Essay About Immigration Causes and Effects

People have been migrating since prehistoric times. How and why would they choose to immigrate? What are the effects of immigration? In this essay about immigration causes and effects, you will discover the current debates surrounding immigration, such as issues related to national security and the economy. Mentioning the three main causes of immigration – political unrest and wars, freedom and rights violations, and poverty – the author concludes that immigration brings many benefits. However, it is vital for governments to carefully consider the consequences and develop policies that balance the needs of all parties involved.


Illegal immigrants, causes of immigration, effects of immigration, immigration policies, video version.

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The issue of immigration has been in the limelight for a long period of time now. The most affected region being the United States of America which forms the destination of most immigrants. Immigration generally entails people moving from their native lands to other destinations where they end up settling (Williams 83). There are various reasons as to why people decide to leave their land and move to other regions. Some of which include search for employment, political uproars and natural disasters just to mention but a few.

The immigrants who get into another country are broadly classified into two groups that are the legal and illegal immigrants. Legal immigrants are those seek the authorization from the immigration department of the state’s government on entering the nation. That way, they possess legal documents and become just like the citizens of that nation.

Illegal immigrants on the other hand are people who enter the borders of a nation without proper immigration procedures and choose to remain in that country without permission (Williams 83). Therefore the problem of immigration is usually caused by the illegal immigrants and not the legal ones. This paper is therefore a synthesis of the issue of immigration especially in the United States where it is most prevalent.

The United States of America is one of the most preferred destinations for most illegal immigrants in the world because of its open border policy. As a matter of fact, the United States has procedures in its constitution that allow the presence of illegal immigrants in the country. Thus it is deemed to have the highest number of immigrants according to research done by the Department of Homeland Security where the population of illegal immigrant was 10.8 million in 2009 (Espenshade 195).

Illegal immigrants in the United States of America have led to both negative and positive impacts in terms of economic and social status. For example, they have created problems of a bilingual society, drug trafficking, traffic congestion and the free-rider problem. However, illegal immigrants contribute greatly to the society by performing tasks that the civilized Americans would not perform such as the construction industry.

The reason as to why people flee from their country is because of different problems that may have cropped up in those regions. Thy therefore decide to move to safer and more comfortable regions. Some of the major causes of immigration in the current world include;

Political unrests and wars

This is one of the common causes of immigration in various regions of the world. The fact that most people live in regions where the governments and politicians practice corruption hence being inefficient in their duty of work leads to people moving to other regions in search of peace and harmony (Swanson 1). At the same time, in nations where they are experiencing civil wars with their neighboring nations, people will therefore flee to the peaceful regions.

Freedom and Rights reasons

Every human being desires to have freedom and rights to do whatever they would wish as long as it is in accordance with the law. The deprivation of rights has been another cause of immigration. In areas where people are prosecuted because of their religion or culture, they tend to run away from such thus finding places where they will be accepted.

People are forced to move in search of greener pasture when the pain of hunger grows stronger than they can hold. This occurs as a result of areas that have been draught stricken or flooded such that getting food is a problem. That way people move to areas that have food for them to consume lest they die of hunger.

Immigration has both negative and positive impacts on the nation in which the immigrants settle. However, the cons of immigration outweigh the pros with the only benefit being a source of cheap labor for the informal employment (Swanson 1). The negative effects of immigration therefore include;

To begin with, immigration is major cause of overpopulation in the United States of America. As a result the resources are constrained since they have been overwhelmed by the increasing population.

The overpopulation issue is what now leads to other problems such as increased crime rates, pollution, congestion in housing and use of public amenities (Beck 165). In other instances, if the immigrants are left to grow in numbers, then they may at one time cause wars with the natives as they fight to possess the lands they have settled in for a long time.

The fact that immigration is not acceptable both socially and economically, it should be curbed out. Some of the ways through which immigration could be reduced to minimal levels is through enactment of strict rules governing the immigration issue.

For instance the government of the United States has put in place The Secure Fence Act of 2006 as well as the Comprehensive Immigration form at its border with Mexico. This was initiated by the former president Bush in a bid to reduce the number of immigrants coming from Mexico to the United States.

