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Physical Science

Physical science is a broad term encompassing the various branches of natural science that study non-living systems. Physical science comprises four general areas: physics, astronomy, chemistry, and the Earth sciences. Each of these is, in turn, split into fields and subfields. This article examines the historical development, scope, principal concerns, and methods of Physical Science.

Physical Science

Basic Principles of Physical Sciences

The physical science’s foundations lie upon fundamental theories and concepts, each of which describes and models a certain aspect of the behaviour of nature. As with other sciences, these pivotal theories and concepts were discovered using the scientific method . In the next few sections, let us go through the basic principles of the four branches of Physical Science.

Basic Principles of Physics

Physics is a fundamental science because other natural sciences deal with systems that obey physics laws. The physical laws of energy, matter, and nature’s forces govern the interactions between particles, such as atoms and molecules. Some basic principles of physics are:

  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • Gravity Theory
  • Work, Energy and Power
  • Force, Mass and Weight
  • Energy Conversion, Transfer and Conservation
  • Thermodynamics Laws

Understand the Laws of Motion and the concepts behind these theories by watching this intriguing video.

essay about physical science

Basic Principles of Chemistry

Chemistry is notably known as the science of matter, specifically at the micro-level. It mainly deals with compounds and elements, and the formation of atoms, molecules, and ions. Chemistry also studies the composition, structure, behaviour, properties, and the changes that compounds and elements undergo during a reaction with other substances. The study of Chemistry mainly includes the following:

  • Water and its properties
  • Nuclear Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Atomic Theory
  • Quantum Mechanics Principle

Basic Principles of Astronomy

Astronomy is the science of heavenly bodies and their interactions in space. Its studies mainly entail the following:

  • The origin of the universe, the most commonly accepted scientific theory of the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory.
  • The Solar System, specifically Earth in the Solar System
  • The measurement of Time
  • The features and composition of the Moon
  • The interactions between the Moon and the Earth
  • The characteristics of stars and galaxies

Watch the video and discover the secrets hiding among the stars.

essay about physical science

Basic Principles of Earth Science

Earth science is the study of the planet Earth, the only life-bearing planet in the solar system. Its studies mainly include:

  • Soil Science
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth’s Atmosphere
  • Earth’s Tectonic Structure

Importance of Physical Science in our Daily Life

A few points of importance of physical science in our daily life are as follows:

  • Studying physical science develops the intellect. In particular, it sharpens one’s skills in exploration and experimentation.
  • Physical Science plays an important role in technological advancement. Modern inventions and conveniences were possible because of physical science.
  • Science helps us appreciate art and nature, especially in things like symmetry and proportion.
  • A physical science education allows us to ponder, think and diagnose things more critically.

Every time you look into a mirror, your brain perceives as if there is another person on the other side. Watch to see why this happens.

essay about physical science

Frequently Asked Questions

What is physical science all about.

Physical science is the study of non-living systems and it does not study living things, unlike biological sciences. Physical science comprises four general areas: physics, astronomy, chemistry, and the Earth sciences.

How important is Physical Science?

Studying physical science develops the intellect. When we understand various concepts, it enables us to interpret situations and make judgments wisely. Physical science also moulds reasoning ability and logical reasoning in an individual, apart from developing the intellect.

How is Physical Science related to other sciences?

Chemistry is one of the sciences that is mostly affected by physics. Branches of chemistry such as electrochemistry are based on physical laws. Even many biological processes, such as transportation of stimulus, blood circulation, are based on physical science principles.

Who discovered Physical Science?

Galileo Galilei is considered the “Father of science”.

What is the purpose of studying Physical Science?

Physical Science helps us understand the world better.

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Research Paper Topics for Physical Science

What Are the Interesting Research Topics for High School Physics?

What Are the Interesting Research Topics for High School Physics?

Defined as any science that analyzes the nature and properties of energy and nonliving matter, physical science gives students a wide variety of topics to write about in their research papers. The fields of chemistry, physics, astronomy and geology are filled with interesting subjects that make for compelling research studies.

The field of biochemistry continues to yield remarkable breakthroughs that change the way we live our daily lives. Researchers have developed a simple method for creating short protein chains with spiral structures that dissolve in water, two useful traits not usually found together. Scientists believe these structures could have applications for self-assembling nanostructures that act as delivery agents for medication. A research paper on this discovery's potential medical ramifications would be both current and informative for students looking for an innovative topic.

When the topic of pollution comes up, most people focus on the damage we inflict on the planet through the use of fossil fuels and excessive waste. Often overlooked, light pollution affects 90 percent of the global population in such massive ways as animal endangerment and energy inefficiency, to such minor annoyances as the disruption of stargazing. A research paper that focused on how much energy large metropolises waste lighting the night sky, and what steps could be taken to eliminate such waste, would make a compelling topic for students to explore.

Known to comic book enthusiasts as what changed mild-mannered scientist Bruce Banner into his hulking alter-ego, the phenomenon of gamma ray bursts are still not completely understood by astronomers. Capable of emitting as much energy in a few seconds as an entire galaxy of stars emits over several years, gamma ray bursts contain more power than anything previously discovered by astronomers. The theories that best explain these intense bursts, the effect they have on nearby stars and how this changes our understanding of the universe are all questions that could be addressed in a research paper on this powerful topic.

As humanity looks to wean itself from fossil fuels by searching for alternative sources of energy, geothermal energy has been championed by scientists as a clean source of power that deserves further examination. What are the practical applications of geothermal energy, how abundant are sources of geothermal energy and what are the environmental hazards of tapping into this alternative fuel source? These questions could provide the basis for a research paper for students interested in this topic.

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Timothy Lemke has worked as a freelance writer since 2009 and has been published with such websites as Ask The College Guy. Lemke graduated from the University of Missouri-Kansas City and possesses a Bachelor of Arts in European history.

essay about physical science

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Physical Science


Physical science can be defined as those sciences such as chemistry, physics, geology, and astronomy that describe nature as well as the properties of no-living matter and natural energy (Shipman, 2009). In human society physical science is found very useful in almost every activity in a daily basis. For instance, in defense, physical science has found its application in many sections. Physical science, especially physics enabled the defense officers to control their weapons while they are carrying out the assigned tasks. Forces in defense that are described by physics determine the impact of destruction that a given weapon can do when it is used effectively. Physics can also be useful in calculating the distance a bullet will cover when a particular gun is used in shooting.

During police chase, the police officers use extra force as they encounter opposite force due to wind. When an offender has been caught, the defense officials apply some force to throw him or her into their vehicle. If these officers are well informed on how to hold someone firmly before throwing them into the vehicle, they can do their work easily without using much effort. The specific area of physics that is applied mostly in operating defense weapons is the Newton’s laws. Newton’s laws are also used to describe the impact of defense weapons like guns and bombs and their effective usage (Gibbons, 2008).  

