups opposed to abortion claim that allowing free access to pregnancy termination may encourage individuals to view it as a form of contraception. Also, it may result in selective abortion, meaning that parents can terminate pregnancies if scans indicate the fetus is the wrong gender or is disabled. Such unethical abuse can be prevented by restricting abortion or making it illegal. Hence, there two sides of abortion, meaning that legalizing can be considered as immoral, whereas on the other side it does not mean an increased number of abortions.

Advocacy groups, such as the Internation Campaign for Women Rights to Safe Abortion, argue that cultural and religious norms should not hinder or limit countries from implementing laws on safe pregnancy termination. They claim that enacting laws on safe abortion does not mean more women will be forced to terminate their pregnancies. The current stigmatization on abortion concerns has been increased by cultural and religious norms present in many countries. Advocacy groups support the implementation of abortion laws that demand the provision of quality and women-centred abortion care. The government should implement innovative strategies that reach underserved populations by the provision of support to women to equip them with the necessary resources to self-manage medical abortion. Governments should focus on improving access to and accessibility of medical and therapeutic abortion commodities.

In the United States, around 100 fetal heartbeat bills have been established in 25 states since 2011. Recent reports indicate that in 2019 approximately 16 states proposed prohibiting abortion at fetal heartbeat (Evans and Subasri 2). Currently, only three states across the country have successfully ratified such as proposed legislation including Arkansas, Lowa, and North Dakota. The bills enacted by these states were either passed by federal or state courts since the Supreme Court refused to hear them. Advocacy groups are using different argumentation and tactics to challenge the legal standards of early abortion ban legislation across the United States. Over the past decade, many legal and social movement tactics have been deployed in specific ways to challenge laws that ban abortion. The most active groups relate to reproductive health, deconstruct anti-abortion messaging, and rights and justice advocate groups. These groups use data or facts to apprise strategic tactics to promote sexual and reproductive health, rights, and fairness in the country as well as in other parts of the world.

The issue of abortion is still highly controversial following state legislation that restricts and regulate access to the procedure. Many of these state laws receive increased criticism and challenge from the federal courts with some being upheld, such as the rejection of state reserves for performing a pregnancy termination. For example, in 2018 Lowa adopted one of the United State’s most restrictive abortion laws following approval of a bill banning doctors from terminating a pregnancy if a fetus has a detectable heartbeat by Governor Kim Reynolds (“Abortion Topic Overview”). Other abortion laws have been enacted, such as those demanding spousal consent for terminating a pregnancy. Many groups continue to contribute or present their viewpoints regarding the ongoing debate, such as religious leaders, healthcare providers, politicians, and activities. Groups opposed to abortion often identify themselves as pro-life, whereas supporters of reproductive rights refer to themselves as pro-choice. Both groups of people have different opinions regarding abortion. Pro-life advocates may condone pregnancy termination in cases of rape or incest, whereas others take an uncompromising stance based on their beliefs that abortion is murder (“Abortion Topic Overview”). Some pro-choice activists contend that restrictions should be introduced on abortions. In contrast, others support laws that necessitate a waiting duration prior to performing an abortion procedure or legislations that demand minors to obtain permission or consent from their parents.

Many people who advocate or support abortions rights argue that limitations on abortions adversely impacts the poor, particularly those in less developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) approximations indicate that complications resulting due to unsafe pregnancy terminations cause deaths hundreds of thousands of womenfolk annually. WHO reports also indicate that the annual number of women who succumb due such problems has progressively lowered since the 1990s. Reports by Ipas, an international reproductive rights nonprofit organization attributes the decline to the enactment of abortion laws and increased access to safe pregnancy termination procedures and the use of effective contraception (“Abortion Topic Overview”). Nonetheless, the organization warns that the implementation of restrictive abortion policies in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-Central Asia continues to cause a high number of global deaths resulting from unsafe pregnancy termination. Activists of reproductive rights debate that banning abortion can make them cost-prohibitive for women who can only access limited resources. Most governments from across the globe control abortion procedures by implementing laws that define whether, when, wherefor, and how abortion should occur. Hence, they undertake active roles in regulating pregnancy terminations.