This act enabled the construction of a fence along the border with Mexico at the south. Other than this, the Act led to the authorization of additional vehicle barriers, checkpoints and increased lighting at the border so as to ensure that only legal migration took place. On the other hand, the Comprehensive Immigration form has increased the funding allocated for border security thus ensuring that safety was enhanced at the border as a result of additional border patrol agents and guards.

From the above discussion, it can be clearly seen that the issue of immigration is a cause for most societal and economic problems. However, the immigrants cannot be blamed for their acts since they do so in search of peaceful regions. It would therefore be against the human rights to chase and reprimand the immigrants. As a matter of fact, some of the immigrants enter the border for genuine reasons such as being safe and getting cheap employment to sustain their livelihoods.

Thus assist in industries such as the construction, restaurants, truck driving, and masonry among others which heavily depend on the labor from the immigrants. It has been noted that most of the employers prefer using labor from the illegal immigrants because they end up saving so much on the cost of wages. Therefore, despite the fact that the illegal immigrants do not pay taxes to enjoy the public goods and services, their contribution to the economy counterbalances the argument.

Beck, Rita. The case against immigration . (2001) Oxford, UK: Norton Publishers, Shapiro, Richard.

Espenshade, T. “Unauthorized Immigration to the United States” Annual Review of Sociology . (1995). Volume: 21. pp. 195.

Swanson, Marisa. The causes and effects of Immigration . 2010-2011. Web.

Williams, Mary. Immigration . San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Page 83.

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After an in-depth and thorough analysis of undocumented immigration into the United States, conclusions can be made that the United States is in dire need of comprehensive immigration reform.  As stated in the White House Report on immigration, it is evident that both documented and undocumented workers and immigrants contribute to all walks of life, especially in the labor force. ( 39 )  Moreover, evidence shows that as the number of immigrants increases, the United States economy continues to thrive as a result.  That is why it is important that there are measures in place that provide undocumented immigrants living in the United States with a path to citizenship.  At the same time, the United States needs to strengthen its borders in an attempt to uphold the law, as it is written.  Finally, employers of undocumented workers need to be dealt with harshly, as they are blatantly violating the law by employing undocumented workers, and often times paying them below minimum wage. 

One of the fundamental challenges of comprehensive immigration reform, as the 2008 presidential election quickly approaches, is that leading candidates from both parties have been reluctant to embrace reform during the campaign.  On the Republican side, political analysts have said that Senator John McCain’s decline in the polls is a result of his legislative track record towards immigration reform.  And when Senator Clinton declared her support to provide driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants, she received harsh criticism from both Democrats and Republicans, causing her to retreat from this stance. ( 40 )  Presently, it does not seem that any of the presidential candidates are up to the challenge of fighting on behalf of the millions of undocumented immigrants who contribute to society.

What America needs is a leader who is willing to say that undocumented immigrants and workers living in the United States do not hurt society, but enhance it.  America needs a leader who is willing to provide undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship in this country, while making sure legislation in favor of comprehensive immigration reform will be passed in both the House and the Senate.  America needs a leader who will stand up for the rights of undocumented immigrants, while challenging those who question their contributions to the United States.  And America needs a leader who will enforce and strengthen the nation's border patrol, but at the same time promote legal immigration into the United States.   

It was President John F. Kennedy who said it best: “ Everywhere immigrants have enriched and strengthened the fabric of American life.” ( 41 )

By Andrew Wallace, Matthew Kretman and Scott Strogatz

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Essay on Immigration

Students are often asked to write an essay on Immigration in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Immigration


Immigration is the process where individuals move from their native country to another country. This movement can be due to various reasons such as seeking better opportunities, escaping conflicts, or joining family.

Reasons for Immigration

People immigrate for many reasons. Some seek better job opportunities or education. Others move to escape war, poverty, or political instability. Some join family members who have already immigrated.

Effects of Immigration

Immigration can have both positive and negative impacts. It can bring cultural diversity and economic growth. However, it might also lead to overpopulation and job competition.

Understanding immigration is crucial as it affects both the immigrants and the host country. It is a complex issue that requires empathy and careful consideration.

