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How Author makes Writing Easy

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Your AI “Anything” writing Companion

Combining the power of Google and ChatGPT so you know exactly where your AI found the information.

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Free AI Writer and Text Generator

Generate high-quality, unique essays and articles with Smodin’s free AI writer and text generator. Go from a few phrases to surprisingly great essays and articles with AI copywriting.

How Does Smodin Author Work?

Smodin's AI writer is easy to use. Provide your prompt with a few words and easily generate plagiarism-free, unique, and high-quality articles and essays in minutes. Type what you want to write about in a small sentence or two, with at least the minimum required characters for the tool to work, and click on the generate text button. Our AI Writer will create content which you can review, edit in parts or use only the parts you liked, keep tweaking the original text, or keep generating from the original seed. This easy-to-use AI text generator can be used by all education levels to produce essays and articles and also for copywriting, marketing, page creation, writing paragraphs, headlines, lists, and more. There are no software or programming skills required.

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Why use an ai content writer.

Writing has always been the most labor-intensive and time-consuming part for creators. You can say goodbye to writer’s block with Smodin’s AI Writer. Smodin’s Artificial intelligence content generator makes content creation as simple as clicking a button. You will also be saving significant amounts of time, and, as it is written by artificial intelligence, the text is unlikely to be plagiarized, you will be generating original content in most cases. Content will come to you like magic and you will be able to get more traffic to your website. Our AI-written text generator writes your essays and articles quickly and easily in any language. It can also help you to generate marketing content for Facebook ads, Google ads, Amazon product descriptions, LinkedIn posts, and more.

What is a Text Generator?

A text generator is an online tool that uses AI and complex algorithms to generate a text from a shortly added seed of characters. A text generation tool carries all of the key points in a text over to the expanded version. The content you receive contains a complete expansion of the initial text you added.

Why should you use a text generator?

Writing is not natural for everyone, which means that some people struggle more than others. Generating text provides a simple step to ensure that you can create something with as little effort as possible. You don’t need to be a professional writer to create fascinating works. You don’t need to scan the Internet, your brain, friends, and online resources to check for ideas. Our text generation tool takes that time-consuming effort and puts it all on a single text. With just a few clicks, your text will be generated and ready for use or correction, thus saving you time, energy, and stress. Using the text generator tool can also help you learn and increase your imagination.

What content can a text generator write?

Our text generator can write all types of text, in multiple languages, you can use it to write blogs, articles, books, essays, below is a more in-depth list of what you can use the writer to write. it can also be used as a big source of inspiration, removing writer’s block, generating new ideas and unexpected outcomes.

Smodin Author Testimonials

From plagiarism-free homework essays to high-quality, unique articles for your blog, Smodin’s AI Writer can help you generate compelling, converting text that’s either descriptive or argumentative with just a few prompts from you. Generate marketing copy for ads, product descriptions, social media content, and more within minutes and in just a few clicks.

Write Essays

Write Books

Write Websites

Write Messages

Write Letters

Write Documents

Write Legal Documents

Write Technical Documents

Write Blogs

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Write Articles

Write Blog Article

Write Research Papers

Write Papers

Write Dissertations

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Write Paragraphs

Write Sentences

Write Manuscripts

Write Things

Write Research

Write Manuals

Write Novels

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Write Writing

Write Homework

Frequently Asked Questions

What kind of essays and articles can i write with the ai.

As long as you provide us with the right prompt and sufficient context, our AI Writer can generate long text on just about any topic. You can write essays that span a range of topics for any educational level, articles in any niche, and even marketing content for Facebook ads, Google ads, Amazon product descriptions, LinkedIn posts, and more.

What technology should I learn to use this AI Writer?

There are no software or programming skills required to use this tool. Our AI Writer tool has a user-friendly interface where you can generate text in a few simple steps. Just fill in the required information about your topic and we’ll do the rest.

Are essays and articles generated unique and plagiarism-free?

Our AI Writer can produce unique and plagiarism-free content every time as long as you provide us with the right prompt. The essays are 100% generated content, whereas the articles are scraped from content from the web and might contain plagiarised content. Although all essays and all rewritten articles are expected to pass Copyscape or TurnItIn, you should use our plagiarism checker to confirm.

Do I need to edit the essays or articles generated by the AI?

The writing generated by our AI Writer may be a finished product, or may need editing. When using AI writer, there is a possibility of generating unfinished content. We provide an editor and a user-friendly interface to edit and make changes to the generated text the way you want.

How much does the AI Writer cost?

Smodin’s AI Writer is currently free to use. We will be adding additional paid options soon.

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AI Essay Writer

Make your essays with smart ai, what do you want to write essay about.

Example: Pollution due to urbanization

Writing essays can be a boring and time-consuming task, but what if there was a tool that could make the process easier and more efficient?

Introducing Toolbaz AI Essay Writer - a creative writing tool that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to help you craft high-quality essays with minimal effort.

What’s more,

Toolbaz's AI Essay Writer is also changing the way people write and making it easier than ever to generate professional-grade essays. Get ready to elevate your writing skills with the power of AI!

Let’s discuss it briefly!

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What is an AI Essay Writer?

An AI essay writer is a type of artificial intelligence that is specifically designed to write academic essays. These AI tools use advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques to analyze the topic and generate a well-written essay based on the given prompt.


AI essay writers are becoming increasingly popular among students and professionals as they can save time and effort while creating high-quality essays.

But it's important to remember that while AI essay writers can be helpful, they shouldn't be used as the only source of academic work because they can't think critically and analyze as well as a human writer can.

How Does Toolbaz AI Essay Writer Work?

This tool's primary goal is to help students with their writing assignments or essays by automatically generating them from scratch.

Simply put, it creates essays on your behalf. You can choose from a variety of topics, and the essay will be generated depending on your selection. It is completely customizable, so if you don't like the way it looks or sounds, just change it!

Our tool helps to:

  • Prepare academic assignments
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How AI Essay Writer Helps In Writing Articles?

The AI Essay Writer is a tool for creating the best and most creative essays possible. Our essay typer is integrated with artificial intelligence technology, which allows it to generate original and distinctive content for you.

This tool's AI technology is so powerful that it can even write an essay on your behalf! It will use its own algorithms to examine your text and other web texts before generating a very unique essay.

You may also edit the essay's content before submitting it to our experienced editors for evaluation.

The content created can be used for any purpose, including:

  • To provide an unique essay that will assist you with your homework or research assignment.
  • To compose an essay on a topic of your selection.
  • To create a blog post on any topic that interests you.

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What does essay generator AI allow you to do?

You can either write a new essay or edit an old one. You can also get assistance with essay writing. You may use an essay generator (AI) to learn how to write essays and enhance your English abilities.

It is very simple; just enter the text you desire to change and click the “write” button. The tool will do everything for you!

How do I use Toolbaz AI essay writer online?

You can use our essay generator to create a custom essay. Here's how to get started!

Just enter the topic in the input area like.

After entering the topic!

Make sure to tick the “Recaptcha” box to verify that you’re not a robot. This will enable the tool to examine your input and generate unique, quality content for you!

How does Toolbaz help me write better essays?

Toolbaz's AI essay writer engine will provide you with a custom-written essay tailored to your individual needs.

The AI will analyze your prompt, automatically generate high-quality content, provide insights and editing tips to improve the quality of your writing, and suggest topics and ideas for further exploration. With Toolbaz on your side, you'll be able to write top-notch essays in just seconds.

What types of essays does Toolbaz write?

Are you tired of struggling to come up with ideas for your essays? Let Toolbaz take the burden off your shoulders!

Our advanced writing tool is capable of generating a wide range of essay types, including:

  • Argumentative
  • Narrative and more!

Whether you need to persuade your reader to take a certain action or simply inform them about a particular topic, Toolbaz has you covered.

With its intuitive interface and vast library of resources, Toolbaz makes it easy to write quality essays that are sure to impress your teachers and peers.

How can I improve my essay writing skills?

There are several ways you can improve your essay writing skills:

Practice writing regularly:

The more you write, the more comfortable you will become with the writing process and the better you will become at expressing your thoughts and ideas on paper.

Read widely:

Reading helps to expand your vocabulary and exposes you to different writing styles and techniques, which you can then incorporate into your own writing.

Get feedback:

Ask a friend, family member, or teacher to read your essays and provide constructive feedback.

Use writing tools:

Toolbaz is a highly effective writing tool that can help you improve your skills and generate top-quality essays.

Among the various writing resources available, it stands out for its comprehensive features and user-friendly interface.

Are the essays generated by Toolbaz original and free of plagiarism?

Yes, the essays generated by Toolbaz are original and free of plagiarism.

We understand the importance of submitting unique and original work, and our tool is designed specifically to assist students in generating original ideas and thoughts.

All of the essays generated by our tool are completely original and written from scratch, ensuring that they are completely free of plagiarism.

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Essay Generator

Note that the first generation may take longer, but subsequent generation on same topic will be almost instant. You should enable essay rewrite and/or sentence shuffler feature if you wish to obtain unique essay that passes plagiarism check.

Click of a mouse to Generate Your Unique Essay

EssaySoft Essay Generator takes an essay question and keywords as input, and generates creative high quality essay articles that are free of plagiarism, fully automatic in just a few seconds. No matter what essay topic you have been given, our essay generator will be able to complete your essay without any hassle. If you need instant help with any content writing tasks including essays, assignments, article, reports...etc. EssaySoft Essay Generator is the software you know you can trust, simply click your mouse button to produce work to amaze your teachers and professors.

EssaySoft Essay Generator was designed to make your essay writing whole lot easier by:

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  • Adding images to paragraphs making essays more professional

Our Essay Generator ensures that writing is always of the highest quality - whether it is a article, report, assignment, thesis paper or an essay, you can count on Essay Generator to eliminate the risk of errors. So if you have school works, or need to analyse a book or better yet, want to enter a writing competition, this is the software for you! This software is also very useful for SEO content writers who wishes to generate unique articles for their website. You may also try our Essay Master software for assisted essay writing.

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Essay Maker

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Professional Essay Maker Service

Our free essay generator is an automated tool that will instantaneously provide you with a finished essay of up to 1000 words on any topic. Using it is effortless, and the whole process takes just a few steps:

Your essay is on its way...

Generating Essay...

You’ve reached your daily limit of 1 automatically generated essays.

Please come back tomorrow or you can order the original paper on our website right now.

Our essay generator is an automated tool, so we cannot guarantee 100% text uniqueness. Hire our professional essay writers for unique, authentic, high-quality essays.

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You have your draft and don’t know how to put all things together.

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We have expert editors who can polish everything up or write a new one from scratch.

Essay Maker That Produces Professional Papers on the Topic You Need

When students hear about an essay maker, they imagine one of two things. It’s either an online generator that automatically creates a paper or a human professional whose job is to craft an essay on a specific topic. The former requires much work from students, so most of them prefer the latter — and that’s exactly what we have got to offer. We can give you an  essay for sale  on any topic. If you’re stuck with your homework and hope for assistance, you’re at the right place because we will gladly take care of your assignment, no matter what it features. Our writers specialize in many subjects and paper types, so they can create a literature review, research or a  term paper service , argumentative essay, dissertation, etc. just by the date you need it. Choosing us is smart, but let us explain why in more detail.

Why Many Students Need Online Essay Creator

Writing an essay takes a lot of work. A future writer needs to do in-depth research, find a grading rubric from their college, look for an academic style template, and sit themselves down to write everything. Not everyone feels up to this all the time. There is no telling what kind of issues students might be having: some of them are already busy and incapable of handling one more task. Others are dealing with personal issues and cannot focus on their homework and do it properly at the time, never mind getting a good grade for it. Everyone has their own motivations for needing help, but most of them come to the same conclusion: they would like to hire an academic writing service with experts who could take their burden off their shoulders.

As practice shows, this decision often brings a lot of satisfaction to students, but only as long as they hire a trustworthy company. Research paper maker is a person who writes for a living: they are familiar with academic rules, their clients’ topics, and the need for research. In their hands, a draft can turn into a strong project, and they could also write an amazing essay from scratch following your instructions. We have many such specialists. We are happy to connect them with customers and contribute to their mutually beneficial cooperation.  

