Educational Technology During the COVID-19 Pandemic Case Study
This essay intends to address the essential requirements of teaching and learning online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It will further demonstrate the application of existing institutional resources in transforming classroom education to online learning and teaching using virtual classes and other effective techniques. The paper applies quantitative and qualitative techniques in studying students’ and teachers’ perspectives in adopting technology for learning and teaching. Also, this paper highlights the processes of implementing technological material in learning and teaching.
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COVID-19 is the most significant health crisis affecting today’s world, causing economic and social stagnation among communities and institutions. To control the spread of the disease, institutions and social events had to lockdown, limiting social interactions. Additionally, the health sector set up precautionary measures such as social distancing, victims’ isolation, and frequently sanitizing to prevent contraction of the illness. As a result, most educational institutions closed down, affecting teaching and learning processes globally. Some of the impacts of school closure include a high dropout rate, decline in the quality of education, and exposure of learners to abusive practices making governments and institutions support learning (Wolhuter & Jacobs, 2021). Furthermore, the pressure facing students and teachers in continuing the learning process demands embracing technological material for effective service delivery. Therefore, the education system needs redesigning to accommodate the current and future situations that require technological resources in learning and teaching. This study addresses the perspectives of teachers and learners towards adopting various educational technologies in enhancing online and virtual classes and their impacts in improving the learning and teaching processes.
Vision For Implementing Educational Technologies
Implementing educational technologies intends to improve education efficiency and quality and promote changes in learning and teaching methods.
Assessment of Educational Technologies
Online learning involves different methods according to the user’s preference. The participants’ preferred technology for educational service delivery includes virtual classrooms, emailing, text chatting, and pre-recorded audio and videos. The recommended platforms for online learning include google classrooms, YouTube videos, live streaming using Facebook or YouTube, skyping, email messages, telegram, mobile phone communication, zoom, and the school’s e-learning programs. Most students advocate using Facebook and YouTube streaming for virtual classes, whereas teachers prefer mobile phones in teaching as it is more connecting and personal.
Learners and Faculty Perspectives in Adopting the Technologies
Both learners and teachers agree that adopting educational technology to enhance virtual and online classes is the best move in continuing the learning and teaching processes during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. However, most teachers believe that adopting educational technology for efficiency depends on the advantages and positive changes to academic improvement and quality service delivery. In addition, teachers perceive virtual classrooms to practice patience and caring for students, given the practical features for teaching and managing students online.
Additionally, virtual classrooms enhance the improvement of presentation skills and public participation. For efficacy in service delivery through online technologies, teachers must be proficient in computer applications, teaching skills in the particular domains, clear expression of ideas and subjects, and practical communication skills. The online platforms should store data and assignments for effective research, submission of assignments, and offline activities (Wolhuter & Jacobs, 2021). Teachers also demand the adoption of technology that can meet the demands of extensive teaching while limiting the data usage for cost-effectiveness. The technology should have a limitless supply of educational materials for research, such as free educational articles. Teachers and students demand free access to the internet and online resources in adopting educational technology effectively.
Students perceive the adoption of educational technology as a good way of promoting virtual classrooms in case of situational cases demanding lockdown such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual and online classes are suitable for controlling crowds and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic and create an alternative for syllabus completion without attending classes physically. On the other hand, some students oppose learning through virtual classes because some learning technologies are complex and hard to adopt. Students also demand more accessible access to online resources and log-in methods to learning technologies that are not complex. Internet accessibility should be constant and stable for effective learning throughout the institution.
The majority of the students prefer learning through pre-recorded videos as they are easily accessible, allowing repetitive viewing and taking notes by pausing when necessary. The most recommended online application for learning is google classroom which provides effective streaming with table internet connectivity. On the other hand, students perceive online classes as less participatory, and teachers are too fast to grasp important content. The majority of the students believe that focusing and being attentive during online classes is very challenging because of particular environmental settings during classes. Students’ perceptions reflect that of teachers in creating connections that enhance bonding and eases the environment during teacher-learners discussions online.
Strategic Plan in Technological Integration
Factors determining teachers’ willingness to adopt educational technology in teaching include effective training, perceptions towards the usefulness of the technology, institutional support, and ease of adopting the technology and leadership. Teachers are more likely to adopt technology that enhances academic improvement than those that are only usable socially (Wolhuter & Jacobs, 2021). Building faculty confidence promotes the effective adoption of technology in teaching. Chat texts and emails provide flexible methods of teaching and are easily accessible. The technology allows reflection before giving answers allowing learners to analyze and understand concepts.
Moreover, video and audio technologies are not effective in teaching due to being less flexible and time conscious. Virtual classes and online chat rooms are effective in participation and providing immediate responses in terms of feedback. However, the technology does not allow reflection before responding. Teachers need adequate training in conducting online classes and gaining knowledge on computer applications. The institution should also motivate to enable easy adoption of the technologies such as providing free laptops, free internet, and learners motivation on online learning.
The study supports using all the preferred technologies in online learning. Virtual classes and video conferencing are suitable for discussing less complex topics, whereas emails, chats, and pre-recorded information suit the discussion of more complex and theoretical subjects. Teachers should select suitable technology based on discussion to ensure all learners meet the desired objectives of studying. Virtual classrooms are the best in conducting online classes as it allows interaction through chatting and one on one activities. Adopting virtual classrooms ensures effective participation between learners and teachers, which motivates learners to more attentive and attentive to online classes.
Implementation involves the integration of online classes and activities in the current curriculum. Teachers should develop teaching schedules and course content using online material to gain skills in using computer software. To engage students in the implementation, teachers and the faculty should post assignments, assessments, and general announcements in online portals to encourage online resources. The institution should provide an e-learning portal for free and easy access to internet for retrieving information. Additionally, students will participate in online activities enhancing presentation and organization skills for better recording and uploading of assignments.
This study did not receive any financial resources.
Wolhuter, C. C., & Jacobs, L. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic: Streamlining or capsizing the global higher education revolution. Perspectives in Education, 39 (1), 291-303. Web.
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Essay on Contribution of Technology in Education
The mode of education was never the same, it has changed continuously; in the beginning, there were no books or notebooks, students use to learn whatever their teacher use to teach in the class itself. Slowly paper and pen were invented and slowly the process moved and today we have technology on our doorstep. Find here some essays on the topics to create your own for your school assignments.
Short and Long Essays on Contribution of Technology in Education in English
Essay on Contribution of Technology in Education for students of class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and class 12 in English in 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 words. Also find short Contribution of Technology in Education essay 10 lines.
Contribution of Technology in Education Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)
1) The modern education system is blessed with advanced technologies.
2) The emergence of smart classes is the result of smart technologies.
3) The use of technology in education encourages students to study.
4) Technology provides a flexible and engaging way of gaining an education.
5) Technology reduces the time and effort of learning.
6) Newer technologies attract and excite students to learn more and more.
7) Technology helps students to learn the concept more easily.
8) Technology has a huge contribution to the education system during the Covid pandemic.
9) With technology, students can gain education beyond their course.
10) Technology has made education possible for every citizen.