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250 Words Essay on Immigration

Immigration, the movement of people from one country to another, has been a significant part of human history. It shapes the demographic, economic, and cultural landscapes of nations and is a reflection of the global interconnectedness of societies.

The Economic Perspective

From an economic standpoint, immigration contributes to the labor market’s dynamism. Immigrants often fill jobs that native-born citizens are unwilling or unable to do, thus maintaining the economic balance. Additionally, they stimulate economic growth by increasing demand for goods and services.

Social Implications

On the social front, immigration fosters cultural diversity, leading to a rich tapestry of traditions, languages, and perspectives. However, it may also trigger social tension if integration policies are not effectively implemented.

Political Implications

Politically, immigration can influence policy-making and election outcomes. It can lead to debates about national identity, sovereignty, and the balance between humanitarian responsibilities and security concerns.

In conclusion, immigration is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with significant implications for nations. It necessitates a balanced approach that recognizes the economic benefits, promotes social integration, and addresses legitimate security concerns. As globalization continues to blur national boundaries, the importance of understanding and managing immigration effectively will only increase.

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500 Words Essay on Immigration

Immigration, a phenomenon as old as human civilization itself, continues to shape our world in profound ways. It is the process by which individuals move from their native regions to another country for various reasons, such as economic opportunities, escaping conflict, or simply seeking a better life. Immigration has significant implications on both the source and destination countries, affecting their social, economic, and political fabric.

Economic Implications of Immigration

Immigration can stimulate economic growth in the host countries. Immigrants often fill labor market gaps, taking on both high-skilled and low-skilled jobs, thereby contributing to economic productivity. They also bring diverse skills and innovative perspectives, which can foster entrepreneurship and technological advancement. However, immigration can also lead to job competition, potentially affecting the wages and employment opportunities of native workers.

In source countries, the emigration of skilled workers, known as ‘brain drain,’ can hinder economic development. However, remittances sent back by immigrants can significantly boost the economies of their home countries.

Social and Cultural Impact

Immigration leads to the formation of multicultural societies, enriching the host country’s cultural diversity. Immigrants bring with them their unique traditions, languages, and cuisines, which contribute to the cultural mosaic of the host society. However, rapid demographic changes due to immigration can sometimes lead to social tensions, as native populations may feel threatened by the perceived loss of their cultural identity.

Political Consequences

Immigration can significantly influence the political landscape of both source and destination countries. In host countries, immigration policies often become contentious political issues, influencing election outcomes and shaping national discourse. The integration of immigrants into the political fabric of the host country can also diversify and enrich its political landscape.

In source countries, emigration can lead to political changes, particularly when it results from political unrest or conflict. The loss of human capital can exacerbate political instability, while the diaspora’s influence can also shape the political dynamics of their home countries.

In conclusion, immigration is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with far-reaching implications. Its effects are not confined to the individuals who migrate but extend to the societies and countries they leave and join. As such, it necessitates comprehensive and nuanced understanding and policies that take into account its diverse implications. The challenge lies in managing immigration in a way that maximizes its benefits while minimizing potential drawbacks, fostering an environment of inclusivity and mutual benefit.

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Chapter 10: Conclusion

Can resettled families hold strong and proud cultural identities while also enduring the adverse residual impacts of displacement in a new society that may replicate much of the oppression they hoped to leave behind? When immigrants and refugees first arrive in the United States, their unique status tends to be quite apparent. Customs and language set them apart (see the chapter on acculturation). They are likely to face many barriers to services, housing, and employment (see the immigration policy and economics chapters). Over time, however, families settle into new patterns in the new community. Individuals learn language and employment skills that allow them to promote their community’s interests. Families learn how to reach and/or modify their goals in the new country. Over time, they join with others to create community and may even establish organizations that address their needs.

So, when does someone stop being a refugee or an immigrant? Some individuals want to retain the label “immigrant” or “refugee”; it represents their struggles and resilience and has become a part of their cultural identity.  Others do not want to be so labeled; it no longer represents their identity. They may reject the negative associations with the label, they may have moved beyond that initial identity, or they have found alternative meaningful ways to express who they are in the new country.