Multiple Benefits Our Essay Maker Online Service Prepared for You

Every person wants to get the most while paying the least. Students want this in particular because they have too many expenses and few ways of making money. We worked hard to take this concept into account and create a service that you would find really helpful. Look at the things we offer.

  • Supportive chat available 24/7. If you have any questions about using our essay writer generator system, contact our operators. They are online all the time — and we mean it in the most literal sense of this word. We don’t have holidays or breaks because our work environment includes a big number of employees. Someone is always ready to chat with clients, explain our rules & terms to them, help them and give them directions. If you don’t understand something or need clarification, drop a message via our chat and get your answer after only several seconds.
  • Direct communication with a writer. In many companies, there is no personal connection between writers and clients. As the result, students perceive their expert as a distant essay generator who will follow their instructions, no questions asked.  Our approach is different. When you  pay for research paper  at our website, you get an opportunity to speak with a writer directly. Establish contact with them; ask them anything you can think of to make sure they are the right person for handling your homework. You could also ask them for updates on your order if you’re worried about your deadline. But that brings us to another point.  
  • Only timely deliveries. As you ask one of our experts to make an essay, we guarantee that we’ll deliver it by your deadline. Being punctual is vital for every student: essays that fail the due date are rarely accepted by the university. We understand it, and our experts do too. After all, they were students themselves, and they know that the deadline is everything. If they don’t deliver your essay on time, they face harsh penalties up to being fired, so don’t worry about it. The chances of us being late are practically non-existent.  
  • Good prices. If you use our write my essay generator service, you’ll see that our prices are affordable in every way. For composing from scratch, we ask for $14.99 per one page. We also have discounts that reach up to 15%, so apart from enjoying a friendly team and quality help, you won’t have to spend everything you’ve saved up just on one paper.  
  • Plagiarism free. We aren’t an auto essay generator: our writers are humans with a wealth of experience behind their backs. It means that whatever they write, it’s going to be a new project that we’ll additionally test via our plag checkers. Any plagiarism issues are corrected right away. Clients do not receive recycled papers from us: everything is new and original. We follow only your instructions, so obviously, what we produce is 100% unique and tailored to meet your specific requirements.
  • Diverse payment methods available. We serve students from different countries with different payment solutions. For meeting most demands, we introduced a variety of payment options. Pay for our essay writing generator via any of them: they include several types of credit cards (Visa & Master Card), American Express, and Wire Transfer.

Our Guarantees That Work For Your Protection

Our clients always have different demands. Some ask for a research papers writing service ; others want to use essay intro maker because they’ve completed all other parts by themselves. In each of these cases, they worry about their privacy and the quality they are paying for. Let us address these concerns.

We guarantee complete confidentiality. It’s a fact that many colleges consider academic assistance cheating, so naturally, students want to avoid such accusations. We promise to keep your data safe. We never break this assurance, since doing it would mean risking our entire business and failing to obey global confidentiality laws. Whatever you entrust us with is in safe hands — we won’t be sharing it with third parties or even with our writers. That’s right! Writers only see what order they are taking. They care about your demands, not your name, age, or college. 

We provide free revisions to all customers. It’s true that when you hire our essay maker, they are going to do everything in their power to do right by you. In most cases, they create great work that our customers love. But the human factor is a tricky thing, and sometimes problems occur when you least expect them. Rarely, students get a paper that doesn’t meet their needs properly. In this instance, you’re still eligible for the highest level of quality. Just contact your writer and tell them that something is wrong. This feature is free — we want to be sure that you’re satisfied with our work. Refunds are also available. If our writing maker has let you down so severely that you feel like even revision won’t help, it’s sad, but you’re still protected. Tell us what happened. Our managers are going to review this situation, and within a couple of days, they’ll get back to you. You will receive your money for this order + we might give you a special bonus as a token of our apology.

What Makes Human Writers More Efficient Than Online Generators?

If you started thinking about looking for a paper maker, it is likely that you’ve seen numerous online tools that should be able to help you. An essay generator that works for free is definitely something worth considering, but there’s usually one problem: the papers it produces aren’t good. Students need to include their title and some keywords, and then an online maker will create an essay on their basis. But as you know, our AI technologies aren’t that good yet. You’ll receive a paper full of ridiculous sentences, senseless transitions, and no logical structure whatsoever from a maker like this. If any part of such an essay seems acceptable, then we still have bad news for you: chances are, it’s plagiarized. Online tools often steal content from websites or articles other people wrote. So while students could try these automatic generators, the best they can do with them is use their content as a rough draft, nothing more.  

Human experts work in the opposite way. If, say, you need an essay introduction maker, they are going to research your topic, develop a hook, introduce the background, and craft a thesis. Every sentence would be meaningful and grammatically correct. The same applies to the rest of the essay. Writers think logically, they follow an outline and include details you need in the correct sequence. They also watch so that the structure looks good and academically appropriate, check spelling and grammar. Sources are also important — our specialists pick credible ones and use them to enhance your work. No machine can do something like this without making a million silly mistakes.

Details About Your Human Essay Builder

Before someone places an order, they feel concerned about what experts would be working on their assignment. Success or failure depends on them, so they must be well-prepared to do an amazing job. At GrabMyEssay, we have many research and  speech writers for hire , but we take careful measures before expanding our paper maker family. Our HR team looks strictly for people with the highest education in different sectors. We also want them to have experience and strong research skills. Of course, no one takes them on their word alone. We administer a series of tests that help us verify which people are experts and which are not.

Every successful candidate must complete a tricky grammar test, showcasing their fluency and knowledge of English intricacies. Then they have to pass a test. Our system generates a random topic for them based on their specialization, and they are given limited time to complete this task. We read the results and assess them in accordance with harsh criteria. Each future college essay generator has to understand academic rules and possess professional writing skills. They should have an idea of academic formatting as well. If one of them passes our tests successfully, we give each writer a manager. They help them adjust to a new environment and watch their performance, making their comments and providing them with educational materials. In the end, only the most brilliant experts start working for us, so your essay will be flawless when it arrives.

Enjoy Our Essay Making Service and Leave Your Worries Behind

Creating an essay could take a lot of time. If you don’t have it, we are ready to take on your assignment just as you ask to  “   help me with my essay ! ” Our human experts will amaze you: they’ll produce much better results than any automatic essay generator, so contact them now and place your order. Explain what you want and share files you consider relevant.  Do it any time, and we’ll find the best essay maker for you as soon as possible. Our job isn’t about writing alone, it’s about pleasing you!

Frequently Asked Questions

Is using an essay maker legal.

It sure is, but results depend on several things. If you use an automatic essay maker, then you should be careful to remove plagiarism that will inevitably be there. If you hire a human argumentative essay generator, you can relax because everything should look perfect as it is.

What site writes an essay for you?

GrabMyEssay is one of the leaders in the academic writing market. We’ve been helping students for years, and assisting you with your task is precisely what we’re good at.

Is buying an essay illegal?

No, it isn’t. You’re buying an official sample that you could use for educational purposes. If you decide on using it and passing it for your own paper, everything will be fine as long as you don’t disclose that you aren’t its author.

Can you trust essay writing sites?

There are some fishy sites out there for sure. Before hiring anyone, check their reputation, website, and read reviews. Chat with their operators for gaining a clearer picture of who these people are. 

Writing is only half of the work. Get expert editing help to eliminate mistakes and get the most of your paper.

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Work according to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which means you have the control over your personal data. All payment transactions go through a secure online payment system, thus your Billing information is not stored, saved or available to the Company in any way. Additionally, we guarantee confidentiality and anonymity all throughout your cooperation with our Company.

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Plot Generator

1 million plot combinations to inspire you..

Generate a random plot for your genre. Simply pick between fantasy, romance, sci-fi, mystery, or drama — and click the button below to get started. Like a particular story combo? “Lock” and save it to nail it down.


Secondary character.

It's story about It kicks off with

(Note that: )

And there's a twist!

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How to Write a Novel

Join Tom Bromley for a writing master class and finish your first draft in 3 months . Learn more →

Looking to publish a bestselling novel out of this story generator?

It’s elusive, it’s shy, it’s frustratingly changeable, and it abandons you completely during a writer’s drought — it’s the perfect story idea. But that’s why we built this story generator: to try and give writers everywhere a bit of a power-up. All of the plots that you score are yours to use! But what exactly can you do with it now?  

If you’re wondering what’s the best way to construct a story out of the plot that you’ve just generated,

We’ve got you covered. Head to the free resources below to discover the writing world beyond story generators:

How to Structure a Novel Before You Write It . In this Reedsy Live video, NYT bestselling author Caroline Leavitt talks about plot structure — and a simple way to go about it.

How to Plot a Novel Using the 3-Act Story Structure . Kristen Kieffer, founder of, walks you step-by-step through one of the most popular story structures in this free 10-day course.

What is a Narrative Arc? Learn the intricacies of building a narrative arc, and how to attain a good beginning, middle, and end to your story in this blog post.

If you’re still in the search for the perfect plot ,

There are plenty of other plot generators and plot twist generators to provide more bursts of inspiration. Here are some of our favorite story generators on the Internet:

Writing Exercise’s Random Plot Generator

RanGen’s Story Generator

Writer’s Den’s Story Generator

Seventh Sanctum’s Plot Twist Generator

If you’ve got everything but your story title and character names in place ,

Why not give our Book Title Generator and Character Name Generator a whirl?

And if you now feel ready to start building your story now? Great 👍 Happy writing. We’d be delighted if you dropped us the success story at [email protected]

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Professional essay writing service

Professional Essay Maker Service Submit a test action request now and get essay help in 3 hours

Our free essay generator is an automated tool that will instantaneously provide you with a finished essay of up to 1000 words on any topic. Using it is effortless, and the whole process takes just a few steps:

  • Start by inputting your essay topic;
  • Click on the “Continue” button to activate our essay creator;
  • Receive your finished paper within seconds!

Our essay generator is an automated tool, so we cannot guarantee 100% text uniqueness. Hire our professional essay writers for unique, authentic, high-quality essays.

You’ve reached the limit of 3 automated essays for today. Come back tomorrow or order your customized essay from our experienced writers now!

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All Our Experts are Proficient Essay Consultants

A successful paper requires more than knowledge of English and being a good typer. The process of essay creation is more complicated than it appears to be, as there are also many rules related to structure and research. Many college courses require solid academic writing, and specialists here at know how to do it properly.

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Professional Essay Help From Experts

Has education become a struggle for you? Do you feel overwhelmed by all your school assignments? You’re not alone! At Study Clerk, we got your back. We have more than 500 professional specialists helping students to reach their academic goals. Our team will boost your records by simplifying the writing process.


Time, knowledge, and passion: the basic formula to produce killer essays. Unfortunately, most students are unable to gather those things and write a paper by themselves. To this group of people, improving their academic performance can be compared to climbing Everest with two left feet... Impossible, at least until now.

We understand your struggle and are committed to assisting you in crafting well-researched papers. No more stress and missed deadlines. Our specialists are determined to take the stress off your shoulders and help you in solving any task you’re struggling with. You do know that help of an academic expert is always better than an essay generator. All this for an affordable price.


A lot of students think that a free essay generator is an answer to all of their problems. There are lots of them available online when you use a search engine. While this may seem like a good idea in theory – you do not have to approve anything, and you receive a text – it is actually not as perfect as it sounds. Choosing to go down this route instead of an essay help service could mean you receive a lower grade than you deserve. Of course, that is not what you are looking to achieve.

So, what is the problem with an essay generator? Well, the problem with this type of service is that it takes information from the Internet. Using other sources and there is a risk that they could be copied and not the best or most reliable. Also, usually, students ask for an essay fixer service to correct generated papers. We find that by not choosing an essay creator and instead relying on a computer, the resulting assignment will be hard to read and low in uniqueness. This is definitely not something that you want.

On the other hand, essay assistants work together to help you create your paper from scratch. There is no risk of plagiarism or the wrong information; an expert takes on your task and consults you on how to make it engaging and unique. Our team has some professionals on hand that are full of fantastic ideas for your assignments.