Essay 1 (250 Words) – Contribution of Technology in Education
The word technology has been derived from a Greek word ‘tekhnologia’ where ‘tekh’ stands for art, craft, skill, etc and logy stands for the subject of interest. I can sum up technology as a platform that can perform a task as per our needs. When we add education with technology, then you can imagine how easy it is going to be for us.
Importance of Technology
Technology provides a digital platform and nowadays it has become an important part of our life. Where ever we go we see the use of technology. Schools are running with the new tag of smart classes and these smart classes are the best example of technology.
The use of technology has made education easy as well as interesting. Usually, children don’t like going to school but after introducing these smart classes they just love being there. Apart from these smart classes, there is also much software available for educational purposes.
That software keeps us updated and helps to learn new things. Although there are both positive and negative aspects of using technology still, we hope for the best. There are different topics available on YouTube and there are many educational apps available. We can read from them and daily can learn new things.
I really love reading from an app, they are designed in such a way that I love it. It attracts me and encourages me to read and has made education easy.
Technology is helpful in many ways especially in terms of education. It helps students to develop interest and learn new things. Nowadays a newly born child gets used to a mobile phone and when kids will get their education on these platforms, they will just love it.
Essay 2 (400 Words) – Technology and its Role in Present Education and Future Prospects
The process of gaining knowledge is termed as educating ourselves. It is an endless process but it is mostly used for students. Basically, there is no age of learning but students and school-going children are more connected with this word. When we take the help of technology for education, it becomes more interesting as well as convenient.
Role of Technology in Present Education
- The presence of technology enhances the level of education and makes it easier. Today the easy access to the internet has made education easy. It has increased the level, nowadays students don’t have to wait for the teacher to complete a topic, and they can easily read whatever they need online or with the help of different educational apps and platforms.
- Nowadays computers and laptops or mobile phones are easily available to educate yourself.
- The use of technology in education is a boon for those who don’t have much time, especially those who work. Suppose you work and want to learn a new skill to improve or upgrade your work, so you can easily prefer an online course.
- In the COVID-19 epidemic, the schools were closed for more than 6 months and education was only possible online. Technology saved students from being uneducated for a year, really thanks to the technology that education during COVID got possible.
- There are smart classes available everywhere which increases the interest of students and encourages them to read.
Role of Technology in Future Education
- Soon, books will be available online and this will reduce the burden of a bag of school-going children.
- Digital education will be promoted, this will save the environment, as well as will also decrease pollution caused by the burning of paper.
- Education will become easy and each and every student will get the same education.
- It will help students to read, think, analyze, and then perform and this will definitely increase the standards of education.
- Distance will never be an obstacle to gaining knowledge with the help of technology.
- Helps us to perform advanced research programs and learn new things.
Education should not only be confined up to books, one should get a chance to explore his knowledge and try something new. Time has changed and the mode of education should also be changed and students should be given chance to learn something new and interesting and technology makes it possible.
Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words) – Is Technology Really Helpful in Education
Technology is something a new subject of education because it is equally important. It has become an integral part of education. Nowadays either you have to know your syllabus or want to clear a topic. Everything is possible and available online. You can reach these platforms with the help of various technologies.
Is Technology Really Helpful in Education?
I have seen the difference, how technology has changed modern education. In older days students use to read from their books and if they faced any problem, they use to ask their teachers. But it is not necessary that every student has the same IQ to understand what the teacher said. Some students won’t get it but they never ask because they feel shy.
But in today’s era when technology is a part of education, students easily get multiple options to solve their question. There are multiple platforms where they can also ask a question or can have a live interaction with their teachers. Really education has progressed a lot. You can also compare the marks, in the old days people use to hardly get distinction but nowadays it is not a big deal.
Technology has made education easy and today we have multiple options to clear our doubts. Easy access to the internet and other helping apps has made education easy as well as interesting. These gadgets also save time and energy.
Different Technologies for Education
Any device which is helpful in educating self is a student-friendly technology. It can also be a mobile phone or a laptop. Nowadays there are many devices made especially for students for their studies. I have listed them below:
Laptops : One of the best mediums of gaining knowledge. The Internet is something where you can get information either in a written way or in an audio form. You can get a detailed explanation from different tutors on various platforms. It helps students to get detailed information and also helps to clear their doubts. A laptop is a device where you can easily access different educational portals.
Smart Phone : They are the smaller version of laptops; you can carry your smartphones anywhere and it is a bit convenient to use as compared to a laptop. The easy internet connection and small size make it user friendly. Many students have mobile phones and they use them for educational purposes. There are many educational apps available in Play Store which can be easily used in these phones.
Electronic Pen Reader: It is a thermometer device which helps to record the words written in a book. Actually, it is not always we want to read sometime we prefer listening and it has been proved that we acquire more knowledge by listening. So, this device is specially designed for those who prefer listening. This pen collects whatever written in a book and plays audio when needed.
Kindle for Textbooks : These books are available online and they are available in half rates. This helps to reduce the production of paper and online books can be easily stored. They are popular these days.
Noise Cancelling Headphones : They are super isolated headphone which helps to maintain pin-drop silence. Some time due to marriage seasons and some other reasons it becomes difficult to study. These headphones are specially designed which removes any kind of noise and helps you to focus.
The use of technology in education will bring a drastic change in our education system. One side will encourage students to study, whereas on the other side will also help them in their studies in many ways. Technology teaches us new things and also encourages us to develop new ideas and promote our creativity. We can easily connect with people and solve our problems.
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
Ans . Technology has made the process of teaching and learning flexible and easier.
Ans . Internet helps the students to find accurate information in every area of education.
Ans . Umo Cygnaeous is known as the father of educational technology.
Ans . The USA is the leading nation in online learning in the whole world.
Ans . The computers were first used in schools in the early 1980s.
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Contribution of Technology in Education Essay – 250, 350 Words
Hello friends, You will know that today’s era is of technology, so we are going to give you information about the Contribution of Technology in Education Essay in this article. Today education and technology are running together, both cannot run without each other, so let us know what is the contribution of tech in education in today’s time.
Table of Contents
Contribution of Technology in Education Essay
- Technology in education provides access to a wealth of information and resources.
- It enhances the learning experience through interactive and engaging content.
- Technology facilitates personalized learning and adapts to individual student needs.
- It enables collaboration and communication among students and teachers.
- Online platforms and tools make distance learning possible, expanding educational opportunities.
- Technology improves assessment methods and provides instant feedback.
- It prepares students for the digital era and develops essential 21st-century skills.
- Educational apps and software enhance student motivation and engagement.
- Virtual reality and augmented reality offer immersive learning experiences.
- Technology enables remote and flexible learning, catering to diverse student needs.
Contribution of Technology in Education Essay in 250 Words
Technology has revolutionized the field of education, making learning more accessible, interactive, and engaging. It has become an indispensable tool in classrooms, enabling students to acquire knowledge in a whole new way. The contribution of technology to education is immense and has transformed the learning experience for both students and teachers.
Firstly, technology has made learning more accessible. With the internet and digital devices, students can access a vast amount of information and educational resources from anywhere in the world. This has eliminated the barriers of time and distance, allowing students to learn at their own pace and explore a wide range of subjects.