Consistent with our history of immigration, the United States continues to have families coming from all over the world who are beginning a new phase of life in their country of destination. As we conclude this textbook, we would like to offer some possible next steps as individuals and as professionals, to facilitate and support their journey.

How can we help as individuals?

While editing this textbook, I (Jaime) looked through hundreds of photos of displaced children and families. Some of these photos captured the strength and forward momentum of families. Others captured families in their most despairing or terrifying moments. It tore at my heart. I started to look at my toddler son, and to wonder what kind of help I would want others to offer him if we were suddenly displaced. Liz and Cathy have been working with immigrants and refugee families for over a decade and have shaped their scholarship and much of their personal identities around working in close collaboration with immigrant communities.

We feel what many people feel – an urge to help. If you want to find a way to support refugee or immigrant families, here are a few ideas:

  • Volunteer with local organizations. Refugee Council USA maintains a directory of volunteer opportunities with organizations assisting refugees. Go to . Volunteer opportunities can be involved (such as meeting weekly with refugees for several months and helping them with transportation, English practice, and job interview practice) or a much smaller commitment, such as spending an afternoon setting up furniture for a refugee’s new home. Volunteers are also needed to tutor English, math, basic computer and employment skills.
  • Donate to organizations responding to humanitarian needs. One way to alleviate the refugee crisis is to donate money to the organizations providing for refugees’ basic needs. maintains lists of organizations in need of donations (for example, the list of organizations working with Syrian refugees: ). When considering which organization to donate to and how to donate, consider the guidelines for effective giving available at
  • Connect with local immigrants and refugees. We can connect with the immigrants and refugees in our communities in every day ways. Try out a restaurant and try food from a part of the world that’s new to you. Ask the owners or staff about their food and culture. Attend a cultural festival in your area and learn about different customs. Many museums and government offices have events or exhibits that promote multicultural understanding. For example, the Minnesota History Museum has a “We are Hmong” exhibit that displays the political, social, and economic contributions the Hmong have made to Minnesota since their arrival several decades ago. The more connected we can become with another culture and people, the more understanding we can have.

Next Steps in Family Theory Approaches

When we (Liz and Cathy) first taught a graduate course on immigrants and refugee families a few years ago, we found that the research studies on immigrants and refugees were framed primarily within sociology, demography, and anthropology perspectives; these often missed the inclusion of a family perspective. This textbook provides a glimpse of the centrality and importance of understanding immigrants and refugees family experiences as part of the displacement and resettlement global discourse. Family cohesion and support is one of the strongest components of immigrant resilience (see chapter on immigrant resilience), and separation from family can be a profoundly distressing experience for immigrants and refugees (see chapter on mental health).

There are many conceptual frameworks and theories within family and social science fields that address the complexities of immigrant and refugee experiences. Ecological systems theory (and its adaptation – ecodevelopmental theory), biopsychosocial theory, family systems theory, family stress and coping theory, and historical trauma perspectives are all frameworks that highlight the role of the family during stressful transitions. Researchers who use these approaches to conceptualize research with immigrants and refugees will be better equipped to assess and address the role of the family in successfully transitioning to a new country.

Next Steps in Research

As immigrant and refugee groups develop their own capacity to process and lead research, they will be able to design studies that best fit the needs of their communities. As professionals, we can support this journey by using a collaborative research process. Involving local community members and leaders to participate in research design and execution strengthens the relevance of our research, and also builds research capacity within the community. Developing deep and sustainable collaboration across immigrant and refugee communities is also a critical part of raising our ethical standards of research.

We must incorporate multiple methodological approaches when appropriate and use culturally validated instruments. In some cases, we must create these instruments! As we described in the mental health and substance use chapters, much of the research with immigrants and refugees has not paid adequate attention to differences in cultural contexts and language. A survey that asks only about substance use in the past week, for example, will be heavily skewed in cultures where drinking occurs primarily during holiday weeks. As we choose what questions to ask in our research, we must review these questions with cultural informants and attempt to select or design culturally validated instruments.