What’s more, you do not have to wait a long time for your paper help. While it will not be automatic like a free essay generator, it will definitely be worth the wait. Our fast turnaround time with our essay experts means that this will not be long, and you can enjoy peace of mind that your assignment is going to be of a higher standard than could ever be created on an automated online service.


If you have no time, knowledge, or passion enough to handle an additional task or get good grades at college and are desperately seeking professional assistance, you've probably come across thousands of different writing companies. The main question is, how to choose the right one if all promise the same things?

Would study clerk be the smartest decision? Why? Because we're a reliable company with a proven track record providing first-class argumentative essay assistance. We don't say it, but our tons of loyal customers love to get the most out of our cooperation. These are the top features we make available for you:

  • High-quality written material: our pool of experts is recognized for giving one of the best research paper assistance on the market. Whatever structure is needed, your expert will follow it. From an introduction with a solid thesis statement to clear arguments and a conclusion, we’ve covered everything! Your need help with essay request would be answered with no less than excellence.
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Fulfilled requirements: partially outsourcing your homework to other people can be intimidating. We want you to feel comfortable during the essay-making process. That's why you'll have complete control over the biggest decisions. Be sure to give clear instructions and stay open to any recommendations that contribute to client-expert cooperation.

Refund policy: not all companies offer support in case of customer dissatisfaction, which is a big mistake. But we don’t take anything for granted. We want students to be successful, and this involves making sure all those who are facing problems receive a prompt solution. If they remain unsatisfied, we guarantee the return of their money.

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book essay maker

Summarize any article, text, research paper, or essay in a matter of seconds. Use this free tool to wrap everything up without dealing with loads of academic content.


How to Use Our Summary Generator

Our free summary generator will work miracles for you. Just paste the original piece of writing and this AI-powered tool will do the rest.

Paste any document, text, chapter, or extract you need to summarize in the input box.

Once you click the button, our tool will start sifting through content and extracting the key ideas.

Have all critical points covered in a long-winded text wrapped up in a concise overview.

Important notice

Make sure you provide a title and paste a text of at least 500 words. Otherwise, our summarizer won’t be able to process material.

Why Choose Our Summarizing Tool

Why Choose Our Summarizing Tool

Get the most out of our best summarizing tool. From digesting tons of text to delivering a compressed summary, this tool will do all the hard job absolutely for free.

Don’t waste your precious time trying to absorb long-reads and writing down the key concepts. Our summarizer tool will skim your text in a flash even if you have pages of content.

Leave the analysis part for our tool. It can analyze any amount of text without skipping any significant elements. It condenses the whole text into a brief overview. It’s unbelievable!

No need to spend so much effort looking for the most essential points. This online summarizer will handle everything. So, you can focus on more serious writing tasks.

Need to create several summaries? We’ve got your back! Use our summarize tool for free. Do it as many times as you need without registering an account.

Need Expert Help?

We have an extensive database of academic experts who provide top-quality results within short deadlines. Сhoose the service you need, and we will handle the rest.

Sometimes, an online summarizer is not enough to wrap up a paper according to all academic standards. Employ a professional who will summarize your essay fast and with quality in mind.

Take your writing to a whole new level with our editing and proofreading services. Our academic proofreaders will polish your summary so you submit an impeccable work.

Why Choose StudyCrumb


Summarizing Made Easy

Summarizing articles, texts or plots will no longer be an uphill challenge. You can entrust any type of content to our tool. Be it a short book chapter, a lengthy dissertation, or a research paper. Get an accurate overview ready to go without any hassle.


Article Summarizer

Need to summarize the article? Look no further! Our AI summarizer will use advanced technology to scan your material. Then it pulls out only the key ideas. With this AI solution, you will forget about hunting for the main points in the jungle of information. Summarizing articles won’t give you headaches anymore. Just do some copy-paste job and enjoy the result.


Text Summarizer

Rely on our online text summarizer to get an easy-to-follow overview. Be it an academic text or a fiction story, our tool will be of great help. Even if ideas seem complicated, there is nothing impossible if you have our free online summarizer at your fingertips. Let this high-tech tool auto summarize text for you – you won’t regret it.


Paragraph Summarizer

Are you assigned to summarize a paragraph or a book chapter? Does it seem like a lot of work? You are not alone in this! Many students visit StudyCrumb every day to seek free help with auto summarization. Don’t miss out on this amazing opportunity. Get everything done in an instant. It’s completely free, after all.


Essay Summarizer

Whether you are studying at high school or college, you will often be given to create a summary of your or somebody else’s academic work. Be it an essay, a research paper, term paper, or a dissertation, our essay shortener is exactly what you need. Why kill time doing this if you can get an auto summary in just 1 click?

Professional Summary Generator for Essays

We created ​​ an automatic summarizer online to streamline educational experience for students, academics, researchers, and writers. You do not need to read hundreds of pages for your paper or essay. Summarize online for free — get a brief, consistent message from your text in a few seconds. This tool was created to help students. But it can be used for various purposes. For instance, text editing, press-release optimization, or even as a tool for journalists who work with news. As former students, we understand that analyzing lots of info can be tedious. With this in mind, we implemented the best algorithms modern NLP technology has to offer. That’s why it is the best cutting-edge tool. All you need is to say “Summarize this article for me”. Our free generator will provide you with a brilliant solution.

Automatic Summarization Tool Powered by Deep AI

You may wonder how we ensure accurate results for any type of text recap. StudyCrumb essay writing service applied latest technical solutions for the best results. We launched a free AI summarizer tool online to provide the best text quality to any user. Our software analyzes submitted text and defines main principles. It codes based on a semantic approach. As a result of continuous improvement, our users gain the most accurate summary of their documents.  Our automatic summary generator without plagiarism became a helper for improving grades. Use it for finishing research papers or completing reading sections faster. Use optimized text for conclusion paragraphs. Enhance the research by reading hundreds of pages daily and get better grades with our free tool! We are proud to develop the best AI summarizer for educators and academics.

Write a Summary for Me!

Looking for someone who can summarize for me for free? The best decision will be to use an automated tool for this purpose. Here are a few reasons why our AI tool is the best solution in this case:

  • Receive an in-depth analysis of any text. Suppose you ask: "Write me a summary and provide a valuable, qualitative text." In that case, we will do it with our AI algorithms.
  • Get instant results in a few seconds. ​​ Free summarizing tool online without plagiarizing is a fantastic solution for fast and competitive developments. Try it!
  • It is free. We created the best summarizer tool for free online and made it accessible for every student worldwide. There is no registration or other data collection!
  • It can be used unlimited times. There is no limitation on using our tool. You can apply it to your text as regularly as needed without registration or payments.

Best Summary Generator for Free by StudyCrumb!

We created an online summarizing tool for free. And we are proud of the results it can provide to our clients. Why do you need to ensure that the instrument or website you use is reliable? First, it guarantees valuable text, accurate analysis, and good quality of optimized content. Second, it should ensure that an automatic online summarizer will provide a unique text. Use it as a piece of your conclusion section.  We build a summarizer online for free covering all types of text you may need. It includes articles, paragraphs, chapters, reports, or research. You may use this tool differently. But you will get trust and effective results when launching our website.

Summary for Papers & Essays

There are numerous cases when you need to summarize papers, articles, research, or academic essays for your assignment. We developed an essay summarizer tool to make students' lives easier. How can it help you? For example, you are working on a literature review for your paper and already running out of deadlines. You can not skip reading uless you use our dissertation writing services . You must ground your work on a theoretical framework. And that's when a thesis helper can save your day. But not every learner can afford buying research paper. Additionally, you may have essential academic essays to cite in your work. You will try to learn something from them but scan it. It may cause misunderstanding of theories or critical ideas. We encourage you to try an essay summarizer for free. See how helpful it can be for academic writing.

Summary Generator for Articles: Summarize Articles Online

One more critical feature of our online summarizer tool for articles is the ability to access it from any location 24/7. You need only Internet access and the text for analysis. Students or academics can summarize an article online for free without any limitations. This tool assists writers, journalists, and editors. It helps to perform better and produce more sophisticated literature reviews.  Our free online article summarizer is also a perfect supporter of the reading stage in your research. We know that you need to read more than 30 articles, books, or chapters for each paper. It is crucial to provide a holistic and synthesized analysis of each used resource then.  Use article summarizer online or conclusion paragraph generator in case you need to write a valuable conclusion section for a paper. Our tool provides a unique text with insights or underlining key points. Use this text as ideas for your final paragraphs, or just copy it for your work.

Summarize the Text Online More Quickly

Our text summarizer tool is the fastest way to analyze, sum, and conclude a considerable amount of readings. Remember your first year at university? 100 pages of tasks for each week! We know how complicated it can be to study in the undergrad or graduate programs. Powered by our literature review writing service , we created this soultion to help millions of students be more successful.  We built our text summarizer using AI to ensure that our users will have the best quality papers. It means our advanced technology can provide the most accurate text analysis. It defines critical insights, ideas, and points from the texts. You will be sure you are not missing something working with your paper. Do not spend weeks reading! Just use our text summarizer for free to define the most necessary ideas from all required readings.

Summarize This Paragraph for Me: Free Online Paragraph Summarizer Tool

Who will summarize my paragraph? This is a common request from students who look for paraphrsing tool . And we already know the answer! You don't need to search for who can summarize a paragraph for me. Just do it easily with our instrument. The best way is to use new technology and get the automated analysis from StudyCrumb.  How does it work? You paste your text and title and click the "Summarize" button. You will have one paragraph or more of the completed text in a few seconds. Summarize the paragraph of your essay to write an excellent conclusion section. We help define the vital issues you need to synthesize from the text. Use it as independent paragraphs for your paper or as a sample for fresh ideas.

Summarization Process in Detail

You might be wondering what mystic is behind the text summarization. In fact, there is nothing complicated in this process. There are two types of summarization that allows converting a long text into a digestible overview:

  • Extraction summarization In this approach, a tool pulls keywords from sentences. Then it combines them into a dense version of the initial text.
  • Abstractive summarization This method implies the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP). A tool keeps the main meaning of a text but rearranges the structure of sentences.

How Our Online Summarizer Works

We took the best out of each summarization technique to design this revolutionary summary creator. This tool identifies the main ideas of any text and breaks them down into small sections. This way, you can always be on top of any work’s main focus. This is especially useful if you’ve got various sources to analyze. Select only the best ones for your further research. Besides, our website summarizer can recognize similar patterns in other sources available online to supply a smart result.

Need a Summary Writer?

It goes without saying that no machine can’t substitute a real human. Our tool works like a free summary writer. But if you expect super quality, consider entrusting your summary to college essay writing services . At StudyCrumb, you can ask for essay help from academic professionals. They will summarize any text within the given deadline. We are always here for you!

Struggling with a summary?

You are just several clicks away from getting your work done by an expert. Fill in the details to let us know how we can help you.

FAQ About Summary Generator

Check out the answers to frequently asked questions about our online summarizer tool.

1. Do I need to create an account to use this summarizing tool?

No, there is no need to create an account to use our summarizer. The best thing about this tool is that you can use it for free without going through the time-consuming signing-in process.

2. Can this tool summarize my text if it’s several pages?

Definitely. Our summary maker can manage even a 10-pages text. Just provide a title, paste your text and click the button. 

3. Is there any word limit in this summarizer tool?

Please note that you should insert at least 500 words in this summarizer tool. Otherwise, it won’t prepare an overview. As for the maximum length requirement, there are no limitations.

4. Can this summarizer also paraphrase my article?

Our summarizer takes out primary ideas from content and generates a summary based on the keywords and phrases. To some extent, it also paraphrases sentences. However, if you want to paraphrase your text, don’t miss our paraphraser.

5. Does your free online summarizer tool work automatically?

We created an automatic summary tool ensuring that all students, writers, journalists, or academics will have free and easy access to it. It is based on AI algorithms to provide the most accurate results for text analysis. Try it today!