Overall, the legalization of abortion remains one of the most controversial topics globally. Many individuals, health care providers, politicians, and religious leaders offer their opinions regarding the moral value of abortion. The most influential historical event of pregnancy termination acts in the United States is the Supreme Court’s ruling of the Roe v. Wade case in 1973. The case triggers many developments, including the increased use of the utilization of the sonogram as well as the growing concerns about the link between fetal health and women’s occupational health. Currently, safe pregnancy termination is legal in many states, but some activist groups continue to oppose the legalization of abortion. Many people continue to call for legalization of abortion, whereas others continue to question its moral standing. In my opinion, abortion should be legalized for special cases, such as if the pregnancy was a result of rape as well as cases in which it threatens the life of the mother.

” Abortion Topic Overview”. Gale.Com , 2018.

Chavez, Nicole. “ The Rising Wave of Abortion Restrictions in America “. CNN , 2019. 

Evans, Dabney P., and Subasri Narasimhan. “A Narrative Analysis of Anti-Abortion Testimony and Legislative Debate Related to Georgia’s Fetal “Heartbeat” Abortion Ban.” Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, vol.28, no.1, 2020, pp. 1-18.

Kirkey, Sharon. “ As Abortion Debate Becomes Increasingly Polarized, Poll Shows the Views of Many Canadians are More Complicated “. National Post , 2020. 

Lipka, Michael, and John Gramlich. “ 5 Facts About the Abortion Debate in America “. Pew Research Center , 2019. 

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How To Write An Argumentative Abortion Essay (With Examples)

Sep 23, 2022

argumentative essay on pros and cons of abortion

Sep 23, 2022 | Blog

Abortion is a controversial topic and social issue.

People often debate whether it should be illegal or not.

In most religions and cultures, termination of pregnancy is an abomination; it is perceived as murder.

However, certain health circumstances warrant the legal practice of fetus life termination.

The difference in opinion on this subject makes it suitable for research papers and academic essays.

This article provides a step-by-step guide on how to write a persuasive abortion essay.

What is an Abortion

The process of abortion artificially is often called induced abortion.

Although there are countries where it’s legal, like the United States, many places have restrictive abortion laws against induced aborticides. The Roe v. Wade case was the first time an abortion case was brought to the United States Supreme Court.

This makes many women resort to different abortions, which are unsafe.

Some people try to end their pregnancies by using sharp objects or chemicals, which is very dangerous.

Major forms of abortion

  • medical abortion.
  • Vacuum aspiration.
  • Dilation and extraction.
  • Labor induction.
  • spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)

Essay Structure on Abortion

Abortion essay is a form of a persuasive essay. The essay structure about this topic typically includes a brief introduction describing your thesis and some background information on it.

You then proceed through each point you plan to make in their order.

Finally, conclude that you agree or disagree by stating why as concisely as possible.

A pro-choice argumentative essay may have the following essay structure:

Introduction .

  • The definition
  • The analysis of the social aspect.
  • Thesis: “Should society’s disapproval break not only the women but also the families and unwanted children’s lives?”

Main body .

  • Paragraph 1. An argument in favor (two, three, or more).
  • Paragraph 2: An argument against (same as in the previous paragraph).


  • A general deduction that confirms the thesis in the introduction.
  • Expression of a personal vision of a problem.

Essay Outline on Abortion

The outline of your essay is like a table of contents that lists the various parts of the document.

Choose the main idea for each paragraph, so you know what to focus on.

It may look like this:

Introduction:  The problem of abortions.

Main body:  Everything considered on the topic of abortions, namely

  • Paragraph 1:  Advantages aborticide can provide.
  • Paragraph 2: Disadvantages and negative consequences of termination of pregnancy.

Conclusion:  Inference and personal point of view on the problem.

How to write an abortion essay

The guide on how to write essays on abortion will be divided into three sections; introduction, body, and conclusion.

Abortion essay introduction

A good introduction should be interesting so that a reader can be curious enough to finish the entire essay .