In addition to these research processes, there are some key content areas that must be addressed in research on immigrant and refugee families. In this textbook, we were unable to fully address LGBT issues, the practice of religion, and changes across the lifecourse in immigrant and refugee families. We hope that future research will thoroughly address these areas.

Next Steps in Practice

As practitioners (whether in mental health therapy, financial counseling, substance abuse counseling, etc.), we should carefully consider the role of relationships and family in our clients’ lives. The client’s goals, supports, and struggles may be greatly influenced by family both living in the same room and/or living thousands of miles away. We can ask about the role of family in our clients’ mental health, financial choices and struggles, substance use habits, assimilation, and resilience. When feasible, we can incorporate Skype, Google hangouts, and phone conferencing to talk with family members and invoke or increase their support.

Next Steps in Advocacy

In the struggle to promote social equity and the successful integration of resettled communities, we must act bravely to combat social ignorance and discrimination, inadequate community infrastructures, ineffective governmental policies, and a range of complex global disparities that often create the very conditions for mass displacement. Advocacy for vulnerable peoples comes in endless forms and we believe we must work collectively to address them in order to bring about social change. We hope that in some way this book has affirmed, inspired, or motivated you to find your role/s in supporting the wellbeing of immigrant and refugee families.

We are excited to contribute our voices to the research, teaching, and practice scholarship related to immigrant and refugee family resettlement. As we stated in our introduction, we hope this book has deepened your understanding of the lives of these families, sparked an interest in continuing to follow ever-changing global migration patterns, and developed and/or strengthened your commitment to supporting families whose life circumstances propel them to relocate, adjust, and thrive in their new homes.

Immigrant and Refugee Families, 2nd Ed. Copyright © 2019 by Jaime Ballard, Elizabeth Wieling, Catherine Solheim, and Lekie Dwanyen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Impacts of immigration

Migration is a driver of social and economic well-being in many countries, but the profile of an immigrant varies, as does the rate of migration. Because of its financial clout and the provision of a wide range of jobs, the United States is considered to have the world's highest number of refugees. The economic influence of these migrations, in particular, has been hotly debated. There are also aspects of its socio-economic structure and criminal consequences. There are things such as work markets where they pick up jobs that natives would usually ignore, such as a factory or domestic jobs. Therefore it can be said that over the past couple of centuries, immigrants have maintained the status quo of the United States seen by the rest of the world if not making it better. Although the impacts of migration are still debated, many studies have been conducted to really verify its effect. There are many aspects that are looked into; that is, the economic, social system, education, crimes, healthcare services, welfare systems among many others. Most of the findings from these studies show that immigration actually positively impacts the country in many ways (Snel & Leerkes, 2007).. Additionally, the country gets to enjoy status of improving the lives of people who are fleeing their countries from wars, discrimination, natural calamities, persecution, and lack of opportunities and job. In this regard, the country is highly esteemed.

Most asked question on effect of immigration is on economic aspect. Shall immigration lead to fewer opportunities for a natives and slower wage growth? Evidence often shows that immigration enhances the supply of labor. To survive in a new country, migrants often take any job available more so those shun by the natives such as farm work or domestic work. This implies that they are not competing with the natives with the same occupations. New migrants, however, might affect the wages of the older migrants. Research shows that immigration increased the remuneration of the natives. Migrants actually manage to also offer cheap labor even though they are normally exploited (Snel & Leerkes, 2007). Knowing that it is very difficult to land a job, many migrants actually work very hard and their productivity is very high compared to the natives. The fear of losing that one job causes them to do a diligent job. Additionally, immigrants are in the front position at innovation and cleverness in the US, therefore they account for many science and technology graduates in the universities and hold senior positions in major firms. Furthermore, their existence forces the low skilled native to improve their skills as they face competition hence enhancing their productivity (Scott, Coomes & Izyumov 2005). Immigration additionally enhances the State’s financial situation because the migrant pay huge taxes than they use government services. In the labor market, even though the migrants improve the supply of labor, they also use their salaries on food, entertainments among other commodities, therefore enlarge domestic economic demand. The high demand, in return, creates extra jobs through home buildings, making and selling foods and others services consumed by the immigrants (Sampson, 2015). The standard economic hypothesis is that whereas huge labor supply from immigrants might first decrease the remuneration, with time companies improve investment to re-establish the amount of capital per employee, in turn restoring the remuneration. Immigrants are of two categories, those who never attended high school and those who have graduated from the university. In this regard, they supply labor from every angle. They additionally complement the native employees instead of substituting them. Since uneducated migrants struggle with language needed for many jobs, they go into the manual jobs in industries like agriculture and construction (Sampson, 2015). Even for the natives in these low skilled industries, the competition from migrants is negligible as majority capitalizes on their good communication skills and move to jobs where their abilities are helpful like sales. Educated migrants disadvantaged in communication focused jobs and therefore often go to the scientific and technical sector (Scott, Coomes & Izyumov 2005). In fact a majority of the Americans actually shun the technical or scientific field, most affected being girls, therefore, the migrants can be seen as filling the deficit market. Highly skilled residents in many areas often do not compete with the highly skilled migrants. Thus, the supply of workforce tend to concentrate on occupations that favor migrants, therefore, it is the early immigrants that face competition not the natives.