6. How long does it usually take to summarize the text?

Our quick summarizer for free online is the best option for saving time. It will take a few seconds to analyze a text and provide valuable insights. You will definitely benefit from transforming hundreds of pages into facilitated text with one click. 

7. What is the easiest way to summarize the article?

If you need to create a fast and quality text analysis, you should launch an online free summarizer from StudyCrumb. We are a skillful team in education and academic assignments and provide the best tools for text editing. We know what you need, which made us develop outstanding service.

8. How to choose the best summary generator?

Your best online summarizer should work fast, provide valuable results, and be easy to use and navigate. We are sure that StudyCrumb develops the best tools for students and academics. We have worked in this niche for years and always concentrate on the quality of our tools.

Other Tools You May Like

Other Tools You May Like

StudyCrumb offers you more than just a summarizer. We’ve designed a whole bundle of free writing tools that can improve your academic experience. Check them out below!

Best Summary Generator for Essays

Number of sentences in results:

Wondering what is the best summary generator for essays? Try our free online tool! It can summarize an article, research paper, or any other academic piece in no time.

  • ️🛠️ How to Use the Tool?
  • ️🤷 What Is a Summary?
  • ️❓ Summary Generator Q&A
  • ️👓 Making an Objective Summary
  • ️🌐 Choosing a Summarizer
  • ️🔗 References

🛠️ Summary Generator: How to Use?

  • Go to the document or website text you would like to summarize.
  • Highlight it and press “Copy” or Ctrl+C. Make sure it does not exceed 15,000 characters.
  • Go to Summary Generator.
  • Click in the blank field and press “Paste” or Ctrl+V in the text summarizer.
  • Specify the desired number of sentences in the result.
  • Click the “Summarize” button.
  • Enjoy your summary!

🤷 What Is a Summary?

A summary is a brief description of any text that mentions its highlights, leaving aside the details. It is usually short but depends on the length of the original work.

A summary never includes personal opinions, analysis , considerations, etc.

The academic sphere approves only objective summary writing, while summaries for commercial purposes tend to withhold some facts to raise interest.

We come across summaries every day. For example, we can find them:

  • In the theoretical part of a research paper or article, listing the sources being analyzed
  • In conclusion to any piece of any academic writing
  • In recommendations to a book suggested for reading or a film presented for watching
  • In product descriptions
  • In summary generators

❓ Summary Generator Q&A

❓ how to write a good summary.

  • Do not pick sentences to reword . Get the idea and explain it in your own words.
  • Avoid including details. Use only those critical to understand your summary.
  • Abstain from judging. It is not an essay. No personal opinion is welcome here.
  • Avoid compiling a list of statements. Make your text flow.
  • While reading the story or article to be summarized, write down the key points and relations. Use your notes as an outline for the summary.

❓ What is an objective summary?

First of all, any summary should be objective. To make sure you stick to the rule, after writing every paragraph, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Does it contain my opinion?
  • Did my feelings or emotions influence what I have written?
  • Does my summary distort what the original author intended to say?

If you answered “No” to all these questions, your resume is perfectly objective and does not require any revision.

❓ How long should a summary be?

If you are a student, and the summary is your homework, we highly recommend asking this from your professor. The assignment should contain the preferred length. In all other cases, the word count is defined by the size and genre of the original text.

For a summary of an article, the publisher requests a specific length. It is usually either one paragraph or one-third of the article.

For a summary of a chapter, it should be 10 to 15% of its word count.

❓ How is a paraphrase similar to a summary?

The main similarity is that both methods allow a writer to incorporate another person’s text into theirs. Both of them also require referencing the author of the source. The third common feature is the use of simplified language, as compared to the sample.

Still, there are some differences between them. A paraphrase deals with shorter passages (a sentence or a paragraph) and tries to preserve all of its elements. A summary condenses the meaning of the entire text or its section, prioritizing the central ideas.

👓 How to Summarize in Your Own Words

An objective summary is devoid of personal reasoning or judgments.

It only comprises the information that comes from the source .

If you wonder how to write a synopsis without losing anything essential, here is the best advice. If an idea is clear without the detail, leave it out.

Therefore, to write an objective summary, use these rules:

We recommend tackling this stage in three steps:

  • Briefly scan the general structure of the text, paying attention to headings.
  • Carefully read the text, marking the essential information and making notes .
  • Reread the most complicated passages for a better understanding.
  • Compare the introduction and conclusion . It will show you the author’s intention.

If the text contains no subheadings, it is helpful to outline. Divide the text into parts and name each of them. You will use them to structure your summary.

Make a list of the main points under each heading. It won’t take you long, but the summary-writing process will be accelerated.

Using the plan you've made under the points 2 and 3, write a summary in your own words. After that, use a plagiarism checker to make sure you have paraphrased all the author’s expressions.

Once everything is ready, check the following items:

  • Is your summary an accurate representation of the original?
  • Did you preserve the essential information?
  • Isn’t your summary wording too similar to the original?

🌐 Best Summary Generator: How to Choose?

Certainly, you can walk the way of trials and errors and look for the best summary generator by yourself. But we would like to warn you: it will take much time, and it happens that you need a well-composed summary right now. The World Wide Web contains hundreds of tools, starting from the most simple and free and ending with the most sophisticated, professional, and paid applications.

That is why, while looking for a tool that meets your needs the most, pay attention to the following features:

  • Are there any limits for the length of the inserted text? If yes, opt for those who allow the most extended text.
  • Is there an option to upload a file in addition to simply copying and pasting the text? In combination with the unlimited text length, this feature works great with long books.
  • If the previous point is fulfilled, which file formats are supported? Sometimes, it is critical to have a summary maker that processes less popular formats than docx.
  • Is there a possibility to adjust the length of the result? This one is the most critical for all users. You can need a paragraph-long summary of a dozen-page document or a detailed overview of a two-page article.
  • Does the paraphrasing tool highlight keywords? It can be helpful when you use the summary generator to process large volumes of text in a short time.
  • Which languages does it support? There is often a lack of information available in one language, while you can access extensive materials in another. If you speak both, that’s quite an asset. Make sure the auto summarizer you choose supports all of them.
  • How much time does it take to process the text? The quicker, the better.
  • Does the web page with the tool have advertisement bars and pop-ups? If yes, they will distract you from your educational or research work.
  • How much does it cost to use the summary generator? This item requires no explanation.

Hope the above tips will be useful. By the way, the key to a great academic paper is a decent thesis statement! If you need to create one, you are welcome to use our thesis-making tool .

📍 References

  • How to effectively summarize the work of others | SFU Library
  • What is a Summary? - Definition & Concept -
  • Summarizing | Academic Integrity at MIT
  • Summarizing - University of Toronto Writing Advice
  • Definition and Examples of a Written Summary of Text

Free Text Summarizer

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Academic research

Academic research

Speed up your academic research by extracting key points.

Everyday use

Every day use

Reduce your reading time by summarizing long blocks of text within seconds.


Easily condense transcripts of long meetings into concise bullet points.


Difficult text

Simplify hard-to-read paragraphs, sentences or complete articles with 1 click.

Text summarizer

Why use this summarizer?

  • 100% free: Generate unlimited summaries without paying a penny
  • Accurate: Get a reliable and trustworthy summary of your original text without any errors
  • No signup: Use it without giving up any personal data
  • Secure: No summary data is stored, guaranteeing your privacy
  • Speed: Get an accurate summary within seconds, thanks to AI
  • Flexible: Adjust summary length to get more (or less) detailed summaries

How to use this summarizer

1. insert, paste or download your text, 2. pick the way you want to summarize, 3. adjust your summary length, 4. get your summary in seconds.

2 ways of summarizing text

2 ways of summarizing your text

1. key sentences.

Extracts the key points of your text and turns them into digestible bullet points 

2. Concise paragraphs

Summarizes your text in a concise paragraph

Summarize your text today

Want to make sure your summary doesn’t contain any plagiarism, ask our team.

Want to contact us directly? No problem.  We  are always here for you.

Support team - Alina

Frequently asked questions

Yes, it can. The AI has been trained on a big dataset, so technical or complex data won’t be a problem for the text summarizer .

The text summarizer is accessible on both desktop and mobile.

This text summarizer can condense long text within seconds.

At the moment, a maximum of 600 words can be summarized at once, within a few seconds. Want to summarize more? Just paste another block of text. There’s no limit on how much text you can summarize with our text summarizer .

The text summarizer can give you a longer or shorter summary, depending on your wishes. Want a more detailed summary? Just adjust the summary length at the top.

Upload your PDF, EPUB, DOCX, ODT, or TXT file here.


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Identify the important ideas and facts

To help you summarize and analyze your argumentative texts , your articles, your scientific texts, your history texts as well as your well-structured analyses work of art, Resoomer provides you with a "Summary text tool" : an educational tool that identifies and summarizes the important ideas and facts of your documents. Summarize in 1-Click, go to the main idea or skim through so that you can then interpret your texts quickly and develop your syntheses .

Who is Resoomer for ?

College students.

With Resoomer, summarize your Wikipedia pages in a matter of seconds for your productivity.

Identify the most important ideas and arguments of your texts so that you can prepare your lessons.


If you prefer simplified information that summarizes the major events, then Resoomer is for you !

Identify and understand very fast the facts and the ideas of your texts that are part of the current news and events.


With the help of Resoomer, go to the main idea of your articles to write your arguments and critiques .

Save time, summarize your digital documents for a relevant and fast uptake of information.

Need to summarize your books' presentations ? Identify the arguments in a matter of seconds.

Too many documents ? Simplify your readings with Resoomer like a desktop tool.

Need to summarize your chapters ? With Resoomer, go to the heart of your ideas.

Identify your books' or your authors' ideas quickly. Summarize the most important main points.

From now on, create quick summaries of your artists' presentation and their artworks .


Identify the most important passages in texts that contains a lot of words for detailed analyses .

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Surf online and save time when reading on internet ! Resoomer summarizes your articles in 500 words so that you can go to the main idea of your text.


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Easybib® guides & resources, mla format guide.

This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. Our easy to read guides come complete with examples and step-by-step instructions to format your full and in-text citations, paper, and works cited in MLA style. There’s even information on annotated bibliographies.

Works Cited | In-Text Citations | Bibliography | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Book | Journal | YouTube | View all MLA Citation Examples

APA Format Guide

Get the facts on citing and writing in APA format with our comprehensive guides. Formatting instructions, in-text citation and reference examples, and sample papers provide you with the tools you need to style your paper in APA.

Reference Page | In-Text Citations | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Books | Journal | YouTube | View all APA citation Examples

Chicago Format Guide

Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating references and footnotes in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll be citing in Chicago style in no time.

Footnotes | Website | Book | Journal

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Learn the requirements to properly reference your paper in Harvard style. The guides we have provide the basics and fundamentals to give credit to the sources used in your work.

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Free Thesis Statement Generator - Create Your Thesis Online

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Political Histories Refracted Through a Personal Lens

New essay collections by Myriam Gurba, Jenn Shapland and Wang Xiaobo treat public and private subjects with invigorating conviction.

Credit... John Gall

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Noor Qasim

By Noor Qasim

  • Published Sept. 8, 2023 Updated Sept. 9, 2023

In 2019, the memoirist and story writer Myriam Gurba wrote a viral essay on Jeanine Cummins’s “American Dirt” in which she excoriates the author for having “identified the gringo appetite for Mexican pain and found a way to exploit it.” In this and 10 other essays included in CREEP: Accusations and Confessions (Avid Reader Press, 332 pp., $27) , Gurba writes the personal and political with invigorating conviction.

Throughout the collection Gurba reflects on her queer, Mexican-Californian youth, then refracts these memories through literature and history. “Tell” revisits her morbid childhood games, including Barbie defenestration, alongside William S. Burroughs’s murder of his wife, Joan Vollmer; and the former Mexican president Carlos Salinas de Gortari’s killing of his family’s 12-year-old Indigenous servant, Manuela, while “playing war” when he was 4. Within each essay, whether on lice and genocide or the legacy of Lorena Bobbitt, Gurba assembles chains of seemingly unrelated memories and events whose resonances grow with each new link. She marshals myriad sources with ease, and addresses difficult subjects with blunt wit.