According to Gibbons (2008), Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician. He discovered three laws of motion which have been found very important in describing nature. According to Newton’s first law of motion any given object will remain in a uniform motion within a straight line or remain at rest unless influenced by an external force (Gibbons, 2008). Naturally, a moving object in earth’s atmosphere is influenced by the force from the point of origin and by the force due to gravity. According to Newton’s second law of motion, the effects of the same force applied on objects of varied mass can be compared (Holzner, 2006).

This is very significant because an individual can be able to achieve the maximum effect a given amount of force by carefully selecting an object with appropriate mass. Newton’s third law of motion reveals that when an external force is exerted on an object another force of equal strength is experienced on the object but towards opposite direction (Buckley, 2006). This law is very important since is used in describing various situations which to some extent are counter-intuitive. Newton’s three laws of motion have been found applicable in the field of military, especially with the use of weapons during defense.  

Application of Newton’s laws of motion in defense  

Newton’s first law of motion is very useful in the field of military because it deals with the influence of external forces both on moving objects and still objects. A bullet loaded in gun is a still object and therefore it needs some force to be applied on it so that it can move forward (Gibbons, 2008). It is true that a bullet is effectively utilized when it moves forward at a high speed toward a target. Depending on how powerful a gun is, a police officer should be aware on the appropriate distance to keep between the him or her and the target. This is because of the external forces such as frictional forces in the air and the force due to gravity.

When the target object is far away from the police officer, he or she may not effectively shoot the object because of the following reasons: the force of the bullet will be reduced gradually as it travels in air due to frictional drag therefore may not penetrate well into the body of the target object (Kundu, 2008); the bullet may not reach the target object due to gravitational force since when the bullet moves forward parallel to the earth’s surface, its height tends to zero such that it will land on the ground before reaching the object or if the gun is fired upwards, the bullet may reach a point to start moving downwards towards the earth’s surface before reaching the target object; or a police officer can miss the aim at the target object due to the wing blowing strongly on the side of the bullet (Gibbons, 2008).   

Therefore, the police officer must take note of the external forces before firing a gun to ensure that the target object is shot effectively and the bullet is not wasted or does not shoot the unintended object that close to the target object. If the gun has a short barrel, it may not effectively shoot a target object that is far away. The police officer should therefore use a long barreled gun in order to effectively shoot an object that is at a distance without much influence both by the frictional drag in the atmosphere and the force due to gravity. In case the long barreled gun is not available then it is advisable that the officer should look for a way to move closure as far as the target object is concerned that object will be hit with full force and on the intended part of its body such as the head, or legs. If the wind is blowing strongly, the police officer should calculate well on the direction to which the gun will be fired or else the bullet will be wasted or shoot unintended objects around the target object.  

Newton’s second law of motion is also very important for the police officers because it explains the impact of equal shooting force on bullets of different masses (Holzner, 2006). Bullets exist in different inches, for example, standard, magnum, and super-magnum have 2 ¾, 3, and 3 ½ inches respectively. A gun that supports up to the magnum sized bullets can throw a standard bullet to a longer distance than it can do to a magnum bullet. This is because equal force of the gun can be felt more on the small bullet than the larger one. Therefore, using the same gun, a police officer can effectively shoot a target object that is far away by use of a small sized bullet than it could be possible if a large sized bullet was used. Newton’s second law of motion is therefore useful in selecting bullets of appropriate size depending on the distance between the gun operator and the target object.   

A police officer finds Newton’s third law of motion important during the time of firing a gun. According to this law, the force by which a bullet is released from the gun is equal to the force by which the gun recoils (Buckley, 2006). This idea enables a police officer to prepare well while firing a gun, by observing the position of his feet. For example, the police officer needs to stand stably with the foot opposite the dominant hand being in front and bend slightly forward so that he or she cannot fall backwards as the gun recoils. With the proper firing stance, if an individual’s dominant hand is the right hand, then the right foot should be in front and vice versa to ensure maximum stability once the gun recoils.

When firing, it is advisable to hold the gun very firmly while making sure that the finger is always outside the gun trigger guard.  This will also ensure that the police officer does not lose the aim when the gun recoils. Therefore, with Newton’s third law of motion, police officers become aware on how to control their guns while shooting so that to avoid harming themselves as the gun recoils, losing their aims, and avoid wastage of bullets. A police officer can be very efficient and effective in his or her work when they understand Newton’s third law of motion.

The police chase also makes use of Newton’s third law of motion. As a police officer is chasing an offender, his or her forward movement is retarded by the opposite force due to the air in the atmosphere. So that they can move forward easily and faster, there is need to reduce the opposite force as much as possible. A police officer should button his or her shirt and tuck in the shirt well so that air can slip easily on his or her body while running and therefore reduce the opposite or reaction force.


Newton’s three laws of motion play a great deal in the field of law enforcement especially during the police chase as well discharging of the weapons such as the shotguns. Newton’s first law of motion deals with the influence of external forces both on moving objects and still objects. A police officer should understand that a bullet is influences by a number of external forces after the gun has been fired. In order to shoot a target object effectively a police officer should get closer to the target object so that the bullet is not influenced a lot by the external forces such as frictional drag and force of gravity. Frictional drag is a force of retardation on an object moving in air across the surface of earth (Kundu, 2008). Newton’s second law of motion explains the impact of equal shooting force on bullets of different masses.  According to Newton’s third law of motion, the force at which a bullet is released from the gun is equal to the force by which the gun recoils.

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Formal science & Physical science Topics

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Physical science deals with the investigation of the inorganic world or non-living things. Physical science is thought of as having for significant aspects to it; they are physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth sciences. On the other hand, formal science is the study concerned with investigating the abstract formal systems such as mathematics, theoretical aspects of computer science, microeconomics, information theory, systems theory, linguistics, and statistics. 

Physical science is known as the analysis of nature and their respective properties of non-living matter and energy. Physical science topics offer students a large variety of information to write about in their assignments. The academic fields associated with chemistry, astronomy, geology, and physics are all full of interesting subjects that are right places to start your research and identify an essay topic. Have a look at some of our physical science essay samples to be acquitted with the structure and application.