The first sentence should be some hook .

You could start with a question, a quote, or a fascinating fact about abortions.

Then, introduce the topic to let a reader know what you are talking about.

You can introduce your essay by defining abortion.

You will find very many definitions of abortions.

Abortions are the deliberate termination of pregnancy, mostly done in the first seven months of gestation.

Your thesis statement should appear in the introduction of your essay and should state your position on the topic.

Abortion essay Body

When writing the body of your paper, you should consider these two main things:

1) Coming up with strong arguments

In most cases, your argument will be against abortions.

Therefore, a good approach will introduce a cause and describe its consequences before going to the next cause.

Consider the following are a few anti-abortion arguments you can develop a thesis statement from:

  • Abortion damages a woman’s reproductive health system
  • It goes against the principles of feminism
  • It does not free a woman. Instead, it enslaves her to guilt
  • It can be perceived as a way for men to escape responsibility

Consider the following pro-life abortion thesis statements:

  • Abortion is one procedure that comes with severe risks, including damage to the reproductive system, infertility, and excessive bleeding.
  • Depression is a possible consequence of abortion since the procedure weighs heavily on a woman’s conscience. Regretting a procedure can cause depression, which in some cases can be so severe that it leads to mental illness.
  • Many individuals and couples are unable to conceive and get children. A woman should consider carrying her baby to term and then giving it up for adoption, instead of aborting it.
  • The leading cause of abortion is unwanted pregnancies. Yet, a woman can choose to use contraceptives that have mild consequences and are cheaper than abortion.
  • The fetus inside a woman’s womb is living. Therefore, abortion is murder, and killing a living being is immoral and a crime worth punishment.
  • Abortion is painful not just for the mother but also for the baby. Doctors cannot find a consensus on what stage a baby starts feeling pain in the womb. But, of course, it feels pain when it is aborted late.
  • Most religions teach that ending the life of an embryo is a sin. But, using religion to justify anti-abortion is an argument that will not work for atheists. Still, the evidence religious teachings used to be against abortion is solid.
  • Human life begins in a woman’s womb, so the unborn child is a human who has the right to life.
  • Abortion, because of the abnormalities of the embryo or fetus, can be regarded as discrimination against a physical feature.
  • Abortion is not a form of contraception.
  • Ending a fetus’s life popularizes the disrespect for human life.
  • Originally, the Hippocratic Oath forbids abortion.
  • Abortion may cause future health problems for a unmarried woman.
  • A pregnant woman have to accept the responsibilities that come with human pregnancy.
  • Abortion causes psychological problems.
  • Black women are having more abortions than white women, which means that more African babies are being aborted.
  • Many scientists believe that fetuses feel sufferings while fetus life is ended.
  • Abortion is the murder of an innocent creature.
  • Access to abortions may reduce the number of children available for adoption.
  • Abortion destroys the possible social contribution of an unborn child.
  • Abortion services is a controversial issue that contradicts God’s commandments.

You could also discuss the surgical abortion procedures used and the possible effects of each procedure.

Outline each procedure, explaining what it entails, what a patient can expect during and after, and the risks.

A surgical abortion involves ending a pregnancy by removing it via the vagina by surgical means.

Alternatively, you can use medical evidence to develop pro-abortion arguments.

This approach mainly focuses on justifiable personal and medical reasons for abortion.

Personal reasons for abortion include the physiological effects of pregnancy, financial problems, relationship issues, unreadiness to be a parent, and pregnancies resulting from rape.

There are both psychological and health reasons why pregnant minors may have problems. Their mothers may also face health issues that could lead to miscarriage or threaten their lives.

It is advisable to understand the difference between personal and health reasons and that abortion is legal for certain health situations.