Furthermore, technology has made learning more interactive and engaging. Interactive software, educational apps, and online platforms provide students with a hands-on learning experience. They can participate in virtual experiments, simulations, and interactive exercises that deepen their understanding of complex concepts. This active engagement enhances their critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
Moreover, technology has personalized the learning experience. Adaptive learning platforms and intelligent tutoring systems analyze students’ strengths and weaknesses and provide tailored instruction accordingly. This personalized approach ensures that students receive individualized support and progress at their own pace, boosting their learning outcomes.
Additionally, technology has expanded the possibilities for collaboration and communication. Online discussion forums, video conferencing, and collaborative platforms enable students to connect with peers and experts from around the world. This promotes cross-cultural understanding, collaboration, and the exchange of ideas, fostering a global perspective among students.
In conclusion, technology has significantly contributed to education by making learning more accessible, interactive, engaging, and personalized. It has opened up new avenues for exploration and collaboration, equipping students with the skills they need to thrive in the modern world. With the continuous advancements in technology, the future of education looks promising, promising further transformation and innovation.
What is the Role of Technology in Education Essay?
Customized Learning: Technology allows for personalized and adaptive learning experiences. With the help of digital tools, students can access educational content tailored to their individual needs and learning styles. This promotes better engagement, motivation, and understanding of the subject matter.
- Global Collaboration: Technology enables students to connect and collaborate with peers from different parts of the world. Through online platforms and video conferencing, students can engage in collaborative projects, share ideas, and gain a deeper understanding of diverse cultures and perspectives.
- Interactive Learning: Technology offers interactive and immersive learning experiences that enhance student engagement and participation. Virtual simulations, educational games, and augmented reality applications allow students to actively explore and manipulate concepts, making learning more enjoyable and effective.
- Access to Information: The Internet provides instant access to a vast amount of information and educational resources. Students can conduct research, and access e-books, online libraries, and educational videos, enabling them to explore topics beyond the confines of textbooks and classrooms.
- Digital Skills Development: Technology equips students with essential digital skills that are increasingly required in the modern workforce. Through the use of computers, software applications, and online tools, students develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and digital literacy skills that are vital for their future success.
- Distance Learning Opportunities: Technology has opened up new avenues for distance learning, making education more accessible to individuals who are unable to attend traditional educational institutions. Online courses, webinars, and virtual classrooms allow students to pursue education regardless of geographical barriers or time constraints.
- Data-Driven Insights: Educational technology platforms collect and analyze vast amounts of data on student performance, providing valuable insights to educators. This data can be used to identify areas where students are struggling, track progress, and personalize instruction, enabling teachers to better support individual student needs.
- Inclusive Education: Technology has the potential to make education more inclusive for students with special needs. Assistive technologies, such as text-to-speech software, screen readers, and adaptive devices, enable students with disabilities to participate fully in the learning process, promoting equal opportunities for all.
- Lifelong Learning: Technology fosters a culture of lifelong learning by providing individuals with opportunities for continuous skill development and upskilling. Online courses, webinars, and educational platforms empower individuals to acquire new knowledge and stay updated in a rapidly evolving world.
- Environmental Sustainability: Technology can contribute to environmental sustainability in education by reducing the need for physical resources. Digital textbooks, online assessments, and paperless assignments reduce paper waste and carbon footprint, making education more environmentally friendly.
What is the Relation between Education and Technology?
The relationship between education and technology can be described as a mutually beneficial partnership. Education refers to the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and values, while technology involves the use of tools, devices, and systems to enhance human activities. When combined, education and technology can greatly enhance learning experiences and outcomes.
Technology has revolutionized education by providing new and innovative ways of teaching and learning. It has made information more accessible, allowing students and educators to access a vast amount of knowledge through the Internet. Technology tools like computers, tablets, and interactive whiteboards enable interactive and engaging learning experiences.
Additionally, technology has expanded the reach of education beyond traditional classrooms. Online learning platforms and educational apps provide opportunities for remote and flexible learning. This enables individuals from various backgrounds and locations to access education, breaking down barriers of time and space.
Contribution of Technology in Education Essay in 350 Words
Learning is the process of gaining knowledge, and it is something that continues throughout our lives. Although anyone can learn at any age, the term “education” is often associated with students and children who attend school. When technology is used for education, it becomes more interesting and convenient.
Role of Technology in Present Education:
- Technology plays a crucial role in enhancing and simplifying education. The easy access to the internet has made learning more accessible. Students no longer have to wait for a teacher to cover a topic; they can easily find information online or through educational apps and platforms.
- Computers, laptops, and mobile phones are widely available for educational purposes. Technology in education is especially beneficial for busy individuals who want to learn new skills to improve their work.
- During the COVID-19 pandemic, when schools were closed, technology allowed education to continue online, ensuring that students did not miss out on a year of learning. Smart classes, equipped with technology, are also available, which makes learning more engaging for students.
Role of Technology in Future Education:
- In the future, books will be available online, reducing the burden of heavy school bags for students.
- Digital education will be promoted, benefiting the environment by reducing paper usage and the pollution caused by paper burning.
- Education will become more accessible, ensuring that every student has equal opportunities for learning.
- Technology will help students develop critical thinking and analytical skills, ultimately raising the overall educational standards.
- Distance will no longer be a barrier to gaining knowledge, thanks to technology.
- It will also enable advanced research programs and facilitate continuous learning of new things.
How Technology is Useful in Covid-19 in India in Education
In the context of education, technology has played a crucial role in supporting learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Here are some ways in which technology has been useful:
- Online Learning Platforms: With the closure of schools and educational institutions, online learning platforms have become essential for remote education. These platforms, such as learning management systems and video conferencing tools, have enabled students and teachers to connect virtually, access educational resources, and continue the learning process from their homes.
- Digital Content and Resources: Technology has made it possible to create and distribute digital content, including textbooks, videos, interactive lessons, and educational apps. These resources have helped students to engage in self-paced learning, access a wide range of educational materials, and explore subjects beyond the limitations of traditional classrooms.
- Virtual Classrooms and Webinars: Virtual classrooms and webinars have allowed teachers to conduct live interactive sessions with students. These platforms enable real-time communication, screen sharing, and collaboration tools, which facilitate active learning and engagement. Students can participate in discussions, ask questions, and receive immediate feedback from teachers.
- Online Assessments and Examinations: Technology has facilitated the conduct of online assessments and examinations. Online assessment tools and platforms have enabled teachers to create and administer quizzes, tests, and assignments remotely. This has allowed for the evaluation of student’s progress and performance even during the pandemic.
- Skill Development and Online Courses: Technology has provided opportunities for skill development and online courses. Platforms like MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) offer a wide range of courses in various subjects and skills. Students and professionals can utilize these platforms to acquire new skills, enhance their knowledge, and pursue personal and professional development.
FAQ About Contribution of Technology in Education Essay
Q: How has technology contributed to education?
A: Technology has revolutionized education by enhancing access to information, improving communication and collaboration, and enabling personalized learning experiences.
Q: How has technology improved access to information in education?
A: Technology has made information more accessible through the internet, online libraries, and digital resources, allowing students to explore diverse subjects and learn at their own pace.
Q: How has technology enhanced communication and collaboration in education?
A: Technology tools like video conferencing, online forums, and collaborative platforms have facilitated communication and collaboration among students, teachers, and experts from around the world, promoting global learning opportunities.