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Physical Science Essay Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Effect , Christians , Science , Physics , Life , Prague , Medicine , Engine

Published: 2020/11/23

Christian Doppler

1. Life and work. Christian Andreas Doppler, a famous physicist, mathematician and astronomer, was born on the 29th November, 1803 in Salzburg, Austria. At the age of 19 Christian Doppler entered the Polytechnishes Institut (nowadays Vienna University of Technology), where he studied physics and mathematics for several years. Then Doppler returned to Salzburg and studied philosophy for two years (Schuster 21). After Doppler completed his education, he went back to Vienna in 1829. There Christian got a Job of assistant. In 1831, his first scientific article was published. His career went up, and in 1835 he got a place at the Prague Polytechnic. In 1842, Christian Doppler published his famous work "On the coloured light of the binary Stars and some other Stars of the heavens" and gave a lecture in the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences. In this work he provided an explanation of his principle that now we call Doppler effect. He gave a prove of dependence between the observer, the frequency of wave and the source relative speed. After this lecture Doppler got a membership of the Bohemian Society and became a world famous scientist (Schuster 33). During his years in Prague, Doppler published more than 50 works on physics, astronomy and mathematics. In 1847, Christian Doppler left Prague. He got a post of professor in the Academy of Mines and Forests. And in 1848, he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in Vienna. In 1850, Professor Christian Doppler reached the top of his academic career. He headed the Department of Experimental Physics at the University of Vienna and became the first director of the Institute of Physics. Christian Doppler worked with great dedication. Unfortunately, his busy schedule became one of the reasons of pulmonary disease. In November 1852, Doppler had to go to Venice for treatment. He died after five months of illness on March 17, 1853 (Schuster 121). 2. The most important discovery. The Doppler effect became a key principle for such significant theories like Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Many modern devices work on the basis of Doppler effect. Nowadays, this is a key concept for such fields of knowledge as astronomy, space technology, military industry (radar stations and other equipment), nuclear physics, medicine, etc. We can observe the Doppler effect for all types of waves (light, sound, etc.). For example, we notice a gradual change of a train hooter. When the train is coming closer, the sound is gradually becoming louder and vice versa (Hiebl 67). On the basis of Doppler theory scientists measured the parameters of the Sun and planets rotation. This information helped to clarify the structure of space objects. Doppler principle is also used for calculations of satellites’ trajectories, for control of thermonuclear reactions, in air navigation. Finally, Doppler effect is widely spread in medicine. For example, there are many modern devices for ultrasound diagnostics based on this effect. Doppler effect works even in those cases when the oscillation frequency is huge (for example, radiation) and the relative speeds of the source and the absorber are only millimeters per second. The energy of gamma rays changes by a very small amount due to the Doppler effect. It is used in nuclear gamma resonance spectroscopy (Mössbauer spectroscopy). 3. Doppler effect in modern science and technology. Today, scientists around the world continue the search for application of the Doppler effect. For example, physicist Martin Lavery and his team conducted an experiment with a plastic disk and spinning motor. During the experiment they measured the speed of disk’s rotation using the Doppler change in angular momentum (“Doppler effect goes for a spin”). This technique can be used to design protection of wind turbines (swirling air currents can damage the engine). Lavery offers to use special sensors on the nose of the engine that would detect dangerous flows and switch the engine off. Bo Thide, the scientist from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Uppsala, proposes to use the rotational Doppler effect for detecting forming tornadoes before they reach the earth. Thide used a similar method to detect the rotation rate of supermassive black holes (“Doppler effect goes for a spin”). Ultrasonic scanning is a worldwide known application of Doppler effect in medical diagnosis. Nowadays, there are a lot of different devices based on this effect which are used in many areas of medical science and therapeutics. The first device was created by Japanese physicists Shiego Satomura and Ziro Kaneko in 1959 (Schuster). Since that time thousands of Doppler ultrasonic devices have been used for diagnostic of vascular dieses. Due to ultrasonic scanning medics managed to reduce the amount of invasive examinations which are often risky. An ultrasonic beam penetrates the biological tissue without any harmful effects.

Works cited

"Doppler Effect Goes for a Spin: Light's Angular Momentum Can Reveal Rotational Speed." The Free Library. 2013 Science Service, Inc. 22 Feb. 2015 Hiebl, Ewald. Christian Doppler - Life and Work, Principle and Applications: Proceedings of the Commemorative Symposia in 2003 - Salzburg, Prague, Vienna, Venice. Pöllauberg u.a.: Living Ed., 2007. Print. Schuster, Peter. Moving the Stars: Christian Doppler, His Life, His Works and Principle, and the World after. Pöllauberg, Austria: Living Edition, 2005. Print.

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Procedures in the physical sciences, research paper on procedures in the physical sciences, theology versus science research papers, theology versus science.

Introduction The relationship between theology and science has a complicated and very vast history that dates back four to five hundred years ago. The debate between the two has been the relationship that exists between revelation and reason. Many philosophical, scientific and philosophical arguments have suggested that theology and science are conflicting.

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Essay on Science: Meaning, Scope, Nature, Technology and Society

essay about physical science


Essay on Science:- 1. Meaning and Definitions of Science 2. Scope of Science 3. Nature of Science 4. Physical Science 5. Science and Social Environment 6. Science and Technology 7. Science and Society 8. Scientific Method and Its Steps.

  • Essay on Scientific Method and Its Steps

Essay # 1. Meaning and Definitions of Science :

Meaning of Science:

The English word Science is derived from a Latin Verb ‘Scire’, which means ‘to know’ and Latin Noun ‘Scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Meaning of Science is based on German word ‘ Wissenchaft’, which means systematic, organized knowledge. Thus, Science is a systematized knowledge.

The necessity and curiosity of man to know about himself and his surroundings has led him to investigate, find and to know about living beings and nature, which to verifiable knowledge of facts. But Science is not always about the collection of facts or development of new concepts or ideas. It is all about the passion for the discovery that drives one to explore the environment and the nature in every aspect.

Science is basically founded to investigate the nature and its processes. Although there are a number of other methods that can be utilized to acquire the knowledge about nature, but science is considered as the only one that results in the acquisition of reliable knowledge. Hence, Rene Descartes said, “Science is a method of investigating nature that discovers reliable knowledge about it.”

Science is the investigation of unknown phenomena and it also looks and compares with existing principles, theories and practices. Science is both a particular kind of activity and also the result of that activity. Science uses tools like observation, measurement and scientific experimentation and is entirely based on the observable facts.

Science is observation, identification, description, experimentation, investigation and theoretical explanation of the phenomenon that occur in nature.

Science could be described as the study, which attempts to perceive and understand the nature of the universe both living and non-living in its part and as a whole.

Definitions of Science :

During early times people perceived Science, as what the scientist does. There are many definitions available, though not a single definition could be universally accepted.

Some of the definitions are mentioned here to understand it from different angles:

1. According to Columbian Dictionary:

“Science is an accumulated and systematized learning in general usage restricted to natural phenomenon”.

2. Einstein (1879-1955):

“Science is an attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense experience corresponds to logically uniform system of thought”.