Gurba argues that it is her directness — her “gallows humor” and “insult comedy” — that enables her to approach trauma; but this voice is so strong that it can threaten to obscure the truth. Some exchanges from her past are written with almost fictional simplicity, hewing so rigidly to her theses as to seem suspiciously convenient, such as when a student in her high school civics class asks her: “Who’s your favorite serial killer, Miss Gurba?,” prompting her to lie “rather than explain that I had my own Richard Ramirez.” And for all her humor, Gurba’s jokes — of which she is rarely the butt — belie a fundamental self-seriousness, directing the reader’s gaze away from her most compelling character: herself.

The cover of “Creep” shows a photo of the author from the shoulders up, her black hair short with bangs straight across her forehead, wearing denim overalls; framed inside a white rectangle.

The title essay, which is the most affecting, eases up on the jabs as Gurba recounts her efforts to escape and recover from domestic violence. Both her earnestness and the urgent pulse of the material make for a narrative that is less certain and more tender. To read Gurba at her best is to feel both the triumph of defiant self-regard as well as the soft contours of the striving it takes to acquire, preserve and restore.

“I wanted to ease us all into it,” Jenn Shapland writes in the preface to her new collection, THIN SKIN: Essays (Pantheon, 270 pp., $26) ; “instead, this book begins in the free fall of reality.” Over the course of five essays, the author of “My Autobiography of Carson McCullers” asks how humans endure our era’s pervasive fear, capitalist excess and looming ecological collapse.

The title essay, named for her own dermatologic diagnosis, begins with a drive through Los Alamos National Laboratory, where a guard warns, “Do not look to the left.” There Shapland sees “tall cylindrical objects the size of tractors,” the covert beginnings of “innovation” or of “the end of the world.” And she keeps looking: at the state’s seizure of the mesa from its native peoples, at the persistent levels of radiation in the region and at other systemically neglected contamination hot spots across the country. The sobering essay is both intimate and well researched, incorporating interviews with those most affected by environmental contamination, from an Indigenous Pueblo antinuclear activist to her own parents. Offering a human response to these destructive forces, this piece merits a book to itself.

Other highlights in this rigorous collection include “Crystal Vortex,” about the possibility of living a queer, artistic life defined by “values and rules not determined by familiar metrics of productivity or financial gain”; and “The Meaning of Life,” an exploration of witch trials and womanhood, as well as a spirited defense of not having children. At times her personal reflections feel overly constrained by a set of left-of-liberal, white anxieties, which Shapland attempts to interrogate yet cannot seem to move beyond (in a passage on “self-care,” she describes “an iceberg of white guilt: What right have I to take care of myself, my mind, my body, when mine is the body of the colonizer?”). Shapland’s paralytic pessimism can make it difficult to disentangle her punishing thoughts from the harsh reality she seeks to articulate.

While the future hardly looks bright, Shapland is most convincing when she grasps hold of some tentative yet essential hope. “Each day is a question we ask ourselves — what is life?” she writes, picturing the marvel of growing old beside her partner. “And answer: this. ”

Last year, a new translation by Yan Yan of the late, popular Chinese writer Wang Xiaobo’s “Golden Age” brought his wry style and controversially explicit sex scenes to English readers. That same “black humor” and evocative description of life in the mid 20th-century Chinese countryside are certainly present in PLEASURE OF THINKING: Essays (Astra House, 211 pp., $26) , Yan’s new translation of Wang’s nonfiction from the 1990s — though it may not have aged as well as his fiction.

The 35 short essays contain irony-laden musings on Wang’s youth, travels and liberalism in the vein of Bertrand Russell. Most memorable are the passages in which Wang veers into farce: the tale of a “maverick pig” that evaded confinement and slaughter on the commune Wang was sent to during the Cultural Revolution, or of a childhood classmate who bit off another student’s ear. In the final entry, “The Silent Majority,” among Wang’s best and most famous essays, the author questions the power of speech in the face of repression. The tension between Wang’s desire to express himself and his understandable reticence is both taut and satisfying. “People do not only learn from books,” he writes, “they also learn from silence, and this is the chief reason for the survival of my humanity.”

Many of these essays would have benefited from editorial context. On feminism and queerness Wang remains limited by conclusions too outdated to feel revolutionary — that there are indeed many gay men in China, or that a girl “should have the right to pursue whatever it is that she wants” in life. And unsavory jokes about self-castration and stereotype-laden depictions of Black people leave a foul aftertaste. The collection also includes critical evaluations of the sociologist Li Yinhe’s work, without any mention that the pair were married. Had an editor’s or translator’s note pre-empted these concerns, it could have freed the reader to encounter Wang’s work on its own terms. Without this context, “Pleasure of Thinking” offers an often perplexing, if generally entertaining and occasionally insightful read.

Noor Qasim is a writer living in Iowa City. From 2020-2021 she served as the editing fellow at the Book Review.

Explore More in Books

Want to know about the best books to read and the latest news start here..

In “The Last Politician,” Franklin Foer presents the first half of Joe Biden’s presidency  as a series of made-for-television moments meant to inspire doubters and assuage critics.

What do you do when your doppelgänger becomes a conspiracy theorist  on the internet? If you’re Naomi Klein, you write a book about it .

Ursula K. Le Guin’s powerful imagination turned hypothetical elsewheres into vivid worlds governed by forces of nature, technology, gender, race and class a far cry from our own. Here are her essential works .

Do you want to be a better reader?   Here’s some helpful advice to show you how to get the most out of your literary endeavor .

Each week, top authors and critics join the Book Review’s podcast to talk about the latest news in the literary world. Listen here .


To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories .

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A New JFK Assassination Revelation Could Upend the Long-Held “Lone Gunman” Theory

By James Robenalt

Paul Landis leads President Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy through a crowd of supporters at the Dallas airport

He has kept his secret for 60 years.

Paul Landis was one of two Secret Service agents tasked with guarding first lady Jacqueline Kennedy on November 22, 1963—the day President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. In a new book, The Final Witness , to be published in October, Landis claims to have seen something that afternoon that he had never publicly admitted before. His secret, coming to light only now, will certainly reorient how historians and laymen perceive that grave and harrowing event. His account also raises questions about whether there might have been a second gunman in Dallas that day.

After much prodding and reflection, Landis, now 88, made the decision to begin laying out his recollections for publication. Because I have written three books on presidential history, and because Landis’s publisher, Chicago Review Press, happens to be my publisher, an editor there asked me to read a copy of the galley and offer my comments, which I did quite eagerly. In fact, I was so taken with Landis’s backstory and, upon spending time with him, so drawn to the facets of his tale that are not answered in the book (whose details were first reported in The New York Times ), that I probed further, maintaining a healthy dose of skepticism.

And yet, as I got to know him during more than a dozen meetings this past year, I was won over by his integrity and by the way his account of what he witnessed in Dallas—and in the grave months of American mourning that followed—remained consistent and unwavering. Over time, Landis and I became close. As a result, I am writing this assessment of his narrative (and of his motives for coming out with his story) not only as a historian and armchair investigator but as Landis’s confidant.

Twenty-three-year-old Paul Landis applied to become a Secret Service agent in 1958. He came from Worthington, Ohio, a suburb of Columbus, and had graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University 15 months earlier. A neighborhood boy, Bob Foster, who was friends with Landis’s sister, had joined the Secret Service two years before. After speaking with Foster, Landis thought being in the Secret Service sounded like the “coolest job in the universe.”

Landis was intrigued. But because he has always been slight of build, his immediate concern was whether he could meet the minimum height requirement (five feet, eight inches). During the physical exam, he stretched himself like a rubber band and, as he recalls, barely made it.

He started work in October 1959, at the time the youngest special agent, at 24. Just over a year later, John Kennedy was elected president; soon the young recruit was assigned the job of guarding the Kennedy children and, eventually, along with Special Agent Clint Hill, Mrs. Kennedy herself. Not all agents were given code names, but as a result of Landis’s new assignment, and because of his youth and boyish looks, he was eventually christened “Debut.”

Landis found himself deep in the inner workings of Camelot , coinciding with the apex of Jackie’s popularity. As an international superstar, she was the Princess Di of her era, and Landis was on hand as the media followed her every move. Landis traveled with the first lady and her daughter, Caroline, to Italy in 1962. (John Jr., her young son, remained back home.) Landis was the agent who helped speed and accompany Jackie to the Otis Air Force Base emergency facilities when she went into premature labor with son Patrick, who died two days after his birth in August 1963. That October, at the suggestion of Jackie’s sister, Lee Radziwill , a trip to Greece followed for an excursion aboard the luxury yacht of the shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis.

First lady Jackie Kennedy and Landis  in Italy August 30 1962

Then came November 22, 1963. A month after returning from Greece, Landis stood on the right rear running board of the Secret Service follow-up car, code-named “Halfback,” in the president’s motorcade as the vehicle headed from Dallas’s Love Field airport to a luncheon at the city’s Trade Mart. Landis was approximately 15 feet away when Kennedy was mortally wounded, a close witness to unspeakable horror.

That horror was compounded when the president’s limo reached Parkland Memorial Hospital, where Landis and Clint Hill tried to coax Jackie to release the president, whom, by that point, she had cradled in her lap. Climbing into the back seat area, which had been spattered with blood and brains and bullet fragments, both agents, according to their subsequent accounts, gently encouraged the first lady to let go.

As she did—standing up to follow Hill and another agent, Roy Kellerman, who lifted her husband’s body onto a gurney and raced into the hospital—Landis saw and did something that he has kept secret for six decades, he says now. He claims he spotted a bullet resting on the top of the back of the seat. He says he picked it up, put it in his pocket, and brought it into the hospital. Then, upon entering Trauma Room No. 1 (at that stage, he was the only nonmedical person in the room besides Mrs. Kennedy, and both stayed for only a short period), he insists, he placed the bullet on a white cotton blanket on the president’s stretcher.

This secret, as it turns out, may upend key conclusions of the Warren Commission, the body created by President Lyndon Johnson to investigate the assassination.

The sad fact is that Landis—though required to provide his version of events to the Secret Service (and, in a second report, to what would become the Warren Commission)—never sat for an interview before the FBI and never testified before the commission itself. He left the Secret Service months after the assassination and before the panel had finished its work and issued its report.

Landis, to this day, attests that in the first few years following the assassination, he was simply unable to overcome his PTSD from witnessing the murder firsthand. He says that the mental image of the president’s head, exploding, had become a recurring flashback. He maintains that he desperately tried to push down the memories. He also says he felt unable to read anything in detail about the assassination until some 50 years later, starting in 2014, when he began to come to grips with all that he had witnessed, suppressed, and finally processed.

Landis holding up John F. Kennedy Jr. on the South Lawn of the White House 1962

Landis, two years shy of his 90th birthday, remains vigorous. He exercises daily and plays golf once a week. He works a steady job as a security guard and a kind of welcome ambassador at the Cleveland History Center.

But still, the JFK conspiracy hounds are legion, and with his new book’s publication, Landis can expect intense scrutiny. I made myself available to him as a way of helping to prepare him for what was to come.

In writing this analysis of his account, I have tried to determine if his story was possible, seen against the mountains of evidence, not to mention newly released documents collected over the years by the Warren Commission, congressional probes, countless individual authors , and a kind of industry that has evolved, in which dozens upon dozens of “researchers” trade information and, inevitably, misinformation.

Over the decades, there have been endless theories surrounding the assassination, but not one of them considered that a Secret Service agent might have brought a fully intact bullet, found on top of the rear seat of the limousine, into Parkland Memorial Hospital and placed it on the president’s stretcher. Not one.

So there is virtue in looking anew at the evidence that was collected in 1963 and attempting to draw some tentative conclusions.

My own conclusion is that Landis’s story, for several reasons, is not just possible; it in fact makes more sense than the core finding of the Warren Commission, known as the “single bullet” theory.

That theory posits that a single bullet caused all of the wounds in Kennedy’s neck as well as all of the serious injuries to Texas governor John Connally—who was sitting in front of the president at the time—including the shattering of four inches of Connolly’s fifth rib and the fracturing of a major bone in his right wrist.