Q: How has technology-enabled personalized learning experiences in education?
A: With adaptive learning platforms and intelligent tutoring systems, technology has enabled personalized learning experiences tailored to individual student’s needs, interests, and learning styles.
Q: What are some examples of technology used in education?
A: Examples of technology used in education include interactive whiteboards, tablets, educational apps, virtual reality (VR) simulations, learning management systems (LMS), and online assessment tools.
Q: How has technology made learning more engaging?
A: Technology has made learning more engaging through gamification, interactive multimedia content, and virtual simulations, which create immersive and interactive learning experiences.
Q: How has technology made education more flexible and accessible?
A: Technology has made education more flexible and accessible by offering online courses and distance learning programs, allowing learners to access educational content anytime and anywhere.
Q: How has technology fostered innovation in education?
A: Technology has fostered innovation in education by encouraging new teaching methods, such as blended learning and flipped classrooms, and by promoting the development of educational software and digital resources.
Q: What are the challenges associated with technology in education?
A: Challenges associated with technology in education include the digital divide, lack of digital literacy among teachers and students, cybersecurity risks, and the need for ongoing professional development for educators.
Q: How can technology in education be effectively implemented?
A: Effective implementation of technology in education involves proper infrastructure, training for teachers and students, careful selection of appropriate tools, and regular evaluation of its impact on learning outcomes.
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Essay on Contribution of Technology in Education for Class 10, 12 and Mains Exam
Essay on Contribution of Technology in Education for Class 10, 12, Mains Exam (UPSC, PSC, SSC)
Modern technology has made significant contribution in the field of education. With the invention of new gadgets and software, the system of education has undergone massive changes over the last few years. Education devoid of technology will become mundane. Studying has become much more plausible and easier because of contribution of technology in education. Students do not use reference from libraries nowadays, but they have become much more inclined to lookup for information from various educational applications and sites. They get their doubts easily cleared without resorting to their facilitators every time for help. Teachers, on the other hand, can get access to e-libraries for accumulating information, without having to visit the library physically.
Role of technology in education:
Technology has become has an integral part of education and has made significant development in this field. It has made teaching-learning process much easier. With the invention of internet students can easily access to multiple education sites for seeking the desired information. They take help of Wikipedia, encyclopedia, Britannica, online business school and a lot more sites for assembling data or information about a particular topic of any subject. They can also take help of various online tutorialson YouTube for understand any concept or clearing their doubts regarding any topic. Recently, an app named Tutopia have been launched, where students can learn English translations from Bengali. It is beneficial for students having Bengali as a first language in schools. Other apps such as Gradeup, Byjus, Vedantu, Unacademy caters to the need of students who are preparing for competitive exams. Tablets, laptops, computer, iPads, mobile phones are easily available in the markets starting from affordable prices. Students and teachers can take help of these gadgets for fulfilling their learning requirement. Also, the Wi-Fi installation charges have become affordable nowadays, owing to which it is at the hands of most of the middle- class families. Online education courses are on trend in the recent times. People who are working may opt for courses on online mode. This is time saving, as they are able to manage both- job and study at the same time. Amity University, Chandigarh university, Harvard university, University of California, Georgia University of Technology, Michigan State University, University College of London, Hongkong University of Science and Technology, are few of many universities that offer online courses. Technology has saved millions of students from remaining uneducated during COVID-19 crisis. Online classes were held on googlemeet, zoom education, where students enjoyed their virtual classroom. Both these app enable teachers to communicate with multiple students. There are other features on these app like screen sharing, digital whiteboard which has made teaching-learning process effective. Throughout the pandemic, students were motivated and encouraged to study by means of attending online classes. Project and assignment submission, exams were also held online. With the education being digitalized, the hassle of commuting to educational institutions has ceased. People besides getting educated are also learning to be tech-savvy.
Education is a potent blend of conventional and modern ways of teaching-learning. With the advancement of technology, the students are benefitted in every walkof their life. Every new software or gadget has contributed to make learning more innovative, interesting and easier. Education must not be always confined to the four walls of the classroom or to the books. Every student should go beyond the horizon and explore the facets of concepts and facts. Then only they will develop the avarice for learning and knowing and thus become a successful human being.
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Original research article, technology integration in higher education during covid-19: an assessment of online teaching competencies through technological pedagogical content knowledge model.
- 1 Department of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China
- 2 Department of Electronic Business and Commerce, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan
- 3 Department of Information Technology, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly shifted education from traditional to an online version, which was an emergent state for teachers and students. The substantive situation thus raises the importance of technology integration in education, and teachers are required to update their competencies, respectively. In this regard, the study assessed online teaching competencies of faculty members following, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) model. Closed-ended surveys were employed for quantitative analysis of randomly selected 256 faculty members from public universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Results indicated that teachers possessed adequate levels of knowledge across all the domains of TPACK. The highest competency was obtained by content knowledge (CK), while technological knowledge (TK) was reported at the lowest level. Furthermore, a significant difference was noted in terms of gender and teaching experience. Correspondingly, the study proposes that the TPACK model should be employed in the professional development programs to develop teachers’ TPACK for integrating information communication and technology in the pedagogical practices. The findings of the study present a constructive overview of teachers’ digital competencies and technology use in teaching and learning in the time of the COVID-19 and also play a significant role in the integration of technology in the post-pandemic time in higher education. The study also suggests relevant educational authorities and policymakers for assessing and enhancing the technological competencies of teachers for quality online education.
As it can be seen worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant interruption in all the domains of human lives. Likewise, the educational sector also encountered many challenges by the institutional closure from schools to universities, and traditional education shifted to the online paradigm ( UN, 2020 ). The scenario of this technological transition affected the education of about half of the student population globally ( UNESCO, 2020 ). Thereby, the situation raises the importance of technology integration in education, and teachers are required to update their competencies to endow quality education and make changes to their curriculum and instruction accordingly. Regarding the application of information communication and technology (ICT) in education, however, instructors and learners are familiar with the traditional technological teaching aids, such as Smartboards and PowerPoint; still, their practical employability is required in the teaching practices ( Nikolopoulou and Gialamas, 2016 ; Guillén-Gámez et al., 2018 ). Besides, this provisional period raised the necessity, especially for the teachers, to gain competency in applying ICT in their teaching practices. Meanwhile, the application of ICT in higher education has remained a major subject of concern for decades at the global level (e.g., US Department of Education, 2017 ; Daniela et al., 2018 ). Many studies have highlighted that the application of ICT in the classroom setting has become a critical factor for meeting the needs of the learner in the knowledge society ( Martins et al., 2019 ). Besides, the successful integration of ICT can make the learning process more exciting and keep learners motivated ( Hanafi et al., 2017 ), which are considered as the significant predictors of their academic performance ( Xu et al., 2021 ). In the same manner, the utilization of ICT is suggested by the government of Pakistan to optimize the educational outcomes, as it helps to enhance the pedagogical competencies of teachers and boost learners to learn actively [ Pakistan Ministry of Education (MoE), 2018 ].