3. Fitzpatrick (1960):

“Science is a cumulative and endless series of empirical observations, which results in the formation of concepts and theories, with both concepts and theories being subject to modification in the light of further empirical observations. Science is both a body of knowledge and the process of acquiring it”.

4. Bronowski, J. (1956):

“Science as the organization of our knowledge in such a way that it commands or makes possible the explanation of more of the hidden potentialities found in the environment”.

5. Conant (1957):

“An interconnected series of concepts and conceptual schemes that have developed as a result of experimentation and observation and are fruitful of further experimentation and observation”.

6. Fisher (1975):

“Science is the body of Knowledge obtained by methods, based upon observation”.

The above definitions clearly reveal that Science is both a process and product. A comprehensive definition of Science would be “science is a systematized knowledge gained through human observation and experi­mentation of cause revealing the unknown phenomenon of nature and universe both living and non-living involving the process of critical, creative thinking and investigation including sometimes sudden insights too.”

Science = Process + Product

= Methods + Knowledge

= Scientific Method + Scientific Attitude + Scientific Knowledge

Essay #  2. Scope of Science :

Science is a body of knowledge obtained by methods based upon observation. Observation is authentic and that it is only through the senses of man that observations can be made. Thus, anything outside the limits of man’s senses is outside the limits of science. In other words, science deals with the universe and galaxies in the forms of matter and energy which is in the form of living and non-living.

Science employs a number of instruments to extend mail’s senses to the extremely minute to very vast, to the short-time duration or long-time duration, to dilute or to concentrate and so on and so forth which does not alter the conclusion that science is limited to that which is observable.

Thus, as in any other discipline contemporary experimental techniques set up some practical limitations but these are not to be confused with the intrinsic limitations inherent in the very nature of science. The knowledge of science is tested and retested and also reinvented.

Today the disciplines of Science and Social Sciences are drawing into each other. Behavioural zoologists study the sociology and psychology of animals. Archaeologists derive new insights from the rapid advances in chemical and physical analysis. Hence sciences should be understood with interdisciplinary approach within science as a whole. Biology draws on chemistry, physics and geology.

ADVERTISEMENTS: (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Essay # 3. Nature of Science:

Human by birth has quest for knowledge as they are curious of knowing about nature. They have a highly developed brain because of which they can observe precisely, correlate observations and predict future happenings on the basis of their observation. This ability helped humans to adjust to nature. The process of observing, describing, exploring and using the physical world is science.

Science has certain characteristics which distinguish it from other spheres of human endeavour.

These characteristics define the nature of science as discussed below:

Science is a Particular way of Looking at Nature :

1. Science is a way of learning about what the nature is, how the nature behaves and how the nature got to be the way it is.

2. Science focuses exclusively on the nature.

3. It is not simply a collection of facts; rather it is a path to understand the phenomenon underlying.

(i) Science is, just the nature existing around you.

(ii) Every day we look at the rising sun and pay great respect to it for bestowing the earth with its light in energy form.

(iii) The knowledge of all that is in the universe from the tiniest sub­atomic particles in an atom to universe and galaxies.

Science as a Rapidly Expanding Body of Knowledge :

1. Science is the dynamic, ever expanding knowledge, covering every new domain of experiences.

2. Knowledge refers to the product of science, such as the concepts and explanations.

3. Research being carried out in the field of science resulted in developing more knowledge at a faster pace sometimes by replacing old concepts, ideas or principles.

The technological developments that took place in recent times enhanced the acceleration of knowledge.

Science as an Interdisciplinary Area of Learning:

1. In the last two decades there have been studies claiming that science is becoming even more an interdisciplinary area of learning.

2. Science cannot be taught in isolation. All the branches of science are interdependent upon all other and there are a number of facts and principles which are common to various science subjects.

3. Knowledge started expanding day by day; scientists started specialising in certain areas. Hence the knowledge has been organized for convenience into different disciplines.

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physics, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology of atomospheric science and geodesy).

Science as a Truly International Enterprise :

1. International collaboration in most of the projects is the order of the day.

2. In collaborative research, visibility among the peer and active exploitation of complementary capabilities increase.

3. Share the costs of the projects that are large in scale and scope.

4. Able to access expensive physical resources.

5. Exchange ideas in order to encourage greater creativity.

The large Hadron collides; at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been build up by scientists drawn from many countries including India. The experiment on this machine is being conducted by scientists from many countries including many Indian scientists. In this sense, science do not belong to any single country or a group of countries and it would be morally and ethically wrong to deny the fruits of scientific development to any country in the world.

Science as Always Tentative :

Scientific models are always being questioned. Up-and-coming scientists always find gaps or errors in existing scientific models and develop a new one in place of them. In scientific field models have been tested and refined to such an extent that errors are likely to be minor. The real evidences need to be scrutinized carefully.

Marine researchers have expressed concern about the effect of global warming on the future of coral reefs because increasing sea temperature cause coral bleaching. Bleaching happens; the corals expel the algae that live within their cells die, when temperature rises. Recent research have tentatively showed that some algae may be able to adapt to temperature rises, consequently improved the chances that corals can survive.

Tentative Nature of Scientific Theories :

1. Scientific theories took decades in their development.

2. When two competing theories explain their observations related to a certain phenomenon, Scientists prefer to accept a theory which explains larger number of observations with few assumptions.

There was a time when both the geocentric and the heliocentric theories explained all the planetary observations. However geocentric theory had to introduce a new assumption every time. On the other hand, the heliocentric theory with just one assumption that all the planets revolve round the sun, it explained every available observation and eventually survived.

The fact remains that scientific theories are tentative and are always subject to change.

Science Promotes Skepticism :

“In science, keeping an open mind is a virtue just not so open that your brains fall out”-James Oberg.

1. Skepticism does not mean doubting the validity of everything, rather to judge the validity of a claim based on objective empirical evidences.

2. David Hume, the 18th century philosopher viewed that we should accept nothing as true unless the evidences available makes the non-existence of the thing more miraculous than its existence.

3. We examine the available evidences before reaching a decision until sufficient evidences are found.

Scientists are Highly Skeptic People :

‘Science is what scientists do’.

1. The scientists in different fields try to describe the phenomena in nature and establish their relationships.

2. After having described the phenomena, scientists attempt to find out the reason behind and make predictions.

3. Scientists use ideas of their own and of others as tools for testing and gaining knowledge. They use many resources to get valid answers to their questions and problems, by designing their own experiments and invent new tools with which they observe and check different phenomena. Hence, scientists are highly skeptic people.