Immigrant brings about talent, skills and knowledge. In the areas such as engineering, in university, majority of the graduate are from foreign countries. They also have skills in management, with many being in top management or research. States with migrant workers often have a fast productivity growth (Reitz, 2001). With low income than the natives, immigrants are likely to use government welfare programs such as Medicaid, SNAP among other services than the nationals. However, they are less likely top get public aid compared to citizens. Additionally, if they get public aid, their value is less than average meaning that it is only a small cost to the government compared to low income residents. Migrants are in almost all fields. They are in engineering, construction, manufacturing, medicine, technical, business and other areas (Reitz, 2001). There are doctor migrants who graduated to high honors and go on to be the best practicing surgeons, ER doctors, physicians, nurses, nutritionists and other medical practitioners. Others have also joined the police force, armed forces, navy and even fire department. Looking at the US health care report, about a quarter of practicing doctors are foreign born while they also constitute almost half of the all medical scientists. The Institute for Immigration Research shows that migrants become top leaders in scientific, biological medical or technical research are esteemed for the resilience, intelligent, commitment and hard work. When it comes to companies, actually about 40% of the fortune 500 companies were established by the immigrants or the generations of immigrants. This of course leads to more employment opportunities and contribute revenue to the government. Google is an example of a company founded by immigrant. The founder is Russian Sergey Brin. Brin ran away from the Soviet Union in 1979 and sought asylum in the US. Elon Musk who is the chief executive of Tesla and SpaceX is an immigrant whose roots are from South Africa (Cain, 2017). Musk’s companies have made major contributions to the space exploration. AT&T is a company founded by Alexander Graham Bell who was an immigrant from Scotland. He came to united stated as a teacher of the deaf which caused him to invent the microphone and telephone. EBay is a company founded by French Pierre Omidyar. He and his wife donate a major contributor in fighting against human trafficking. Theodore and Milton from England founded Radioshack. Pfizer was founded by Charles Pfizer who is a German (Cain, 2017). Tech firm Intel was founded by Hungarian Andrew Grove. Jerry yang from Taiwan founded Yahoo. Colgate was established by Willan Colgate, an immigrant from England. Steve jobs the CEO of largest tech company Apple Inc. was a son of immigrant from Syria. Kraft Foods founder JAMES l. Kraft is from Canada (Cain, 2017). He was struggling to get money to start this company that has become quite a player in the food industry. These and other companies have been impacted the many lives of Americans. So if Immigrants have negative impacts on economy, how can so many immigrants establish some of the most important companies in the world such as Google that have created employment for the natives.