Moreover, the effective integration of ICT is essential in systematizing an efficient online educational program. The successful application of ICT not only contributes to learners’ satisfaction but also helps individuals to acquire their desired outcomes ( Cervero et al., 2020 ). It is, therefore, essential to develop competencies in teachers to use ICT effectively in their pedagogical practices by organizing professional development programs ( Guillén-Gámez et al., 2020 ). However, teachers’ professional training for the efficient use of ICT in teaching did not apply because of the sudden pandemic situation and put students at risk ( Guillén-Gámez et al., 2020 ; Hong et al., 2021 ). Consequently, it caused excessive pressure on teachers to achieve students’ required educational attainment ( Rodriguez-Segura et al., 2020 ). Although teachers made every effort to continue students’ learning, yet they had to encounter several challenges in adopting digital platforms for teaching, which include insufficient inter-institutional coordination ( Talsma et al., 2021 ), little understanding, and investment in advanced technologies ( Akram et al., 2021 ). In the past decade, however, in Pakistan, online learning has also been handled significantly, still been endured with the various constraints that prevent the effective integration of ICT in educational practices ( Kanwal and Rehman, 2017 ; Salam et al., 2017 ). Earlier studies indicate that students generally show better academic performance in digital platforms comparing with the traditional ones ( Shehzadi et al., 2020 ). On the other hand, the digital competencies of teachers are found inadequate, particularly in the formulation of lesson plans ( Farid et al., 2015 ). However, most of the teachers are digitally literate and can conduct online lessons, yet they are found incapable of integrating ICT efficiently in their teaching practices ( Al-Samarraie and Saeed, 2018 ). Consequently, their digital instructional approaches may remain unsuccessful in delivering the content effectively ( Adnan and Anwar, 2020 ). In this regard, the situation raises the importance of teachers’ professional learning to acquire technological competency, as a successful pedagogical practice would mainly be possible if teachers possess a sound technological competency. The relationship between technological competency with educational content was considered necessary by Mishra and Koehler (2006) and presented this in their framework, namely, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Their primary focus was derived on the basis of the premise that teachers are required to acquire technological competency to use it effectively in the instructional approaches. Regarding evaluation, several studies have presented instruments to evaluate the technological competencies of teachers differently, but their main focus remained on teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and adaptation ( Ertmer, 2005 ; Aldunate and Nussbaum, 2013 ; Kim et al., 2017 ). The complementary fact in various studies was that they comprised only one of the components of the concept.
In contrast, technological competency involves all the major components, such as knowledge (technological, pedagogical, and content), skills, and attitudes ( Voogt et al., 2015 ), whereas limited literature and studies have been found regarding all the major components. In addition, the acquisition of TPACK depends on social, cultural, and contextual attributes, which may vary from one country to another. However, several studies have been investigated teachers’ digital competencies through all the determinants of TPACK in various countries (i.e., Lin et al., 2013 ; Scherer et al., 2018 ; Ortega-Sánchez and Gómez-Trigueros, 2019 ; Acikgul and Aslaner, 2020 ; Castéra et al., 2020 ). But, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to examine teachers’ digital competencies via all the mentioned sub-components of TPACK during the pandemic phase, specifically in the context of higher education in Pakistan. In this regard, the present study examines the integration of ICT in faculty members’ pedagogical practices by unfolding their technological competencies level. Subsequently, lecturers and professors from public universities of Karachi city of Pakistan were considered for a case study under the guidance of the following research questions:
1. What are the levels of TPACK of faculty members across higher institutions of Karachi?
2. Is there any significant difference between faculty members’ TPACK regarding their gender and teaching experience?
Review of Literature
Online teaching competencies.
The term online teaching can be exemplified with the help of these principles: (1) The learner and teacher interconnected with each other distantly via different digital platforms, (2) learning and learning materials can be accessed through technology, (3) the interaction between teacher and learner takes place via technology, and (4) teacher assists learner with the help of different digital channels of communication ( Anderson, 2011a ). In a general manner, online teaching is viewed as similar to the teaching for all other formal learning/teaching environments ( Anderson, 2011b ). On the other hand, teaching competency signifies the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the teachers that enable them to perform in a way that meets or exceeds the expected standards successfully ( Richey et al., 2011 ). Without having adequate competencies, it is difficult for teachers to execute and organize online instructional programs efficiently as teaching is characterized by selecting a number of tactics for a specified discourse, which may involve lesson planning or instructional and learning materials. In this regard, the previous literature finds several categories and characteristics of online teaching competencies. For instance, Thomas and Graham (2017) emphasize course design as the core component of teachers’ competencies. Bigatel et al. (2012) focused on teaching behaviors and did not focus on instructional design. Contrarily, few researchers provide a brief description of teachers’ online competencies by means of personal, social, pedagogical, and technological characteristics ( Guasch et al., 2010 ; Baran et al., 2011 ; Palloff and Pratt, 2013 ). Other researchers propose a framework to demonstrate the features of teaching competencies. Among those, the widely used and renowned model is considered as the TPACK model, developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) . The present study employs the TPACK model to investigate online teaching competencies.
Technology Integration in Pedagogical Practices
Several studies draw attention to the importance of technology integration in pedagogical practices and imply that it does not facilitate only students but also the teacher in the learning process ( Salam et al., 2019 ). Islam et al. (2019) indicate that the utilization of technology in teaching makes teacher competent in pedagogical as well as content areas in the classrooms and helps learners to learn efficiently by the use of technological tools. Several studies highlight the advantages of technology use for teachers. For instance, the study of Vongkulluksn et al. (2018) highlights that the teachers prefer to spend more time teaching in the classrooms, who are good at utilizing technology. Furthermore, the technological competencies of teachers enable them to adapt other teaching strategies and approaches easily; as a result, their performance gets enhanced.
Oliva-Córdova et al. (2021) ascertain that the usage of technology in teaching practices enables learners to learn effortlessly; however, its efficient application generally depends upon teachers’ technological and pedagogical competencies. Various studies have identified the importance of these competencies and knowledge of teachers in teaching practices. Ifinedo et al. (2020) indicate that teachers’ technological knowledge either explicitly or implicitly contributes significantly to integrating ICT successfully, while teachers’ ICT pedagogical practices have found the lowest technology integration predictor. The results further suggested including professional training to assist teachers in integrating ICT efficiently by enhancing their technological competencies. To investigate the impact of teachers’ training programs on their online teaching effectiveness, Brinkley-Etzkorn (2018) conducted a survey. The findings revealed a significant change in teaching competencies and designing course syllabi in teachers, while no significant difference in teaching was observed according to their student perceptions.
Moreover, the knowledge of technology and expertise in the utilization of technology are considered two different modes of competencies ( Instefjord and Munthe, 2017 ). For instance, it is identified by some studies that despite having technology literacy, teachers were not capable of using technology in teaching efficiently ( Dinçer, 2018 ; Alanazy and Alrusaiyes, 2021 ). It indicates that technological knowledge and using technology in pedagogical practices are two different concepts. Several studies and theories have been proposed to highlight this aspect. Briefly, it can be summarized that the effective use of technology in teaching practices is possible only if teachers are equipped with all the fundamental competencies ( Ifinedo et al., 2020 ). Likewise, the TPACK model also ascertains that ICT cannot be integrated efficiently in educational practices until teachers do not possess all the essential technological skills ( Mishra and Koehler, 2006 ). This model is comprised of three main components of teachers’ knowledge or acquaintance (shown in Figure 1 ), i.e., technological, pedagogical, and content. Although all three components of the model seem different and separate knowledge domains, interfaces and associations among these core concepts establish the central point of the overall framework ( Archambault and Barnett, 2010 ). After following the convergence of the mentioned components, knowledge of teachers can be classified as technological content knowledge (TCK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), while the complete form of all components of knowledge is represented as TPACK ( Schmidt et al., 2009 ).