For instances, if we look at Newton’s story the way he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree speaks his skeptic nature. Though many scientists and other common men were aware that all the objects descend perpendicularly to the ground, they never pondered upon it. This incident prompted Newton to explore the possibility of connecting gravity with the force that kept the moon on its orbit. This led him to the universal law of gravity.

Charles Goodyear (1800) a chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber. His discovery was accidental, where he explored the situation and after five years of searching for a more stable rubber and stumbling upon the effectiveness of heating.

Science Demands Perseverance from its Practitioners :

1. The important characteristic of science that brings development and progress is perseverance of scientists.

2. Scientists getting an inspirational idea or a creative thought have to persist with the idea to take it to its logical conclusions, based on facts or observations.

3. Scientists may work alone or join with others in developing the idea further to find out ways to discover or invention, While at other times the scientists can make only a beginning and then others join them in developing the idea further.

The discovery of the wonder drug pencillin by Alexander Fleming in 1929 is the result of an incident happened by a chance which led to serious observation followed by hard work paved the way for discovery of many other antibiotics like Streptomycin and Erythromycin.

Science as an Approach to Investigate and as a Process of Constructing Knowledge :

1. The investigations in science involve some form of scientific method.

2. Scientists for seeking solution to a problem use different methods like observation, prediction and sometimes experimentation to study the cause and effect relationship.

3. Whatever we observe through our senses (information) is sent to the brain and the brain processes the information by registering, classifying, generalising etc., and converts into knowledge. Sensory perception is primary in knowledge development.

4. Here, the individual constructs the knowledge on his own by applying their own mental abilities and intelligence to process the information received through senses.

5. The basic unit of knowledge is fact. In science any repeatedly verifiable observation becomes a fact.

6. Scientific approach always is based on cause and effect relation.

Examples of facts are:

i. Solids have definite shape and volume.

ii. The rainbow is seen in a direction opposite to that of the sun.

Essay #  4. Physical Science :

The child is interested to learn things which are related to his experiences. This could be possible only when the subjects are integrated and correlated rather than in isolation. The other physical sciences also have equally contributed a lot to the field of biological studies.

Obviously we can’t teach and understand each and every thing about a particular branch of science without the help of other sciences. The child on the other hand can’t appreciate and understand the branches of science in isolation from others. The study of interrelatedness helps the child to understand the concepts easily, more interesting and natural.

Science cannot be taught in isolation. All the branches of science are interdependent upon each other and there are a number of facts and principles which are common to various science subjects. This however does not mean that the teacher of one branch of science ought to know everything of other branches of science.

But it is very much essential that he should have sufficient knowledge of other sciences so as to bring about integration of subjects. He should also know where to depart from his own subject and how much should he venture into areas which are not his own.

The following example may be taken:

1. A teacher while teaching the sense organs says an eye should make a parallelism with a camera, which the student has learnt in physics. To understand the images, knowledge of image formation by the convex lens is essential.

E.g. (a) The rays which pass through the centre of the lens travel straight without any change in direction.

(b) The rays which run parallel to the principal axis pass through the focus of the lens after refraction from the lens.

Again when the teacher is teaching the same topic in the period of human physiology, the defects in the eye i.e., short sightedness (by the elongation of the eyeball and the image in formed a little in front of the retina and not exactly on the retina) he should know other factors also which cause the shifting of the image.

E.g. (a) By changing the distance between the lens and object.

(b) By changing the distance between the lens and the screen.

(c) By changing the total length of lens.

If the teacher possesses knowledge of physics he can most successfully correlate his topic with other branches of science and make the whole knowledge easily acceptable to the children.

2. Similarly while teaching digestive system the teacher should have adequate knowledge of chemistry without the help of which he cannot justify the topic.

The teacher must correlate it by telling about:

(a) Soluble and insoluble constituents of our diet.

(b) Chemistry of different digestive juices and their effect on the constituents of food that we take.

(c) The final products and the process of assimilation of products by the membranes of different organs. This will involve the reference of concepts of osmosis, density and the pressure etc.

Science is universal; it has no barrier of any kind as too has no barriers. The recent advances in the field of science and technology and its wide application as well as their use in daily life situation justify the utilitarian value of science. Taxonomy reveals the unity in diversity. Evolution and mutation theories help us understand the relation of living forms.

Motion, Mass and Energy related theories relate Universe, Sun, Earth and all other planets and their existence. Further their relation to life forms. Hence in nature everything is in relation and co-existence. This is what has to be understood by the student in the study of scientific theories and phenomenon.

Essay # 5. Science and Social Environment:

Relating science education with the environment of a child has been the prime concern of educationists. The environment of the child includes natural and social environment.

In science we learn about the nature’s phenomena. Human is a part of nature. Therefore, every effort should be made to integrate science with learning the environment. The science curriculum should address issues and concerns related to environment such as climate change, acid rain, growth of water, eutrophication and various types of pollutions etc. Further, it should be applied to society to understand social phenomenon in a scientific way and solve all social problems with all objectivity and universal application.

Science teachers should aim to enlighten the young minds with the wonders of science. They should be engaged to construct the knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach appreciating its relation and impact on the social and natural environment. They can recognize the competence of science by doing activities related to their everyday life.

Current issues and events in science like new technological innovations, scientific discoveries, can be examined through social, economic and ethical perspectives to help students in relating these issues with one another and explore their areas of interest.

The significance of chemistry to society can be highlighted by discussing the chemical components used in products that have altered agriculture, food, health, medicine, electronics, transportation, technology and the natural environments. To understand its relevance to home economics, one can think what happens to the electricity bill if solar cooker, solar heater, solar lanterns and CFL (compact fluorescent lamp) are used.

For Instances- Bhopal Tragedy Unforgettable Industrial Disaster :

Industries are the symbols of development, but other side of the coin is lack of safety measures and irresponsibility of emitting pollutants. On 2 nd December 1984 about 3000 human beings died and 5000 were effected seriously, thousands of cattle, birds, dogs, and cats died in just one night at Bhopal tragedy.

These mass deaths were due to the leakage of Methyle Isocyanate (MIC) into the air from an insecticide factory managed by union carbide. Thousands of lives helplessly crushed in this incident. This is unforgettable industrial disaster towards air pollution.

Essay # 6. Science and Technology :

Technology is often equated to applied sciences and its domain is generally thought to include mechanical, electrical, optical, electronic devices and instruments, the house hold and commercial gadgets, equipment used in physics, chemistry, biology, nuclear science etc. These various sub-domains of technology are interrelated. Modern technology is an applied science because the basic principles of sciences are applied to develop the technology.

Science and technology are linked to each other. Discoveries in science have paved the way for the evolution of new technologies. At the same time technology has been instrumental in the development of science.