Yet the bullet that Landis now claims to have discovered that morning emerged largely intact and only moderately damaged, its base having been squeezed in.

By possibly placing the “magic bullet” theory in doubt, Landis’s disclosure raises as many questions as it answers. I will try to address some of them here.

First, it makes sense to retrace the main tenets of the Warren Commission’s official version of the assassination. According to the panel’s final report, issued in September 1964, three gunshots rang out as the president’s limousine passed by the Texas School Book Depository building in Dallas. Witnesses’ auditory memory differed, their testimony ranging from two to six shots. Most, however, recalled hearing a trio of blasts.

Three spent shells, in fact, were found under a window on the sixth floor of the book depository. Nearby, partially hidden by some cartons, a rifle with a scope was discovered, a cheap Mannlicher-Carcano. Lee Harvey Oswald, the man history identifies as the lone assassin, worked in that building. The commission determined that the three shots all came from the sixth floor of the book depository.

The commission concluded that two of the three shots had hit the occupants of the limousine: One bullet had transited Kennedy’s neck and then, most probably, hit Governor Connally, and one had fatally wounded Kennedy, striking his head. (Connally survived the attack, later becoming President Richard Nixon’s Treasury secretary.)

In the view of the task force, one of the shots had likely missed the limo and, though the conjecture was inconclusive, possibly struck a nearby cement curb, sending a fragment that hit a spectator some distance away, near an overpass, slightly grazing his face.

But what of the ammunition itself? Two large bullet fragments were found in the front seat of the limo, and slivers of lead fragments were recovered from an area below the jump seat where the governor’s wife, Nellie Connally, had been sitting.

President Kennedy and the first lady with Texas governor John Connally November 22 1963

At Parkland Memorial Hospital, on the day of the assassination, an additional intact bullet was discovered on a stretcher. Through testing, commission investigators determined that the copper-jacketed, 6.5-millimeter bullet matched the rifling of the Mannlicher-Carcano that had been abandoned on the sixth floor of the depository. Testing on the bullet fragments resulted in a similar finding.

One key point to raise here concerns a fundamental underpinning of the Warren Commission report: the supposition that the retrieved intact bullet had been discovered on Governor Connally’s stretcher, not on Kennedy’s. It was from this assumption, in part, that the commission reached its pivotal conclusion: The available evidence indicated that “the bullet found on the Governor’s stretcher”—the single bullet—“could have caused all his wounds.” Over time, critics have referred to it as the “pristine” or “magic” bullet.

Moreover, if that single bullet did not cause the damage, then ballistics tests performed at the time suggest it would have been almost impossible for Oswald to have fired all three shots within the tight, multi-second time frame derived from the other main piece of evidence of the assassination: the Zapruder film, a 26.6-second home movie recorded in color by bystander Abraham Zapruder, a local clothing manufacturer who happened to have brought along his Bell & Howell 8mm camera that day and, by happenstance, captured the entire sequence of the assassination.

In his book, Paul Landis now says that when Jackie Kennedy stood up to enter Parkland, he looked over and saw that a bullet was improbably sitting on top of the rear seat of the limo, right around the spot where the limo’s detachable roof, which had been removed that day, would have otherwise been affixed to the trunk. Also, amid the blood and gore, Landis remembers, were two bullet fragments on the back seat, next to where Jackie had been sitting.

Landis contends that he reached over, picked up the lone bullet nestled in the crevice, and decided to place it in his pocket, mindful that if it were left there, precariously, it might be overlooked, pilfered by an unauthorized passerby, or misplaced once the president’s body was removed. Accompanying the first lady into Parkland, he says, he brought the bullet with him and, without conferring with Mrs. Kennedy, his fellow agents, or hospital staffers, placed it on JFK’s stretcher, thinking it needed to be with the body for the autopsy. As such, he contradicts a key linchpin underlying the findings of the Warren Commission. The bullet—as Landis tells it—was not from Connally’s stretcher.

From Landis’s description, three lines of inquiry emerge.

First, how did a largely intact bullet wind up on the ledge of the back seat, where JFK had been riding when he was shot?

Second, if Landis’s account is accurate, could Lee Harvey Oswald—who shot the president from a vantage point behind the motorcade—have acted alone, as the Warren Commission theorized?

And finally, why did Landis decide to keep this information to himself for six decades?

A view of the Kennedys motorcade

There is no way to know for sure how the undamaged bullet ended up on top of the rear seat. But there seem to be only two real possibilities, both of which can be inferred from the Zapruder film. One way is that an undercharged bullet, having already been lodged in the president’s back from an initial gunshot, was jolted out of his body after a subsequent shot to the head caused his upper body to be thrown violently back against the seat, bouncing off of it with great force. A second possibility is that at some point in those hectic moments, the bullet fell out of the president’s back and onto the first lady’s clothing (her white-gloved hand did brush hard against his back, around where the bullet could have been embedded at the moment of the final shot). As one can see in the Zapruder film, Jackie, at this stage, climbed onto the trunk of the speeding car, possibly to look for or retrieve a portion of her husband’s skull—or out of sheer panic to take cover from further gunshots. In fact, the section of the back seat over which she stretched corresponds to the spot where Landis says he found the bullet.

The autopsy evidence, as developed the night of the assassination, supports either one of these results.

A short recap is in order. Initially, President Kennedy was declared dead at Parkland—his body lying face-up on the table after the surgical team had performed a tracheotomy, hoping to provide needed oxygen through a ventilator to keep him breathing (which by that time was described as gasping or agonal respiration ). These emergency room doctors used what they believed was an entry bullet wound in the front of the president’s neck to create the tracheotomy. They were apparently unaware of a bullet hole in the president’s back.

But later that night, an autopsy began at Bethesda Naval Hospital, near Washington, DC. During the procedure, doctors examined the president’s remains, only to discover a small bullet hole in the right shoulder, about five inches down from the top of the collar. This injury had gone unnoticed at Parkland since the president was declared dead before his body could be surveyed in its entirety. The Bethesda pathologists were puzzled when they probed the wound because it clearly was an entrance puncture, but it did not seem to have an exit wound, even though X-rays showed no bullet in the body.

In fact, the shoulder wound was shallow. Two doctors found that they could not pass more than half a pinky finger into the opening. Metal probes likewise uncovered no path of the bullet through the body.

Standing in proximity to the doctors were two FBI agents, Frank O’Neill and Jim Sibert, who had been dispatched by the bureau’s director, J. Edgar Hoover, to witness the autopsy and recover bullets or bullet fragments for the FBI lab. In their written statement, the agents discussed the frustration of the Bethesda doctors when they could not locate a bullet or exit wound for the projectile that had entered the president’s shoulder.

That night, according to the agents’ account, one of them placed a call to the FBI lab and found out that a “stretcher bullet” had been discovered at Parkland. Doctors used this information to theorize that “this accounted for no bullet being located which had entered the back region and that since external cardiac massage had been performed at Parkland Hospital, it was entirely possible that through such movement the bullet had worked its way back out of the point of entry and had fallen on the stretcher.”

The next morning, the Bethesda pathologists, as stated in their Warren Commission testimony, were told by Parkland doctors that the wound in the front of Kennedy’s neck was more than just the result of the tracheotomy they had performed. In fact, the Parkland team stated, there had been a bullet hole in the anterior (front) of the neck, and the ER staff had used that wound to create the tracheotomy. No one at the autopsy, according to FBI agents Sibert and O’Neill, had suspected there was a hole in the front of the president’s neck. With this new information, the Bethesda doctors revised their findings and assumed that the front wound was an exit for the bullet that had entered the president’s body from the back.

Warren Commission members Hale Boggs John Cooper and Richard Russell leave the Texas School Book Depository after...

There were problems with this inference. The neck and shoulder had not been sectioned by those performing the autopsy to establish a bullet path. And by the time of the revelation of the front-neck injury, the president’s body had been brought to the White House to lay in repose in the East Room. (The next day, it lay in state in the Capitol rotunda.) Further, the wound in the back, according to Silbert and O’Neill, did not align with the location of the front-neck wound; such a pathway would have required a bullet traveling from the book depository, behind the motorcade, to have changed course inside the president’s body so as to exit higher up, through the neck, without hitting any bone to alter its course.

Agents O’Neill and Sibert didn’t buy it. “I do not see how the bullet that entered below the shoulder in the back could have come out the front of the throat,” O’Neill told the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1978.

Landis’s discovery of the bullet on top of the rear seat, if true, comports with the initial finding: that the bullet had lodged superficially in the president’s back before being dislodged by the final blast to his head. It also explains the “pristine” nature of the bullet.

The genesis of the “single bullet” theory was twofold.

First, the Zapruder footage showed Kennedy reacting to the bullet that hit him in the back—and then, apparently, exited through the front of his neck (his arms spasmodically began to rise, elbows out, fists shielding his throat)— about a second or so before Connally seemed to react to his own wounding. To the Warren Commission staff, that double reaction on the part of the two men was puzzling. Given the type of weapon Oswald was using, there would have been no way for him to have gotten off two firings in such a short span of time.

Secondly, when the panel attempted to recreate the shooting in a manner consistent with the Zapruder film, FBI marksmen found that it took about 2.3 seconds to shoot, reload the bolt-action rifle, aim, and shoot again. Given Governor Connally’s reaction time, there did not appear to have been enough time for Oswald to have taken a second shot so quickly, let alone with any accuracy.

Howard Willens, an assistant counsel to the Warren Commission, and the author of the 2013 book History Will Prove Us Right, wrote about this dilemma: “If the interval between the first and second shots covered a span of less than 2.25 seconds, the time estimated to be necessary for the assassin to fire two shots, it might suggest that a second rifle was involved.”

The commission’s solution, however, championed by staff attorney Arlen Specter (who would become a US senator from Pennsylvania), was that the same bullet that hit Kennedy must have gone on to hit Connally on his right side. Connally’s second-later response was explained by the commission as a “delayed reaction” to an earlier wounding.

But, as noted, that theory depended on the single bullet having been found on Connally’s stretcher at Parkland Memorial Hospital, not on Kennedy’s stretcher.

The panel’s members speculated that the bullet, after causing Kennedy’s and Connally’s wounds, ended up superficially stuck in Connally’s left leg and must have dropped onto his stretcher once inside the hospital.

That said, the original evidence from 1963 is far from clear on this point.

President Kennedy stands on the Texas airstrip with Jackie Kennedy and Governor John Connally

The provenance of the bullet is also important in supporting or refuting Paul Landis’s purported memory. How was that bullet found? And how did it make its way to the FBI lab in Washington, DC, on the night of the assassination?

Landis’s recollection, as stated above, is that he found the undeformed bullet on top of the back seat of the limousine. “It was resting in a seam where the tufted leather padding ended against the car’s metal body,” he writes. When Jackie Kennedy stood up to follow her husband into the hospital, he saw it. He picked up the bullet, worried that souvenir seekers or others might take it or move it.

Upon arriving inside the emergency room, as stated above, he was jammed in with the first lady and a gathering horde of doctors and nurses. Standing near the feet of the president’s body, Landis left the bullet on his stretcher, as he believed it was crucial evidence and needed for the autopsy, which, under Texas law, should have taken place in Dallas.

But then a new chain of events overtook the gruesome sequence surrounding the assassination. A decision was made to transfer the president’s body, along with the first lady, Vice President Johnson, and others, back to Air Force One at Love Field. And with new tasks taking precedence for Landis—and the overwhelming national shock of the first assassination of an American president in 62 years (since the death of William McKinley in 1901)—the special agent simply never gave the bullet a second thought, he says. He had left it where someone would find it.

Landis didn’t make reference to the bullet in either of the two reports he submitted, hastily written in the turbulent days following the assassination. One short file, written two days after the funeral, didn’t even mention Parkland Memorial Hospital. A second, typed three days later—a day after Life magazine journalist Theodore White interviewed Jackie at the Kennedy compound in Hyannis Port, in what became known, famously, as the “Camelot” interview—was drafted during a time of deep shock and trauma.