Figure 1 . The technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework (retrieved from http://tpack.org ).
Teachers’ TPACK Concerning Their Gender and Teaching Experience
It is indicated by several empirical studies that teachers’ characteristics also play a significant role in integrating ICT, which may vary across the countries; for instance, some studies have identified a significant difference in gender with a more inclination of males toward digital instructional development than females ( Marín-Díaz et al., 2020 ). In terms of TPACK, studies also indicate the gender difference; for instance, Lin et al. (2013) identified higher pedagogical knowledge in female teachers with lower technological knowledge. Scherer et al. (2017) revealed that in all technological domains of TPACK, male teachers reported significantly higher competencies than females. In contrast, the TCK of female teachers was reported higher than the male teachers ( Ortega-Sánchez and Gómez-Trigueros, 2019 ). However, a study by Castéra et al. (2020) came across different results and found no significant difference between genders in terms of teachers’ TPACK.
Another element of central concern in the acquisition of digital competencies is the teaching experience of teachers. Regarding years of teaching experience, studies show mixed results. For instance, Koh et al. (2014) identified a significant difference in ICT integration concerning the teaching experience and determined that TPACK of novice teachers was higher than experienced teachers. In contrast, Jang and Tsai (2012) identified that senior teachers’ technological skills were higher than novice teachers. Therefore, the hypotheses of the study can be posited as:
H1: “There is a significant difference between faculty members’ TPACK with respect to their gender.”
H2: “There is a significant difference between faculty members’ TPACK with respect to their teaching experience.”
For examining faculty members’ TPACK, a quantitative survey design was employed as it was considered the most appropriate approach to gain accurate reflection via numerical representation ( Watson, 2015 ). Subsequently, the study was guided by questionnaires, which were mailed and also emailed by the researcher to various universities.
Participants of the Study
The population of the study comprises all the faculty members from public universities of Karachi, which consists of 11 universities with estimated 785 faculty members [ Higher Education commission (HEC), 2015 ]. For ensuring a stable data analysis, the sample size was calculated by applying the Yamane Taro sample formula for a finite population ( Israel, 1992 ) and obtained a sample size of 260 respondents. The sample size for conducting this study was appropriate, as the size of the sample between 30 and 500 at a 5% confidence level is identified as adequate ( Altunışık et al., 2004 ). Subsequently, the questionnaires were distributed to lecturers/professors who were selected randomly from different public universities in Karachi. After excluding questionnaires with incomplete information, 256 questionnaires were considered for the data analysis. The ages of the respondents ranged from 29 to 54years, encompassing 44.1% ( n =113) were females and 55.8% ( n =143) were male faculty members. Their further details are presented in Table 1 .
Table 1 . Demographic statistics of the respondents.
In order to ensure the reliability of the findings, the study followed all the ethical concerns to conduct the study. These concerns include the granted approval from the supervisor on account of the ethical committee. The other ethical concerns include assurance of the privacy and honor of the participants of the study, and questionnaires were filled after taking their consent.
The instrument utilized in this study was adopted from the validated scale formulated by Schmidt et al. (2009) , which was devised on the basis of the TPACK theoretical framework to examine teachers’ competencies within three basic domains, i.e., pedagogies, technology, and content. The said questionnaire was intensively used by other researchers (e.g., Scherer et al., 2018 ; Ortega-Sánchez and Gómez-Trigueros, 2019 ). Before conducting data, the questionnaire was modified according to the study’s approach; for instance, the questions from the domain (content knowledge) were rephrased from a specific subject to a general subject. Furthermore, the last three qualitative questions were also excluded from the survey. The modified form of the questionnaire comprised seven dimensions of 38 items, including (1) technological knowledge (TK) 7 items, (2) content knowledge (CK) 3 items, (3) pedagogical knowledge (PK) 7 items, (4) PCK 4 items, (5) TCK 4 items, (6) TPK 5 items, and (7) TPACK 8 items. The responses of each group’s items were laid down upon a five-point Likert scale extending from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree.”
Confirmation of the Model Fitness
In order to increase the reliability of the findings, it is imperative to align empirical data with the theoretical framework of the study. Thereby, the fitness of all the dimensions of the TPACK model was investigated through confirmatory factor analysis as shown in Table 2 . The chi-square value was less than 5 (i.e., χ 2/ df =4.1), which indicates the significant fitness of the model ( Schermelleh-Engel et al., 2003 ). The other indicators were also reported significant (shown in Table 2 ), as their values were less than the threshold values, i.e., RMSEA≤0.06, CFI≥0.95, TLI≥0.95 ( Hu and Bentler, 1999 ); SRMR<0.05 ( Cangur and Ercan, 2015 ).
Table 2 . Confirmation of the model fitness.
Reliability of the Instrument
The reliability of all the constructs of TPACK was investigated through Cronbach’s alpha scale. The value of each construct was above 70% (shown in Table 3 ), which shows satisfactory consistency, as the collected data are reviewed as reliable if the alpha value is more than 60% ( Tavakol and Dennick, 2011 ).
Table 3 . Reliability evaluation.
All the collected data were analyzed by employing various descriptive and inferential statistical tests, i.e., descriptive test (mean and standard deviation) and inferential test ( T -test and ANOVA). Subsequently, the analysis was completed by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which enabled the examination of the differences between subsamples with respect to their TPACK scores. The ROC curve is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the values of sensitivity vs. 1-specificity ranges from 0 to 1, which helps in determining the difference between different subgroups ( Bradley, 1997 ).
Research Question 1
Technological pedagogical content knowledge of faculty members was investigated by means of descriptive statistical tests, i.e., mean and standard deviation, which are shown in Table 4 . Knowledge of all the domains of TPACK was rated above 3, which demonstrates that faculty members possess adequate knowledge as M ≥3 ( Rabe-Hesketh and Everitt, 2003 ). Among all domains of TPACK, the highest mean value was obtained by the content knowledge (CK), i.e., 4.6, while technological knowledge (TK) obtained the least mean value.
Table 4 . Descriptive analysis of teachers’ TPACK.
Research Question 2 (Hypotheses)
Before checking hypotheses, the normality test was conducted through Shapiro–Wilk test to know whether the data meet the criteria of conducting a parametric test since it is considered the most prevailing test to investigate normality ( Razali and Wah, 2011 ). Results showed that the data were normally distributed as S-W value was 0.83 and the significant value was greater than 0.5, i.e., 0.61, which allows parametric tests to be conducted. Subsequently, the posited hypotheses of the study were checked by employing inferential statistics, i.e., T -test and ANOVA, where T -test was employed to investigate the difference between faculty members’ TPACK with respect to their gender and ANOVA was applied to test the hypothesis regarding teaching experience of faculty members.