Han’s Christian Oersted, one of the leading scientists of the 19 th century, played a crucial role in understanding electromagnetism. In 1820 he discovered that a compass needle got deflected when an electric current passed through a metallic wire placed nearby. Through this he showed that electricity and magnetism were related phenomena. His research later created technologies such as radio, television and fiber optics.

The development of microscope by Antony Van Leeuwenhock, where he interwined optical principles with astronomical and biological understanding which further led to the development of the telescope.

Thus, science influences technology by providing knowledge and methodology. But on the other hand technology also influences science by providing equipments to find out the unknown phenomenon of the nature. This shows interdependence of science and technology.

In science we inquire how a natural phenomenon occurs, while in technology we deal with how the scientific processes can also be used for human welfare. Technology as a discipline has its own autonomy and should not be regarded as a mere extension of science.

Basically science is an open ended exploration; its end results are not fixed in advance. Technology on the other hand, is also an exploration but usually with a definite goal in mind. Science is universal; technology is goal oriented and often local specific.

People today are faced with an increasingly fast-changing world where the most important skills are flexibility in adapting to new demands and creativity in taking advantages of new opportunities. These imperatives have to be kept in mind in shaping science education.

Essay # 7. Science and Society :

The applications of science and technology have led to the remarkable improvement in the quality of human life. It has given lot of comfort and leisure to the human kind on one side and equipped it with skills needed for problem solving and decision making on the other side. It has changed the outlook of the individual on different beliefs, myths, taboos and superstitions.

People started working with logical thinking, objectivity and open mindedness. Modern society believed in the co-existence of diversity in social and political thinking. Science always works for the welfare of our future generations by talking about sustainable development. Society is also showing its concern using the scientific knowledge for peace and prosperity of the society.

For instances, consuming tobacco (Gutkha, cigarettes, beedi, khaini) damages the internal organs of the body. The numbers of addicted people at the age of 15 or below are 57.57 lakhs (68%) both in Telengana and Andhra. When they reach 30 yrs. of age thin internal organs becomes damaged, this may lead to several problems and sometimes lead to death.

It is a dangerous trend in our country. So, we have to inculcate healthy habits in children by teaching science. Many youth are also addicted to alcohol which damages the liver and other body organs which in turn also affects human resource development.

Let Us Think It Over:

Do you know that our eyes can live even after our death? By donating our eyes after we die, we can give sight to a blind person.

About 35 million people in the developing world are blind and most of them can be cured. About 4.5 million people are with corneal blindness, can be cured by corneal transplantation of donated eyes. Out of these 4.5 million, 60% are children below the age of 12 yrs. So, if we got the gift of vision, let us pass it on to somebody who does not have it.

Essay # 8. Scientific Method and Its Steps:

1. The development of scientific attitude and training in scientific method are two cardinal aims for the teaching of science. In other words it is a method of solving a problem scientifically.

2. Scientific method involves reflective thinking, reasoning and results from the achievement of certain abilities, skills and attitudes.

Definition of Scientific Method :

Carl Pearson says, ‘The scientific method is marked by the following features:

1. Careful and accurate classification of facts.

2. Observation of their co-relation and sequence.

3. Discovery of scientific law by creative imagination, and self-criticism.

4. The final touch-stone of equal validity for all normally constituted needs.

Steps of Scientific Method:

Observation :

Observation is the base for science. It knows the phenomenon through senses. Without control of external or internal situations.

1. It is the way we perceive the nature and using the senses and processed through the faculty of brain.

2. It is a process of checking conclusions. After observation we try to explain what we have seen based on cause and effect relation. In science repeatedly verifiable observations becomes a fact.

Facts are specific verifiable information obtained through observation and measurement. They are verifiable with reference to time and place.

Some facts do not require the time and place to be mentioned. Ex- Iron is a greyish hard metal.

Some facts are specific like ‘water boils at 100°C at 760mm Hg of pressure.

A concept is an idea or a mental image of an object is generalised forms of specific relevant direct experiences interpreted in a language or word form for communication.

1. Concepts. Ex. plant, animal etc.

2. According to Bruner, every concept has five elements i.e. name, example (positive & negative), attributes (characteristics) attribute value and rule (definition).

3. Concepts formed without direct experiences may lead to misconceptions. Hence, care should be taken in provide direct experiences in learning process.

Principles :

Principles are based on several concepts. They are the representation of phenomena on which the activities or behaviour can be generalised to some extent.

A number of concepts combine in a way to convey meaning which can be tested and verified universally, becomes a principle.

Ex- Mytosis, Meiosis, Glycolysis, Photosynthe sis, Mutations, Evolution etc.

Scientific Inquiry :

It occupies a prominent place in science as it helps pupils to understand how scientific ideas are developed.

1. It is broadly defined as a search for truth or knowledge. Emphasis is placed on the aspects of search rather than on the mere acquisition of knowledge.

2. Empirical testing, reasoning and controlled experimenting are some of the methods of science inquiry.

The steps in scientific methods are illustrated with a specific example:

The teacher demonstrates an experiment to the students to show that water boils at low temperature under low pressure.

1. Sensing the Problem:

The teacher provides a situation in which the students feel the need of asking some questions. Teacher may also put questions which require reflective thinking and reasoning on the part of the students, this may become a problem to solve. The interest of the students, availability of the material and its utility should be considered.

A flask was taken and filled it half with water. Boil the water over a flame. Remove the flame. Cork the flask. Invert it and pour cold water on the flask. The students observe the process carefully and saw that water has begun to boil again when cold water is poured on the bottom of the inverted flask. They at once sense a problem for themselves finding out the reason and explanation of what they have seen.

2. Defining the Problem:

The student now defines the problem in a concise, definite and clear language. There should be some key-words in the statement of the problem, which may help in better understanding the problem.

The student can give different statements such as:

(i) Why is water boiling?

(ii) Why did the water boil first?

(iii) Why was the flask corked and then inverted?

(iv) Why was cold water poured over the bottom of the inverted flask?

(v) Why did the water boil in the flask when cold water is poured over the inverted flask?

Of all these statements, the last one is in fact the problem which should be solved.

3. Analysis of the Problem:

The student now fined the key words and phrases in the problem which provide clue to further study of the problem. At the same time, the students must have knowledge of every key word and the understanding of the whole problem. In our selected problem ‘water boil’ or the boiling of the water are the key words which gives us clue to find information regarding the boiling of water under different conditions.

Collection of Data :

After analysis of the problem the teacher suggests references on the problem. The student needs to plan the subsequent activities. They have to discuss, consult references, use audio-visual aids such as models, pictures, specimens, organise field trips and do the experimentation carefully. Unnecessary data should also be discarded.