Social Dimension

Many countries have different cultures, therefore immigration enhances cultural diversity. There are intermarriages between the immigrants and the natives. Most migrants from from Africa come from continent or countries who value family system and ties. They value stronger, long lasting marriages. They thus impact positively the ever increasing family breakdown in the US. The intermarriages often last long compared to the native ones. For the natives, their minds are opened about other people culture’s. People get fascinated by the different culture and they are very optimistic to learn other people cultures (Peguero, 2011). Therefore, natives learn to view other cultures in positive way and even apply them to their lives. They do not feel that their culture is better than that of the migrants. Immigration adds diversity to life. This breaks the stereotypes and facilitates learning new things. There are different foods, festivals, practices as well as music. The natives get to learn the new culture so that if they go to the migrants’ country for other commitment like work, they can fit in easily and are not shocked by that culture. Natives can learn culture like karate or martial art from the Asian continent which can be used for self defense (Duleep & Regets, 2014). The families share their experience with their social networks; therefore, all natives learn to accept different culture. Intermarriages prevent social segregation as they the two cultures meet in family gathering or social networks and allow the natives to appreciate different cultures. They comfort one another during times of sorrows. There is often a misconception that immigrants are responsible for increase in crimes, more so in the wake of terrorist threat (Stacey, Carbone-López, & Rosenfeld, 2011). Research over the last 30 years actually shows the opposite, there are no increases in crime; in contrast, immigration leads to decrease in crime (Zatz & Smith, 2008).. Immigration minimizes crime rates by reviving neighborhoods, establishing dynamic communities and causing economic expansion (Zatz & Smith, 2008). Immigrants are hard workers therefore they force the natives to enhance their skills and work hard as well. Given a chance to go to school, they are able to perform well and observe utmost discipline in school (Peguero, 2011). Immigrants from poor nations often do not have the opportunity for education, therefore when given the chance, they manage to perform extremely well and utilize that opportunity. Therefore in return they cause the natives to work hard as well.

Challenges Immigrants Face

Whereas the immigrants are happy to get any job present when they come to the country, getting that job can be a challenge in the initial stages. Being promoted is even harder. In addition to this difficulty, they also have language challenge. Uneducated migrants, who had good jobs, find it hard to obtain the similar jobs in the new country. Companies often favor work experience from the US rather than outside the country. It is not surprising to find a former engineer working in a different field. They often start at low level to get experience before obtaining jobs that befit their qualifications (Mermin, 2006). The children of the immigrants actually have an advantage since they are educated and work in the US. There is also the issue of racial; discrimination. Employers exploit the desperation of these people and give them low wages in harsh working conditions. There is also [prejudice I many areas such as government services, health care and school institutions. The undocumented migrants often feel they do not have any privileges. United States is not a multilingual country, therefore immigrants who do not speak English have difficulty carrying out tasks such as buying commodities, in school, communicating at work or even making applications. They might become subject to exploitation (Mermin, 2006). To tackle this they might have to take classes with is tiresome remembering they still have to work. It is even harder for those not coherent in their own mother tongue. Another difficulty is the culture. It can be stressful for migrant parents to bring up children in a totally different culture (Mermin, 2006). They are practices may be they want their children to learn from their countries. The children learn English first and therefore parents are afraid they shall forget their roots. Older children might have to struggle to keep with native children in a new education system and environment. There have been reports of bullying and racial discrimination due to cultural diversity. Another issue immigrant face is housing. Safe housing is very costly, so with low wages, they are not able to afford decent housing. Therefore large families are forced to live together and homes with deplorable conditions. Public housing is focused on helping people own homes at subsidized costs. Although it targets low income earners, the immigrant even those born in the country are often discriminated against. Undocumented migrants have difficulty in access of services, since they do not want to be deported (Mermin, 2006). They avoid seeking services such as healthcare, public assistance or legal issues even when it is very necessary. Mental issues are key issues as migrants were violated, abused or even raped in their countries, they might not have knowledge on seeking help. Those who have obtained services, their experiences are not good. There is also the issue of transportation. It is hard to obtain driver’s license in America even if they were a shrewd drivers in their home country. The ones who do not know English, a translator is required and it is difficult to get one. Furthermore one ought to be literate write exam. Food is also different and might not be easy to consume new ones. The migrants face a variety of issue in the new country, but they manage to overcome them and survive.