All the components of TPACK were compared by applying the T -test (shown in Table 5 ). Results revealed a significant statistical difference between male and female respondents (i.e., T =10.34; p =0.000) at alpha level 0.05. Therefore, the hypothesis regarding faculty members’ TPACK with respect to their gender was accepted. Furthermore, male faculty members got a significantly higher mean score (4.12) than the female teaching faculty (3.67), which shows that the TPACK of male faculty members was greater than the female ones.
Table 5 . T -test analysis by gender of teachers.
In addition, the gender difference with respect to TPACK scores was represented graphically through the ROC curve. The results shown in ( Table 6 ; Figure 2 ) showed high sensitivity and specificity with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.921 with a significant statistical difference, i.e., p =0.000 at alpha level 0.05.
Table 6 . ROC curve parameters (female gender).
Figure 2 . Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (gender).
Furthermore, to investigate the most optimal predictors of teachers’ TPACK, the mean of all the sub-components was compared with respect to their gender (shown in Figure 3 ). Results reveal that the TK of male faculty members was significantly greater than the female ones. However, the CK was found significantly higher in female faculty members than the male ones.
Figure 3 . Distribution of components of TPACK by gender.
For examining the distinction between faculty members’ TPACK with regard to their teaching experience, the mean of TPACK was compared with the teaching experience of all the faculty members by applying the ANOVA test (shown in Table 7 ). Results reveal a significant difference between faculty members’ teaching experiences with their TPACK. Therefore, the hypothesis regarding the teaching experiences of faculty members was accepted, which further demonstrates that the TPACK of teachers with experience of 2–5years is higher than the novice and inexperienced teachers.
Table 7 . ANOVA by teaching experience of teachers.
In order to find out the further differences across all possible pairs of the faculty members’ teaching experiences, Tukey’s honestly significant difference post-hoc test was conducted. Since Tukey’s HSD test helps to compare the means of all the possible pairs ( Abdi and Williams, 2010 ). Results from Tukey’s post-hoc test ( Table 8 ) demonstrate that only one out of three groups had a significant difference among each other, i.e., teaching experiences up to 1year vs. 2–5years.
Table 8 . Post-hoc test.
In addition, the difference in teaching experience with respect to TPACK scores was represented graphically through the ROC curve. The results shown in ( Table 9 ; Figure 4 ) illustrated high sensitivity and specificity with an AUC of 0.716 with a significant statistical difference, i.e., p =0.000 at alpha level 0.05.
Table 9 . ROC curve parameters (teaching experience).
Figure 4 . ROC curve (teaching experience).
COVID-19 outbreak has transformed the traditional educational practices and brought teaching-learning around digital format across the world. This transformation not merely raises the importance of the educational technology infrastructure of the country but also establishes a prerequisite for teachers to integrate technology in their pedagogical practices effectively to sustain students’ learning. Since the systematic implementation of ICT in teaching practices is remained at an early stage and a limited focus has been given at the higher education level. In this regard, the current study gives a deep insight to understand the levels of core competencies of faculty members’ TPACK with the role of personal variables (i.e., gender and teaching experience) in the acquisition of digital competencies during the COVID-19 period.
In view of the obtained findings, the study reveals that faculty members possess adequate knowledge in all the sub-components of the TPACK model, which shows that teachers have sufficient knowledge and skills regarding technology use in their pedagogical practices. This finding shows consistency with the findings of Mouza et al. (2014) , where participants experienced a significant gain in all sub-components of TPACK. Hence, our results indicate that TPACK is an excellent framework to examine teachers’ competencies in the context of universities’ teachers of Pakistan.
The results further indicate that the highest competence of faculty members among all other domains was obtained by the content knowledge (CK), which shows that faculty members seem more confident in their content knowledge than other domains of expertise. A similar finding is also identified by Acikgul and Aslaner (2020) ; accordingly, teachers’ content knowledge was found adequate. In contrast, the study conducted by illustrated that teachers were confident primarily in the pedagogical knowledge (PK). It is therefore imperative to draw attention toward teachers’ content knowledge through continuous monitoring and by offering in-service workshops to sustain the students’ learning outcomes, as it helps learners to understand concerning concepts significantly.
Technological knowledge involves operating particular technologies, which plays a crucial role in integrating technology in the process of teaching and learning ( Chai et al., 2010 ). Besides, successful e-learning can only be yielded when teachers can use technology in their pedagogical practices appropriately. On the other hand, the technological knowledge (TK) of faculty members was found at the lowest level among all other domains, which indicates that teachers lack technological competence. Thus, they require professional guidance to update their technological skills. The findings of Schmid et al. (2021) also indicated that teachers’ technological and TCK emerged as the least acquired competencies. Therefore, to enhance the technological literacy in teachers, ICT training centers with ICT professionals should be originated at the national and provincial levels.
The knowledge regarding the interaction between all domains of TPACK plays a significant role in the development of an innovative learning environment ( Ortega-Sánchez and Gómez-Trigueros, 2019 ). However, the other reported lowest competence of faculty members was found in the domain of TPACK. This finding reflects the finding of Lye (2013) , who indicated that teachers possess low TPACK, and they need improvement in several areas of TPACK. In light of this result, teachers should be given a range of guidance in terms of all the domains of TPACK and the interaction between those domains by providing both initial and ongoing support to implement the technologies in their pedagogical practices successfully.
This study further found that male teachers’ TPACK was significantly higher than female faculty members. This finding reflects the finding of Koh et al. (2010) , where male teachers showed more positive attitudes, competencies, and knowledge with respect to technology use. This result indicates that female faculty requires more support to gain their competencies in all the sub-components of TPACK. Regarding teaching experience, it is usually expected that teachers’ knowledge increases with the increase in years of experience. In contrast, the results showed a statistical significance in the TPACK of faculty members’ knowledge, where faculty members with experience of 2–5years shown higher TPACK than the teachers with more experience and novice teachers. This finding supports the results of Claro et al. (2018) , where years of teaching experience were found significantly associated with the TPACK of teachers. Based on the personal factors, policymakers and teachers should be aware of gender differences’ effect on technological knowledge and competencies; therefore, gender differences should be monitored closely by conducting longitudinal TPACK studies. There should be an equal emphasis on training programs on pre-service as well as in-service teachers so that teachers of all levels may learn effectively to integrate technology into their educational practices.
In addition, the study suggests that the new technological instructional context in the COVID-19 phase appeared as an important moderator for teachers in upgrading their competencies in terms of TPACK. Regarding the contextual environment, Mishra (2019) indicates that the addition of contextual knowledge (XK) may reveal the situational and institutional limitations that teachers work within. During the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers and learners experienced their practices in multiple new and unfamiliar contexts, which impacted teachers’ abilities to teach successfully remotely in the digital environment. Therefore, future studies should examine teachers’ XK comprehensively to determine the influence of different contextual factors on teachers’ TPACK with a focus on facilitating teachers with contextual change.
Finally, remote work and online learning are teaching conditions that will continue to advance steadily. In turn, the post-COVID-19 reactivation and recovery processes do not seem to contemplate that the teaching and learning processes as before. Therefore, future research should be aimed not only at understanding human behavior while studying or teaching virtually but also at understanding the TPACK model and building better ways to integrate technology into educational practices. In this regard, the findings of the study are highly significant, not particularly in determining the technology integration during the COVID-19 pandemic phase, which is currently the most crucial issue, but also for the integration of technology in the post-pandemic time in higher education.