Formulation of Tentative Solutions or Hypothesis :

After collection of data, the students are asked to formulate some tentative hypothesis. A hypothesis is the probable solution to the problem in hand, which should be free from bias and self-inclination.

The students can suggest the hypothesis like:

Water will also boil:

(i) When flask is not inverted.

(ii) When water is not boiled but only warmed.

(iii) When hot water is poured over the inverted flask containing cold water.

(iv) When hot water is poured over the inverted flask containing boiled water.

(v) When cold water is poured over the flask containing cold water.

(vi) When cold water is poured over the inverted flask containing boiled water.

These are some of the hypothesis the students can suggest.

Selecting and Testing the Most Appropriate Hypothesis :

The students can select the most tenable hypothesis by rejecting others through experimentation and discussion.

The students have found out that water begins to boil again in an inverted flask when cold water is poured over it. In no other condition this was possible and so all other hypothesis were rejected.

Drawing Conclusions and Making Generalisations :

In this step, conclusions are drawn from the experiments. The results should support the expected solution. Experiments can be repeated to verify the consistency and correctness of the conclusion drawn and should be properly reported. When some conclusions are drawn from different sets of experimentation under similar situations, they may go for generalisation of their conclusion.

The generalisation can be made by arranging a set of experiments which also show the same conclusion already reached at.

The effect of varying pressure on boiling point of water can be found out by conducting experiments. From these conditions, one can generalise that pressure has a direct effect on the boiling point of water i.e. the increase in pressure raises the boiling point of water and vice-versa.

Application of Generalization to New Situations :

The student should apply generalization under new situations in his daily life minimising the gap between classroom situation and real life situation.

The student will apply the generalization that increase in pressure increases the boiling point of water and vice-versa, to explain the reason of – ‘why’ is it difficult to cook meat and pulses at higher altitudes.

Why do the pulses take lesser time for cooking in pressure cooker.

In this way the student will apply the generalization to other life situations.

Scientific Method- A Critical View :

A few points about the scientific method need to be emphasized.

Scientific method is not a prescribed pathing for making discoveries in science. Very rarely the method has remained a key to discovery in science. It is the attitude of inquiry, investigation and experimentation rather than following set steps of a particular method that leads to discoveries and advancement in science.

Sometimes a theory may suggest a new experiment at other times an experiment may suggest a new theoretical model. Scientists do not always go through all the steps of the method and not necessarily in the order we have outlines above. Investigation in science often involves repeated action on any one or all steps of the scientific method in any order.

Many important and path breaking discoveries in science have been made by trial and error, experimentation and accidental observation. The Rontgen and Fleming both of them did not set out the following scientific steps to discover X-rays and penicillin, but they had qualities of healthy intuition and perseverance which took them to their goals. Besides intuition informed guesswork, creativity, an eye for an unusual occurrence, all played a significant role in developing new theories, and there by progress in science.

The validity of a hypothesis depends solely on the experimental test and not on any other attributes. There is no authority in science that tells you what you can criticize and what you cannot criticize. Thus, science is highly objective discipline.

A scientific method with its linear steps makes us feel that science is a ‘closed box approach’ of thinking. However in practice science is more about thinking ‘out of the box’. There is tremendous scope for creativity in science. Many times in science an idea or a solution to a vexing problem appears to arise out of creativity and imagination. Ex- The stories of Archimedes, Newton, Robert Hook, Fleming and Madam Curie etc.

People keep floating all kinds of theories; often they narrow their arguments in scientific terms. This may create lot of confusion among them, but we should remember that a theory is valid only if it passes the test of experimentation, otherwise it may just be a matter of faith.

The scientific method imposes operational limitation on science. It does not help us to make aesthetic or value judgment. For example, frequency of the colour of paintings may be determined but there is no scientific method to label the paintings of two artists as great or not so great. Scientific method does not prove or refute the ideas such as existence of God and existence of life after death.

Following scientific method does not ensure that a discovery can be made. However, the skills learnt in making observation, analysis, hypothesis, prediction from a hypothesis and it’s testing by experimentation help us in developing scientific attitude.

All of us will benefit immensely if we imbibe the spirit of scientific method in our personal lives. The scientific method tells us to be honest in reporting our observations or experimental results, keep an open mind and to be ready to accept other points of view. If our own view is proved wrong.

Scientific method is a logical approach to problem-solving.

Related Articles:

  • Essay on Environmental Science
  • Content-cum-Methodology in Teaching: Concept, Nature, Need and Steps

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Essay on Science - 100, 200, 500 Words

  • Science Essay in English

Scientific knowledge gives people confidence and makes them aware of their surroundings. Those who know science know the origin and reason of natural phenomena, they are not afraid of natural phenomena. Science also plays an important role in the country's technological development and in removing obstacles to growth such as unemployment and illiteracy. Here are a few sample essays on Science.

100 Words Essay on Science

200 words essay on science, 500 words essay on science.

Essay on Science - 100, 200, 500 Words

Science is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the natural world . It involves observation, experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Science has transformed the way we live and has led to countless advancements in medicine, technology, and industry. Scientific discoveries have helped us to understand the origins of the universe, the complexity of life, and the intricacies of the human body. Science has also opened up new frontiers in areas such as space exploration, renewable energy, and artificial intelligence. Science is a continuous process of discovery and it will always be at the forefront of human progress, shaping our future and improving our lives.

From cars to washing machines, mobile phones to microwave ovens, refrigerators to laptops, everything we use in our daily lives is a scientific wonder. There is nothing in our lives that science cannot do. Science plays a very important role in our life. Here are some examples of how science affects our daily lives—

Gas stoves, which are routinely used for food preparation, are as much a scientific development as microwaves, grills and freezers.

2. Medical Care

Advances in technology have made it possible to treat a wide variety of diseases and disorders. Learn how science supports healthy living and extends life.

3. Communication

Mobile phones and Internet connectivity, which have become an integral part of our daily lives, are all scientific innovations. These advances have made communication easier and made the world a closer one.

4. Energy source

The discovery of nuclear power paved the way for the development and use of many energy sources. Electricity is one of their most important creations and their influence on our daily lives is well known.

All of this shows the importance of science, and it cannot be separated from everyday life. It's truly a miracle, life without science is unthinkable nowadays.

Science is the study of the structure and behavior of various physical and natural aspects. Scientists study these aspects, observe closely, conduct experiments, and then draw conclusions. There have been several scientific discoveries and inventions in the past that have proven to benefit mankind.

Science and Religious Concept

Science takes a logical and systematic approach to coming up with new ideas and inventions , religion is based solely on belief systems and beliefs. In science there is exhaustive observation, analysis and experimentation to arrive at results, but in religion there is little logic. So their perspective on things is completely different.