That Thanksgiving, November 28—three days after the state funeral at which world leaders marched behind Mrs. Kennedy in the streets of Washington, DC—Landis and Hill traveled to Hyannis Port in a security capacity, protecting Jackie and her children. The agents had no time off to regroup or get their bearings. Sleep had eluded them. Landis had been up for practically four days straight. In the months after Lyndon Johnson was sworn in and assumed the presidential reins, Landis’s role switched from being part of the overall White House protection group to working full time for the former first lady. (Congress passed an act to authorize this service.) With this change of responsibilities, he found it hard to think of much beyond the weeks ahead. And if his thoughts did migrate back to November 22, he dwelled on the horrific scenes of the assassination, and rarely on what he says he considered a minor detail: the fact that he had picked up a bullet and placed it next to the president’s body.

The evidence from 1963 makes it fully plausible that the stretcher on which the bullet was found could have been President Kennedy’s. How so? A Parkland Memorial Hospital engineer, Darrell Tomlinson, was asked on November 22, before the president’s remains had been taken from the hospital to travel back north, to set the controls of the elevator in the emergency area—the one that had taken the wounded Governor Connally up to the second floor for surgery—so that the elevator would only be operable manually. The security team had determined that only people with official clearance would be allowed access; Tomlinson was instructed to control who got on the elevator and where they would go.

When he pushed the button to open the elevator, he later recalled, there was a stretcher in the elevator—one that the Warren Commission presumed was Governor Connally’s stretcher, returned from the surgery floor. Tomlinson testified that the stretcher had some sheets on it and a white covering on the pad, but no bullet. He moved the stretcher out of the elevator and placed it against a wall.

However, Tomlinson testified that there was another stretcher already in the hall, which had been placed in front of a men’s restroom in the corner. That stretcher had bloody sheets and some used medical paraphernalia on it.

Tomlinson said that sometime later, “an intern or doctor,” in order to use the bathroom, pushed the stretcher out of the way but failed to return it to its spot against the wall after leaving. Tomlinson roughly pushed it back against the wall, and when he did so, he claimed, a bullet rolled out from under the mat. This was clearly not Connally’s stretcher.

Jackie Kennedy looking into the ambulance November 22 1963. Landis stands just behind her .

Arlen Specter, who had traveled to Dallas to take Tomlinson’s deposition in March 1964, was thunderstruck when Tomlinson relayed this scenario. To judge from a transcript of that conversation, Specter spent much of the remainder of his time with Tomlinson essentially trying to talk him out of his recollection, causing a distressed Tomlinson to say he just was not sure about his memory.

But the Q&A itself clearly suggests that Tomlinson, unprompted and unbadgered, had a cogent recollection that a bullet, wherever else it ultimately ended up, had come from the stretcher that had already been left in the hall in front of the men’s room.

In its final report, the Warren Commission mentioned nothing about this detail from Tomlinson’s account. Instead, the panel largely dismissed Tomlinson’s testimony, writing that even though he was “not certain whether the bullet came from the Connally stretcher or the adjacent one,” the commission “has concluded that the bullet came from the Governor’s stretcher.”

And what of the contemporaneous evidence from the witnesses who provided care to the governor in the emergency room and on the surgery floor?

When Connally was brought in from the limo, he was in great distress. He was taken to Trauma Room No. 2, where his clothes were immediately cut off. No one saw a bullet sticking out of his leg when his pants were removed. Neither was a bullet seen on the stretcher nor found in his clothing. Once stabilized, he was wheeled to the emergency room elevator and taken to surgery on the second floor.

Connally was then transported from the emergency room stretcher and placed on an operating table. No one testified to having seen a bullet on that stretcher. All of the medical paraphernalia on Connally’s stretcher was removed by a nurse before the stretcher was put back in the elevator. And the attendant who placed that stretcher onto the elevator did not recall having seen a bullet.

Darrell Tomlinson, however, went further. He said that as soon as he found the bullet, he alerted O.P. Wright, the chief of security at the hospital. Wright, in turn, gave the bullet to Secret Service agent Dick Johnsen, who was in the process of leaving the hospital with the president’s casket and Mrs. Kennedy. Johnsen wrapped the bullet in a handkerchief and placed it in his pocket. He then rode on Air Force One back to Washington.

Johnsen was assigned to sit with the casket and near Mrs. Kennedy in the back of Air Force One on the return journey to the nation’s capital. The body, the widow, and the bullet all returned to Washington on the same plane, in close proximity.

When Johnsen got back to the White House, he typed a short note to describe the bullet and how he ended up with it. “The attached expended bullet was received by me about 5 min., prior to Mrs. Kennedy’s departure from the hospital,” he wrote. “It was found on one of the stretchers located in the emergency ward of the hospital. Also on this same stretcher were rubber gloves, a stethoscope and other doctor’s paraphernalia.”

Johnsen dated his note: “7:30 p.m., Nov. 22, 1963.”

Johnsen then handed over the bullet to the director of the Secret Service, James Rowley. Rowley, finally, gave the bullet to the FBI that very night; it was signed in as the first piece of evidence in the assassination investigation, labeled with the designation “Q1.”

That evening, the initial supposition was that the bullet had come from JFK’s stretcher because the autopsy doctors at Bethesda, attempting to understand the whereabouts of the bullet that had entered Kennedy’s back, thought it might have been lodged in his back and then fallen out when rigorous chest massages were performed at Parkland.

It was only after the autopsy (and after the president’s body had been moved to the White House) that Parkland doctors told the pathologists that they had used a bullet wound in the front of Kennedy’s neck to make a tracheotomy.

Upon hearing this, the autopsy doctors tentatively revised their thesis and surmised that the bullet that entered Kennedy’s back must have exited through the front of his neck.

And so the problem started: The Warren Commission could not explain what happened to the bullet if it exited through the front of Kennedy’s neck. Howard Willens described the Warren Commission staff’s internal debate: “There was one basic question that now seems very simple,” he wrote. “Where did the bullet go after it exited the president’s neck?”

Paul Landis, in effect, answers that question: It ended up in a crevice on top of the back seat. It seems unlikely that the bullet traversed the president’s body and exited through the front of his neck.

Maybe the bullet entered the president’s back only superficially; these WW II–vintage bullets, after all, were notoriously undercharged with gunpowder. If this were the case, it might have indeed fallen out when he was violently struck with the final shot; when Mrs. Kennedy, at one point, pushed him down onto the seat; or when she clambered onto the trunk, the bullet falling off of her and onto the top of the back seat.

To be fair to the record, the Warren Commission’s findings suggested that Kennedy’s stretcher was not the stretcher in the elevator lobby because the nurses who had treated the president testified that once they’d been informed that a casket had arrived at Parkland, they had removed bloody sheets from his stretcher before moving it across the hall to Trauma Room No. 2.

But given the blood-soaked scene described by all of the medical personnel in Trauma Room No. 1, it is not unreasonable to assume that an orderly in Trauma Room No. 2 preemptively moved the president’s stretcher into the hall, stained sheets, medical paraphernalia, and all, to be further cleaned up by other attendants.

Attorney General Robert Kennedy Senator Edward Kennedy the first lady and Landis  walking during the funeral procession...

What does all this mean when considering whether Lee Harvey Oswald, as proposed by the Warren Commission, was the lone assassin? It certainly raises the stakes that another shooter might have been involved.

First, if the “pristine” bullet did not travel through both Kennedy and Connally, somehow ending up on Connally’s stretcher, then it stands to reason that Connally might have actually been hit by a separate bullet, coming from above and to the rear. The FBI recreation suggests that Oswald would not have had enough time to get off two separate shots so quickly as to hit Connally after wounding the president in the back. A second shooter must be considered.

And what about the bullet wound in the front of Kennedy’s neck? In one of the earliest critiques of the Warren Commission report, Josiah Thompson, author of Six Seconds in Dallas, proposed, not unreasonably, that the front-neck wound might have come from a bullet or bone fragment that was driven down and exited through the president’s throat from the final blast to his skull.

But there are other, darker explanations arising from the secrecy surrounding the X-rays and photographs taken at the autopsy and then not made public for decades. Jerrol F. Custer, the principal X-ray technician at the autopsy, testified in 1997 that there were several small metallic fragments in the cervical spine (the spinal region directly below the skull), which were visible in an X-ray, and that this was one of three X-ray exposures he took that night that went missing from the collection in the National Archives. This might have contained evidence of a shot from the front of the motorcade—a frangible bullet that disintegrated into tiny pieces after entry into the body. A heavy lift, for sure, but medical staffers who saw the front-of-the-neck wound before the tracheotomy believed it was an entrance wound because of its neatness.

Though some observers, down through the years, have mentioned the possibility of a second shooter, perhaps positioned on the so-called “grassy knoll” area along the route of the motorcade, neither this article nor Landis’s book has the insight or forensic expertise to hazard any new conclusions in this area. Others will have to analyze the evidence in full to see where it now leads. But, without question, this revelation will spark major debates. And that should not be surprising. The Warren Commission report, though lauded right after it was issued, has had its share of credibility detractors as time has passed. In 2013, a week before the 50th anniversary of the assassination, public opinion polls found that more than 60% of Americans believed the president’s murder had not been the work of one man, as the commission contended, but part of some kind of conspiracy.

There are many reasons for this skepticism, including a growing public distrust toward governmental pronouncements. And yet a chronic source of questioning has been the commission’s claim that a single bullet wounded both Kennedy and Connally, emerging mostly undamaged after having done so much damage.

Perhaps Landis’s revelations will offer a critical mass of additional conjecture to prompt a reassessment of the “magic bullet” theory.

The more confounding question, in my view, is a simple, human one: Why did Paul Landis decide to keep this information to himself for 60 years? The answer is complicated. But it is in many ways understandable if one considers his predicament at the time and in the years that followed.

Upon leaving the bullet on Kennedy’s stretcher, Landis explains today, he felt that he had done the right thing, expecting an autopsy and mindful of the need for the bullet to remain with the body. Like all of the Secret Service members on hand that day—and, indeed, the entire nation—he was also racked with grief and loss (to say nothing of PTSD, which was an unrecognized condition at the time). For Landis, however, a man who had been a constant presence in his life had been slain right in front of him—a man whose wife’s safety had been, in part, his own responsibility.

But soon the intensity of the moment enveloped him. Landis’s focus turned to responding to Mrs. Kennedy at Parkland; attending to the needs of the family upon the return of the remains to the capital; accompanying Jackie and the president’s brother Robert F. Kennedy during the nine-hour wait at Bethesda as the autopsy proceeded; remaining on protective duty during one of the riskiest state funerals in history; and then staying on in Jackie’s peripatetic orbit for the next several months—unable to find the time to properly attempt to cope with the raw trauma he had experienced.

In May, nearly six months after the assassination, Landis realized that the ordeal had taken its toll; concerned about his own mental health, he decided he couldn’t take it anymore. By August, at age 29, he had left the Secret Service. At the time, the Warren Commission had not issued its report, nor had Landis been interviewed for it; the public had not yet heard of the “single bullet” theory.

From that point onward, Landis now says, he withdrew from his more public-facing life, adamantly refusing to read more about the assassination. He avoided most requests for interviews by the media. He assumed, without looking at the final report, that the Warren Commission must have gotten it right.

Then, around 2010, things began to thaw. A project by Secret Service agent Gerald Blaine brought Landis out of his shell. Blaine was writing a book, The Kennedy Detail, with Lisa McCubbin, and Landis agreed to participate, mainly, he says, because his friend Clint Hill had also signed on. The agents met in Dallas to film an accompanying documentary, and Landis discovered he was not alone in feeling guilty and isolated following the assassination. But even then, Landis was not yet prepared to tell his own story.

Jackie Kennedy mourns at the funeral with children Caroline and John brothersinlaw Ted and Robert and Landis

That all changed in 2014 when Landis finally read a 1967 book on the assassination—a gift from a friend. When he began to page through Six Seconds in Dallas, by Josiah Thompson, he first saw that CE 399—the “pristine” bullet—was believed to have come from Governor Connally’s stretcher. Landis claims today that he immediately reached out to Clint Hill to tell him that he brought the bullet into Parkland and left it on the president’s stretcher, not the governor’s. He needed to correct this record.