Based on the obtained results, the study affirms that the COVID-19 pandemic phase significantly influenced the digital competencies of faculty members and reveals adequate knowledge in all the sub-components of the TPACK, with a significant difference in terms of gender and teaching experience. Regarding consistency, the TPACK model was verified by means of factorial analyses in terms of seven sub-components and in the context of higher education faculty members in Pakistan, which supports the value and appropriateness of the model. Accordingly, the study suggests that the TPACK model should be employed in the professional development programs to develop teachers’ TPACK for integrating technology efficiently by bridging the gap between ICT knowledge and ICT practice.
Implications and Limitations
The findings of this study contribute to society in several ways. Regarding theoretically, this study has enriched the literature on the technological competencies of teachers during the COVID-19 transitory period and verified the reliability of the TPACK model in the context of Karachi, Pakistan. It can be further used for verification in other cities and countries. In terms of methodological contribution, the study provides tentative insight in evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 transitory period on teachers’ digital competencies and their state of implementation in pedagogical practices. Regarding academics, this study provides a pragmatic direction to relevant educational authorities and policymakers for the improvement of online education by providing pertinent solutions and recommendations as per the situation. In addition, the future planning of professional development and training programs for the teachers can be based on the feedback provided by the faculty members. The study can further contribute to elevating e-learning outcomes and satisfaction during as well as post-pandemic phase.
Furthermore, the study also noted some limitations. Firstly, faculty’s response biasness may have affected the results since digital competencies were assessed self-reported quantitatively. Therefore, the future studies may select other approaches to unfold the understanding of teachers and establish the criteria for evaluating the TPACK of teachers. Secondly, the current study only focused on the TPACK model to assess the digital competencies of faculty. The findings of this study can be further strengthened in the future by employing other indicators to examine the teachers’ competencies in teaching with technology.
Finally, the analysis was cross-sectional and evaluated the teaching practices of university teachers during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Online technological, pedagogical, and content competencies of teachers may change over time, which should also be observed. Therefore, a longitudinal study should be conducted to strengthen the evidence by understanding the causal effects and interrelationships among various other variables, critical in elevating the online pedagogical practices at the higher level in Pakistan.
Data Availability Statement
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study.
HA is the principal investigator of the study. From conceptualization to the data analysis, she conducted by herself. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
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Keywords: technology integration, online teaching practices, higher institutions, technological pedagogical content knowledge, COVID-19, teaching experience, gender difference
Citation: Akram H, Yingxiu Y, Al-Adwan AS and Alkhalifah A (2021) Technology Integration in Higher Education During COVID-19: An Assessment of Online Teaching Competencies Through Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Model. Front. Psychol . 12:736522. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.736522
Received: 05 July 2021; Accepted: 27 July 2021; Published: 26 August 2021.
Copyright © 2021 Akram, Yingxiu, Al-Adwan and Alkhalifah. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article is part of the Research Topic
Higher Education Dropout After COVID-19: New Strategies to Optimize Success
Role of Information Technology in Education During Covid-19 Pandemic
- Dr. Rini Saxena, Ms. Parminder Pal Kaur, Mr. Amit Saxena
The COVID-19 has changed the view of education around the world. During the mid-march all the schools and colleges were shut down to save faculties and students from infection. It has been around two months of lock down; still we are fighting with covid-19. Since school colleges are the places where social distancing is little tough due to the presence of number of students, those cannot be opened by the government until the pandemic comes under control. In this situation, education is shifted to the method of home-schooling and home-college. Although this is too early to pass the judgment on how corona pandemic will affect the education in long term, there are indications suggesting that it will have great impact on teaching learning methods. Information technology is playing a great role to support the education during COVID-19 lockdown. Due to use of Information technology at large scale in various countries, this is the best time of innovation of new ideas on the digital platforms for delivering the education. This paper presents various tools and techniques to continue quality education while lockdown through digital media. These platforms would definitely continue even after the pandemic get over.
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The importance of technology during the covid pandemic.
- March 15, 2021
The coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic closed schools across the globe and our kids had to suddenly rely on technology for their online studies and adapt to a new style of learning, almost overnight. The various interventions undertaken to contain the virus forced governments to issue ‘stay‐at‐home’ orders that resulted in our kids engaging in, (and in some places) still using online learning for long periods of time. Any good parent will already have had certain guidelines in place for their kids screen time, but these were definitely thrown out the window as a rise in technology for our kids became a necessity!
Technology was already integrated into the fabric of our modern lives but during a global pandemic it was the key to our kids learning, kept businesses running and families connected as we all battened down the hatches and tried to ride out the storm. Schools were thrown a massive curve ball with over 1.2 billion kids out of the classroom and had to immediately put steps in place they had never foreseen, as a result education changed dramatically. Our kids had to adapt and adjust to this ‘new normal’ style of learning where teaching was undertaken remotely on digital platforms. All of their studies started to take place on Zoom with the use of e-learning platforms like Udemy or WizIQ and many other portals made possible by the use of technology. We shopped for groceries, engaged in home workouts with our kids during their PE lessons and Food Panda was the go-to app on everyone’s phone! As parents, we have complained about the super sonic emergence of technology in our kids lives and the ongoing debate on how they should manage this, but let’s face it, where would we have been these last 14 moths without it. Digital learning has now emerged as a necessary resource for students and schools all over the world.
The Pros & Cons of On-line Learning
Along with most teaching methods, online learning has its pros and cons and there are now many debates if keeping students learning was advantageous or did it come with its own set of perils.
The Pros must include the efficiency as it offered teachers an efficient way to deliver lessons to students beyond traditional textbooks. Through the use of communication tools such as videos, PDFs, podcasts teachers were able to become more efficient educators. It also allowed students to attend classes from any location which resulted in improved attendance as there were less chances for students to miss classes. Another bonus is that online lectures can be recorded, archived, and shared for future reference. This allows students to access the learning material at a time of their comfort. Every student has a different learning journey and style, the online system with its range of options and resources can be personalised in many ways which is an advantage especially for students who do not thrive in a classroom setting or who are distracted by large groups.
The cons among the most obvious disadvantages of students being easily distracted by social media and other sites, by far one of the biggest challenges of online learning is the struggle with focusing on the screen for long periods of time. Teachers were challenged to keep their online classes engaging, and interactive to help students stay focused on the lesson. Another key issue of online classes is internet connectivity. With billions of users now relying daily on internet for school and business, staying connected with a decent speed is a problem, especially in the more rural areas. Without a consistent internet connection continuity in learning can be both frustrating for students and detrimental to their learning.
One of the most negative points of online learning that has emerged are the effects on kids’ mental health. Most reported feelings of isolation from their peers and teachers and disconnected from society in adverse ways. Alongside the lack of social interaction, students felt a heightened sense of anxiety about keeping up to date with their school work or stay focused while at home. The State News reported that students felt de-motivated, anxious, isolated, a loss of sleep and a notable increase in poor vision, posture and other physical problems due to staying hunched in front of a screen.
Whichever way we choose to look at online learning with over 6 million students who are enrolled in at least one online course this format represents a different experience than the traditional on-campus schooling, but it is an option that continues to gain traction.
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