Consider the following pro-abortion thesis statements:

  • Unwanted pregnancies have psychological and physiological medical dangers, which are the reasons for abortion facilities and should be legalized.
  • Sometimes, the psychological effects and medical emergencies associated with early pregnancies necessitate abortion. Still, the consent of a parent or guardian should be mandatory before the procedure is carried out on a minor.
  • There is a need to analyze the debate on abortion without factoring in the religious objections if there is consensus over the legal and ethical existence of the practice. Aren’t therapeutic abortions pro-life?
  • Women who can’t do an abortion may become unemployed, live below the poverty line, or become victims of domestic violence .
  • Safe and Legal abortions reduce women’s injury or even death from illegal backstreet abortions.
  • A woman’s independence must decide whether she wants to have a child.
  • Abortion is considered to be one of the methods of population control.
  • Most neuroscientists believe that fetuses can’t feel pain when an abortion is done.
  • Abortion, the deliberate termination of a human, is the chance not to give birth to a child with deviations.
  • A child may not come to the world unwanted.
  • Everybody has a fundamental right to choose what to do with their own body. Therefore, it is a woman’s right to health
  • Some scientists claim that personhood starts when a fetus can live outside the womb after birth.
  • Modern methods of termination of pregnancy won’t cause infertility and other lasting health problems.

2. Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism is copying other people’s work without their consent.

It is highly penalized in academic papers.

In the body of your essay, you will have to include facts and arguments drawn from your research sources.

When using information from sources, you will need to paraphrase it, or express it in your own words.

You can also avoid plagiarism by quoting or citing your sources.

There are many sources of information on abortion care, including books, websites, medical journals, and research papers.

After citing a fact from a book or source, use an in-citation to indicate the source of the information..

Your paper will also have a reference section.

Ensure all the sources you have used in the body of the paper appear in the references section.

After finishing your paper, use an anti-plagiarism tool to check the plagiarism percentage in your paper.

Abortion essay conclusion – summarizing your essay

The conclusion, of course, is the summary of the entire essay.

The conclusion is where you summarize your main points and answer the “so what” question.

You can start your conclusion with a rhetorical statement or question.

If your essay was against abortion, you could end by asking if it isn’t a form of murder.

Similarly, if your essay was pro-abortion, you could start your conclusion by asking; Is it not barbaric to force a woman to carry a pregnancy that might risk their lives?

After the rhetoric device, you can go ahead and rephrase the thesis statement you wrote in the introduction.

Make sure you relate your thesis to your main points.

Additionally, your conclusion should offer solutions and recommendations to the problem you discussed in the paper.

Summary on how to write an essay on abortion

An abortion essay is a relatively easy assignment, considering it is a social issue with numerous published information.

However, due to the issue’s popularity, you have to develop a strong and unique argument to wow your lecturer or instructor.

Adhere to the guidelines shared above, and you will develop a good abortion thesis statement and a read-worthy essay.

Contact us now if you need professional help writing an abortion essay or any assignment .

Abortion Topics and Ideas for Argumentative essays

How about some examples and ideas for your essay ? Try one of the following from the list below

  • Can the unborn fetus feel pain during the procedure of abortion?
  • Should abortion be considered murder?
  • What are the reasons behind the decision of abortion by married couples?
  • What are the effects of abortion on a woman’s health?
  • The attitude to abortion in different cultures.
  • Will abortion illegalization increase the number of backstreet abortions?
  • Why do women do abortions?
  • What should be the lowest age for abortion?

Essays samples and Examples on Abortion

1) ethical arguments against abortion (abortion should be illegal).

Medical specialists perform abortions by suctioning fetuses from the womb. This procedure is performed on a daily basis all over the world. The law guards and gives consent to both the medical professionals and the mother for these processes of surgical abortion.


The Roe v Wade case in 1973 ruled that abortion was constitutional in the United States of America. This became a landmark ruling that set a precedent for future cases.

3) Abortion and Medical Termination of pregnancy in Ireland

This paper will mainly focus on abortion in Ireland. It will discuss how abortion can be performed, and the laws surrounding abortion.

4) Description of the Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

The issue of abortion in Canadian constitutional law is potentially disruptive and divisive. The Supreme Court of Canada invalidated the criminal code provisions governing abortion procedures in early 1988.


As a dedicated student advocate, my blog posts focus on addressing common student concerns and providing practical solutions. I strive to offer valuable insights and resources that support students in their educational journey.

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