Reasons for Immigration

Immigrants come to America for a variety of reasons; however, to disrupt the American system or do criminal activities is not one of them. They are just looking for better activities. N the immigrant host countries, there are normally less employment and business opportunities, therefore most people migrate to the US to seek better opportunities. It is actually true because even the low wage jobs the migrants get compared to wages in their countries, they are much better. United states have some of the leading universities in the world; there are those who move here to seek high quality education (Gent, 2002). They are certain to acquire skills and become experts in their fields. This gives them higher chance of securing better job opportunities. Parents migrate to US because they want their children to have better education than the one they had and get good jobs. Other migrants come to the US to run away from persecution from their countries. Some are discriminated against based on their views on politics or religion. It is even harder when the leader of a country is a dictator and cannot stand diverse views. He or she normally arrests those criticizing him and persecute or even kill them. In many nations and even in the US, individual fleeing persecutions, war or violence are are often granted asylum (Gent, 2002). Another reason why immigrants flee their country is to seek refuge after displacement from natural calamities. Disasters such as floods, droughts or other climate changes are dangers that have an effect on those living already in abject poverty. With the significant changes in the climate with even more changes anticipated in the coming years, there bound to be even more displacements. This is a concern that many migrant countries are trying to tackle as it has become a troubling issue. Others might migrate to well-established nations to seek better healthcare when suffering from a serious ailments (Gent, 2002). Standard of Healthcare in third world countries is very low and it might not be able to handle serious ailments like cancer, open heart surgeries, and transplants among others. Therefore people come seeking better health care and might even decide to be permanent residents. Some people get into interracial relationship and therefore when they get married the spouse is obligated to move to another country and establish citizenship there. Finally there are those who migrate to another country to reunite with their families while others seek freedom. United States is a democratic country and many come here to enjoy political and social freedom. In some countries, women have regarded as inferior gender (Gent, 2002). They are subject to abuse from their husbands which the society approves, not allowed to go to school, have no freedom to make decisions or choose their husbands. Other issues are wife inheritance which puts wife at risks from health concerns and other still practice female genital mutilation. Society especially in African country often treats women unfairly. Therefore they are forced to flee the country and seek better opportunities like education and employment.

Immigrants most certainly have positive impacts in the United States in many fronts. Socially it can be seen how they have change the way Americans view others, taught them to value family units. They have enhanced the American culture and enabled people to have have unbiased views and break stereotypes. Immigration has led to availability of human skills in areas of medical research, biomedicine, engineering, aerospace well as scientific research. Immigrants have provided their skills also in the about market and forced the natives to improve their skills. Although they face many obstacles in the country, immigrants are much better off in the US even with discrimination than their native countries.   References

Duleep, H., & Regets, M. (2014). US Immigration Policy at a Crossroads: Should the US Continue Its Family‐Friendly Policy?. International Migration Review, 48(3), 823-845. Gent, S. (2002). The root causes of migration: Criticising the approach and finding a way forward. Sussex Centre for Migration Research. Mermin, L. S. P. (2006). Living in America: Challenges facing new immigrants and refugees. Robert Wood Jonson Foundation. Available online at: http://www. policyarchive. org/handle/10207/bitstreams/21623. pdf (assessed 10 August 2012). Ousey, G. C., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities, 1980–2000. Social problems, 56(3), 447-473. Peguero, A. A. (2011). Immigration, schools, and violence: Assimilation and student misbehavior. Sociological Spectrum, 31(6), 695-717. Reitz, J. G. (2001). Immigrant success in the knowledge economy: Institutional change and the immigrant experience in Canada, 1970–1995. Journal of social Issues, 57(3), 579-613. Sampson, R. J. (2015). Immigration and America’s urban revival. American Prospect, 20-24. Scott, D. M., Coomes, P. A., & Izyumov, A. I. (2005). The Location choice of employment‐based immigrants among US metro areas. Journal of Regional Science, 45(1), 113-145. Snel, E., Burgers, J., & Leerkes, A. (2007). Class position of immigrant workers in a post-industrial economy: the Dutch case. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(8), 1323-1342. Stacey, M., Carbone-López, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(3), 278-298. Zatz, M. S., & Smith, H. (2012). Immigration, crime, and victimization: Rhetoric and reality. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 8, 141-159. Cain, Á. (2017). From Tesla to Pfizer: 14 major US companies founded by immigrants. Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 19 April 2017, from

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