One issue at the time was that the Secret Service was struggling with very public scandals , ranging from breaches of the White House grounds by intruders to accusations of liaisons with prostitutes in South America. And so, in deference to the troubles roiling the agency, Landis decided to remain mum.

In late 2015, however, Landis had a change of heart, he insists. He spoke with former Secret Service director Lewis Merletti, who had lived nearby, in Beachwood, Ohio, as the former head of security for the Cleveland Browns. Landis told Merletti of his secret; soon thereafter, Landis began the odyssey of carefully writing his book.

In the intervening seven years, he struggled with his conscience. His guilt, in my estimation, stemmed in part from a creeping concern that others might accuse him of having done something wrong by moving the bullet. Moreover, he must have worried, to some degree, about not having spoken out about finding the bullet in the first place—and not having sought to clarify the record more speedily once it became apparent to him that many historians and the public at large had cast doubt on the findings of the Warren Commission. Another factor amplifying his angst, I would imagine, was that the longer he remained silent, the harder it became to speak out.

Adding to his concerns, I’m sure, was the fact that Landis had been criticized—unfairly, in my view—for having stayed out most of the night before the assassination. Over the years, journalists and others have written sporadically about how “nine members” of the Kennedy Secret Service contingent went out drinking into the wee hours of November 22. A detailed report, with statements by the agents, was gathered following the assassination, and those comments are included as part of the record in the Warren Commission report volumes .

That investigation showed that around midnight on November 21, the Secret Service agents arrived in Fort Worth at the Hotel Texas with the president and first lady. Kennedy had barnstormed the state that day with events and motorcades in San Antonio and Houston. Though exhausted and famished, the agents were nonetheless used to putting in long hours in service to a youthful, hard-charging—and sometimes hard-partying—president. Double shifts were not uncommon.

Some members of the group, seeking food, were encouraged by Merriman Smith, a respected wire service reporter with United Press International, to visit a complimentary room set up by the Fort Worth Press Club in a nearby hotel. By that late hour, however, the food was gone. Several agents had a beer or two. Some had mixed drinks. Landis, for his part, professed to having had a scotch and soda.

Still hungry, the agents were told of a late-night coffeehouse, The Cellar, that might have something to eat. The Cellar was known for its “beatnik” performers—poetry-reading and guitar-playing—and a female waitstaff that wore skimpy outfits. Landis was among the agents who went to The Cellar, where, as he mentioned in one of his 1963 statements to authorities, he had two “Salty Dicks”—a local concoction that might or might not have had alcohol. Landis attested that he drank grapefruit juice, which he says today had no alcohol. At 4 a.m. CT, he says, he left to retire to his hotel.

By 8 a.m., Landis had breakfast and was asked by Roy Kellerman, the man in charge of the entire unit, to assist in protection for the president, who had decided to give an impromptu speech in front of the Hotel Texas. He later helped escort Mrs. Kennedy to a breakfast sponsored by the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce at the hotel. He contends that he and his fellow agents that day were amped up by the heightened alertness involved with a presidential motorcade. They were likely stoked, as well, by the adrenaline of the crowds and the excitement and pomp. To a man, everyone involved who was interviewed for the Warren Commission said that all of the agents, including those who had gone out the night before, showed up on time for work, exhibiting no effects of excess drinking. Photos from that morning and day, in fact, show Landis bright-eyed and working diligently in his protective capacity.

Columnist Drew Pearson, however, got wind of the late-night excursion and in the week following the assassination published an exposé about the agents’ behavior. It caused an uproar. The incident, in fact, has continued to attract attention: In 2014, author Susan Cheever, finishing up a book called Drinking in America, reconstructed her own narrative of the evening for Vanity Fair, quoting both Paul Landis and Clint Hill.

I believe there is little reason to think that late-night alcohol consumption contributed to the agents’ response times or decision-making that day. Hill, who had been out with the others, reacted quickly in trying to get to the limo. In a six-second incident, he did not make it in time. The agent on the running board in front of Landis, Jack Ready, started to jump off himself but was called back by the agent in charge of that car, Emory Roberts, who feared that Ready might be run over and realized that Hill was already on his way toward the vehicle. Roberts had not been out the night before, drinking or otherwise. The same is true of the only agent who really had a chance to avert disaster, driver Bill Greer, who might have taken evasive action with the president’s limo once the shooting started. The agent next to Greer in the front passenger seat of the presidential limo, Roy Kellerman, likewise didn’t react in time. Kellerman had not been out drinking; he had gone straight to bed once they checked into the Hotel Texas.

Landis recognized that, despite any accusations to the contrary, there was nothing he could have done to prevent the tragedy. He also knew that he risked being criticized for having stayed out most of the night and having violated Secret Service policy by drinking any alcohol that might possibly impair him “if called upon to perform an official duty.” This no doubt contributed to his overall reluctance to come forward.

More to the point, I sense that he had an underlying guilt about what he might have done. He had found a bullet—the first piece of evidence logged into the record of the assassination of a US president—and then he went on his way, alone, in private.

He understands today how history might have changed had he told the pathologists at Bethesda that night where the “stretcher bullet” had come from—but he was not the one in the autopsy room (Kellerman and Greer were), and he had his hands full with the stream of family and mourners who arrived on the hospital’s 17th floor to console Jackie.

Landis is an upright, respected, private man. His moral authority and personal credibility have always been two hallmarks of his persona. My gut tells me that in his own way, he didn’t want to be the guy who had done a good deed under intense pressure, and then, forevermore, was raked over the coals for it. Which is how society often treats people these days. That anxiety might well have led to a sense of regret—even though his initial actions had been completely laudable.

In addition, he was in his late 20s at the time, a man whose values were grounded in those of the 1950s and ’60s. Silence and discretion, to him, had always been virtues. And he didn’t feel that it was appropriate to change his stripes and “go public”—drawing attention to his own behavior—when conspiracy theorists ran rampant, when other agents had been in the press over the years, and when President Kennedy had been killed, in effect, on his watch.

All of this, I contend, contributed to his years of silence.

But nothing, as I see it—and as Landis himself sees it—should detract from the fact that he has now come forward with his version of what happened on that dreadful day. And history will be the better for it.

James David Robenalt is an attorney and Washington Post contributor. He is the author of four nonfiction books: The Harding Affair; Linking Rings; Ballots and Bullets; and January 1973: Watergate, Roe v. Wade, Vietnam, and the Month That Changed America Forever.

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Welcome to, the Web's leading provider of quality, made-to-order academic writing. Chances are, you are new to the game of buying research and writing online. If so, you’ve come to the right essay writing service. If you’re asking, “Who can write my essay?”, we have the answer. Whether you want to talk to us over the phone or through our live chat, we'll walk you through the process. And don't worry — we won't try to sell you something you don't need. And if you buy an essay from us, you don't have to wonder about our prices. We list them below, and as you will see, the pricing is not only competitive for the highest quality papers but transparent: you will know exactly what it is you are paying for.

You get exactly what you pay for. No tricks, no bait-and-switch swindles that are part of the business plan of the other so-called "writing services" available online. By coming here, you have successfully steered clear of them.

Why EssayBox?

  • Professional writers with proven academic backgrounds
  • 24/7 Customer Support via email, phone, and livechat
  • Fast turnaround when you need it
  • Every academic discipline offered at your college or university
  • Every academic level from high school to postdoc
  • Clear policies and Money-Back Guarantee
  • Transparent prices with no hidden charges

FREE Add-ons

  • Bibliography page
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  • Formatting (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian etc.)
  • Installments payment option can do academic research and writing in ANY of the following categories!

  • Communications
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And these are just to name a few. can write them at any level you wish, from high school to Ph.D. - and even postdoc!

Here at, we know HOW HARD it can be...

For overworked and worn-out students to write a top-quality paper that will help them get the A that they, their instructors, and their parents want and expect. Even with the help of Google, students still have to filter reams of information — and sometimes there is too much of it out there — and then organize it into a logical and correctly formatted academic paper.

But what is next to impossible for you in the short amount of time you have until your deadline is duck soup for us. Just another day at the office. That's because hires only the Web's most skilled professionals. They are the answer to your question: “Who’s going to write my essay?” We pay them well and they deliver the goods. Every time. And if you should not like what you get, tell us. You'll either get another essay or you will get your money back. That's what makes unique in this cutthroat business.


How many pages or words do you need?


What is the topic of your essay?


MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.


How many references are required?


When is your deadline?


Your education paper can do better. If you struggle to find someone to write your thesis, research work, or any other assignment, then do not spend more time on search – turn to get expert assistance for an affordable price. We indeed know how to make the best of your endeavours. Shift your responsibilities onto your personal writer, and wait for his pro help to be delivered.


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Guys, you have been of great help. My assignment was delivered on time and I scored an awesome grade.

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This is my third time working with You never fail to surprise me, excellent quality and always on time!

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One of the best customer support teams out here on the market. You can write at any time and get professional help.

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Amazing service, I’m very happy with the results, and that I chose you to help me write my essay. I highly recommend this service


If you’ve ever Googled, “Help me write my college essay,” you’re not alone. In fact, you’re in the majority. Students all over the world regularly request some assistance in writing their essays.

And for a good reason. Student life is challenging. It’s not just studying, the papers, and the tests, but it’s all the other things that go along with it: family challenges, illness, and relationship difficulties. And that’s in addition to the other things that make a student’s life meaningful: sports, clubs, and your social life. Yes—parties with friends are also important for mental health.

All that is to say that sometimes life builds up and forces a student to ask, “help me write my essay!” Well, we’re here for you.

In this post, you’ll find the answer to students’ most common questions about essay writing services.


Absolutely. is an essay writing service. We help students that are really struggling by providing services that support their school achievement. Our services can help with anything from editing the paper you’ve written but could use a little TLC. Or, send us your assignment instructions and let one of our professional writers complete the assignment for you.


Absolutely. Our staff is flexible and can write a range of assignments, from admissions essays to case studies to dissertation chapters. We can help you with what you need. We work in all subjects, too, so feel free to send your biology paper, art exhibition review, or psychology research report.


Good question. There are several advantages.

  • Get you through a tough time. Most of our clients are looking for a bit of help during a time when they are particularly struggling. We can lift some of the burdens on that brutal semester while you manage the rest of your life.
  • Increase your learning. Many of our clients tell us that the papers we write help them understand the subject matter better. Don’t be surprised if you read one of our papers and think, “This is new to me” or, “That never occurred to me!”
  • Good Grades. While we can’t guarantee a particular grade, all the papers we write are high quality. You’ll be satisfied, or you’ll get your money back.


Absolutely yes. We pass all papers through a plagiarism detector to ensure they’re entirely original content.


Unfortunately, we cannot guarantee you the highest grade since the assignment of marks is subjective and depends on your professor or teacher. We can ensure that you receive a high-quality essay that meets all the assignment instructions. Very high grades are typical for our papers.


All our writers are fully qualified writing professionals. They all have undergraduate degrees. Each of them has to pass rigorous writing tasks before they can be hired. We provide high-quality services.


There is usually only one writer working on your order, but there is also an editor that reads it when it is finished to make sure the work meets our high standards. This is how we are different from other companies and how we make sure you get a good paper.


It’s pretty simple. You send us the assignment instructions and the due date. We find someone with skills that match your needs. They write the assignment, we edit it, and then send it to you.


Yes. While we can’t guarantee you’ll get an A, we can guarantee that you’ll be satisfied. Our money-back guarantee covers you in case you want to cancel your order, accidentally make a double payment, or in case no writer has the expertise for your assignment (this is rare!). Further, if your order is late, or you’re unhappy with the essay quality, you are entitled to a free revision or your money back. Please see our website for details.


Absolutely. Communication with our company and with our staff is completely anonymous. Further, payments are secured and processed on a secure server.


We’re proud of our service and the quality of work we provide. If you struggle to write your paper, get in touch, and let’s see how we can help you.”


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