Science vs Religion

Science and religion are often at odds because they have conflicting views on certain issues. Unfortunately, these conflicts sometimes lead to social upheaval and afflict innocent people. Some of the major conflicts that have arisen between adherents of religion and adherents of the scientific method are listed below.

Earth as Center of the Universe

This is one of the most famous conflicts. The Roman Catholic Church believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. According to them, the sun, moon, stars and other planets revolve around them. The dispute arose when the famous Italian astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei discovered the heliocentric system, in which the sun forms the center of the solar system and the earth and other planets form the center of the solar system. Unfortunately, Galileo was convicted as a heretic and put under house arrest for the rest of his life.

Apart from these, there are several other areas where scholars and religious advocates hold conflicting views. Not only are religious advocates often vocal against the scientific method and ideology, but scientific inventions are superseded by a variety of social, political, environmental, and health problems. has also been criticized by many other sections of society.

Importance of Science

Science is important because it helps to understand the natural world, make informed decisions, and develop new technologies that improve our lives and benefit society. Science also plays a crucial role in solving global problems such as disease, hunger, and climate change. By using the scientific method and testing theories with evidence, science provides a systematic way of understanding and explaining the world, and leads to advancements in medicine, energy, transportation, communication, and many other areas.

The role of science in our daily lives cannot be overstated. Science helps us to understand the workings of the natural world and provides us with the knowledge and tools to address a wide range of practical problems.

For example, medical science has led to the development of vaccines, cures, and treatments for many diseases, greatly improving public health and increasing life expectancy . The field of agriculture has used science to increase food production, feed a growing global population, and develop new and more efficient farming methods.

In addition, science has helped to address environmental problems and improve energy efficiency. The use of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power has become more widespread, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating their negative impact on the environment.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Manufacturing
  • Information Technology

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Graphic Designer

Within the graphic design and graphic arts industry, a graphic designer is a specialist who designs and builds images, graphic design, or visual effects to develop a piece of artwork. In career as graphic designer, individuals primarily generate the graphics for publishing houses and printed or electronic digital media like pamphlets and commercials. There are various options for industrial graphic design employment. Graphic design career includes providing numerous opportunities in the media industry.


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Risk Management Specialist

Individuals who opt for a career as a risk management specialist are professionals who are responsible for identifying risks involved in business that may include loss of assets, property, personnel or cash flow. Credit risk manager responsibilities are to identifies business opportunities and eliminates issues related to insurance or safety that may cause property litigation. A risk management specialist is responsible for increasing benefits.

Insurance Analyst

In the career as an insurance analyst, one can monitor the choices the customers make about which insurance policy options best suit their requirements. They research and make recommendations that have a real impact on the financial well-being of a client down the road. Insurance companies are helping people prepare themselves for the long term. Insurance Analysts find the documents of the claim and perform a thorough investigation, like travelling to places where the incident has occurred, gathering evidence, and working with law enforcement officers.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Securities Broker

A career as a securities broker is filled with excitement and plenty of responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. These types of brokers explain to their clients the complex details related to the securities or the stock market. Choosing to become a securities broker is a good career choice especially due to the liberalization as well as economic growth. There are several companies and organizations in India which hire a securities broker. If you are also thinking of making a career in this field then continue reading the article, it will answer all your questions related to the field. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it. 

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 


A career as paediatrician has emerged as one of India's most popular career choices. By choosing a career as paediatrician, not only in India but also overseas, one can find lucrative work profiles as demand for talented and professional paediatricians is increasing day by day. If you are passionate about children and have the patience to evaluate and diagnose their issues, you may have a good career as paediatricians. Paediatricians take care of children's physical, mental and emotional health from infancy to adolescence.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Surgical Technologist

When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

Also Read: Career as Nurse

Ophthalmic Medical Technician

Ophthalmic technician careers are one of the booming careers option available in the field of healthcare. Being a part of this field as an ophthalmic medical technician can provide several career opportunities for an individual. With advancing technology the job of individuals who opt for a career as ophthalmic medical technicians have become of even more importance as he or she is required to assist the ophthalmologist in using different types of machinery. If you want to know more about the field and what are the several job opportunities, work environment, just about anything continues reading the article and all your questions shall be answered.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Music Teacher

Career as a Music Teacher is a fun and exciting job if you are skilled and passionate about this career. A Music Teacher is responsible for teaching students music, instruments, techniques, technology, singing, and many more. He or she helps students to analyze musical works, and concepts of music and assigns and evaluates lessons.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

News Anchor

A career as news anchor requires to be working closely with reporters to collect information, broadcast newscasts and interview guests throughout the day. A news anchor job description is to track the latest affairs and present news stories in an insightful, meaningful and impartial manner to the public. A news anchor in India needs to be updated on the news of the day. He or she even works with the news director to pick stories to air, taking into consideration the interests of the viewer.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

SEO Analyst

An SEO Analyst is a web professional who is proficient in the implementation of SEO strategies to target more keywords to improve the reach of the content on search engines. He or she provides support to acquire the goals and success of the client’s campaigns. 

A career as a gemologist is as magnificent and sparkling as gemstones. A gemologist is a professional who has knowledge and understanding of gemology and he or she applies the same knowledge in his everyday work responsibilities. He or she grades gemstones using various equipment and determines its worth. His or her other work responsibilities involve settling gemstones in jewellery, polishing and examining it. 

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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Commercial Manager

A Commercial Manager negotiates, advises and secures information about pricing for commercial contracts. He or she is responsible for developing financial plans in order to maximise the business's profitability.

Quality Assurance Manager Job Description: A QA Manager is an administrative professional responsible for overseeing the activity of the QA department and staff. It involves developing, implementing and maintaining a system that is qualified and reliable for testing to meet specifications of products of organisations as well as development processes. 

Reliability Engineer

Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment. 

Safety Manager

A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

IT Consultant

An IT Consultant is a professional who is also known as a technology consultant. He or she is required to provide consultation to industrial and commercial clients to resolve business and IT problems and acquire optimum growth. An IT consultant can find work by signing up with an IT consultancy firm, or they can work on their own as independent contractors and select the projects they want to work on.

Data Architect

A Data Architect role involves formulating the organisational data strategy. It involves data quality, flow of data within the organisation and security of data. The vision of Data Architect provides support to convert business requirements into technical requirements. 

AI Data Analyst

An AI Data Analyst is responsible for procuring, preparing, cleansing and modelling data utilising machine learning models and new analytical methods. He or she designs and creates data reports in order to provide support to stakeholders to make better decisions. 

Automation Test Engineer

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process. 

UX Architect

A UX Architect is someone who influences the design processes and its outcomes. He or she possesses a solid understanding of user research, information architecture, interaction design and content strategy. 

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