What are your chances of acceptance?
Calculate for all schools, your chance of acceptance.
Your chancing factors
How to Write the AP Lit Prose Essay + Example
Do you know how to improve your profile for college applications.
See how your profile ranks among thousands of other students using CollegeVine. Calculate your chances at your dream schools and learn what areas you need to improve right now — it only takes 3 minutes and it's 100% free.
Show me what areas I need to improve
What is the ap lit prose essay, how will ap scores affect my college chances.
AP Literature and Composition (AP Lit), not to be confused with AP English Language and Composition (AP Lang), teaches students how to develop the ability to critically read and analyze literary texts. These texts include poetry, prose, and drama. Analysis is an essential component of this course and critical for the educational development of all students when it comes to college preparation. In this course, you can expect to see an added difficulty of texts and concepts, similar to the material one would see in a college literature course.
While not as popular as AP Lang, over 380,136 students took the class in 2019. However, the course is significantly more challenging, with only 49.7% of students receiving a score of three or higher on the exam. A staggeringly low 6.2% of students received a five on the exam.
The AP Lit exam is similar to the AP Lang exam in format, but covers different subject areas. The first section is multiple-choice questions based on five short passages. There are 55 questions to be answered in 1 hour. The passages will include at least two prose fiction passages and two poetry passages and will account for 45% of your total score. All possible answer choices can be found within the text, so you don’t need to come into the exam with prior knowledge of the passages to understand the work.
The second section contains three free-response essays to be finished in under two hours. This section accounts for 55% of the final score and includes three essay questions: the poetry analysis essay, the prose analysis essay, and the thematic analysis essay. Typically, a five-paragraph format will suffice for this type of writing. These essays are scored holistically from one to six points.
Today we will take a look at the AP Lit prose essay and discuss tips and tricks to master this section of the exam. We will also provide an example of a well-written essay for review.
The AP Lit prose essay is the second of the three essays included in the free-response section of the AP Lit exam, lasting around 40 minutes in total. A prose passage of approximately 500 to 700 words and a prompt will be given to guide your analytical essay. Worth about 18% of your total grade, the essay will be graded out of six points depending on the quality of your thesis (0-1 points), evidence and commentary (0-4 points), and sophistication (0-1 points).
While this exam seems extremely overwhelming, considering there are a total of three free-response essays to complete, with proper time management and practiced skills, this essay is manageable and straightforward. In order to enhance the time management aspect of the test to the best of your ability, it is essential to understand the following six key concepts.
1. Have a Clear Understanding of the Prompt and the Passage
Since the prose essay is testing your ability to analyze literature and construct an evidence-based argument, the most important thing you can do is make sure you understand the passage. That being said, you only have about 40 minutes for the whole essay so you can’t spend too much time reading the passage. Allot yourself 5-7 minutes to read the prompt and the passage and then another 3-5 minutes to plan your response.
As you read through the prompt and text, highlight, circle, and markup anything that stands out to you. Specifically, try to find lines in the passage that could bolster your argument since you will need to include in-text citations from the passage in your essay. Even if you don’t know exactly what your argument might be, it’s still helpful to have a variety of quotes to use depending on what direction you take your essay, so take note of whatever strikes you as important. Taking the time to annotate as you read will save you a lot of time later on because you won’t need to reread the passage to find examples when you are in the middle of writing.
Once you have a good grasp on the passage and a solid array of quotes to choose from, you should develop a rough outline of your essay. The prompt will provide 4-5 bullets that remind you of what to include in your essay, so you can use these to structure your outline. Start with a thesis, come up with 2-3 concrete claims to support your thesis, back up each claim with 1-2 pieces of evidence from the text, and write a brief explanation of how the evidence supports the claim.
2. Start with a Brief Introduction that Includes a Clear Thesis Statement
Having a strong thesis can help you stay focused and avoid tangents while writing. By deciding the relevant information you want to hit upon in your essay up front, you can prevent wasting precious time later on. Clear theses are also important for the reader because they direct their focus to your essential arguments.
In other words, it’s important to make the introduction brief and compact so your thesis statement shines through. The introduction should include details from the passage, like the author and title, but don’t waste too much time with extraneous details. Get to the heart of your essay as quick as possible.
3. Use Clear Examples to Support Your Argument
One of the requirements AP Lit readers are looking for is your use of evidence. In order to satisfy this aspect of the rubric, you should make sure each body paragraph has at least 1-2 pieces of evidence, directly from the text, that relate to the claim that paragraph is making. Since the prose essay tests your ability to recognize and analyze literary elements and techniques, it’s often better to include smaller quotes. For example, when writing about the author’s use of imagery or diction you might pick out specific words and quote each word separately rather than quoting a large block of text. Smaller quotes clarify exactly what stood out to you so your reader can better understand what are you saying.
Including smaller quotes also allows you to include more evidence in your essay. Be careful though—having more quotes is not necessarily better! You will showcase your strength as a writer not by the number of quotes you manage to jam into a paragraph, but by the relevance of the quotes to your argument and explanation you provide. If the details don’t connect, they are merely just strings of details.
4. Discussion is Crucial to Connect Your Evidence to Your Argument
As the previous tip explained, citing phrases and words from the passage won’t get you anywhere if you don’t provide an explanation as to how your examples support the claim you are making. After each new piece of evidence is introduced, you should have a sentence or two that explains the significance of this quote to the piece as a whole.
This part of the paragraph is the “So what?” You’ve already stated the point you are trying to get across in the topic sentence and shared the examples from the text, so now show the reader why or how this quote demonstrates an effective use of a literary technique by the author. Sometimes students can get bogged down by the discussion and lose sight of the point they are trying to make. If this happens to you while writing, take a step back and ask yourself “Why did I include this quote? What does it contribute to the piece as a whole?” Write down your answer and you will be good to go.
5. Write a Brief Conclusion
While the critical part of the essay is to provide a substantive, organized, and clear argument throughout the body paragraphs, a conclusion provides a satisfying ending to the essay and the last opportunity to drive home your argument. If you run out of time for a conclusion because of extra time spent in the preceding paragraphs, do not worry, as that is not fatal to your score.
Without repeating your thesis statement word for word, find a way to return to the thesis statement by summing up your main points. This recap reinforces the arguments stated in the previous paragraphs, while all of the preceding paragraphs successfully proved the thesis statement.
6. Don’t Forget About Your Grammar
Though you will undoubtedly be pressed for time, it’s still important your essay is well-written with correct punctuating and spelling. Many students are able to write a strong thesis and include good evidence and commentary, but the final point on the rubric is for sophistication. This criteria is more holistic than the former ones which means you should have elevated thoughts and writing—no grammatical errors. While a lack of grammatical mistakes alone won’t earn you the sophistication point, it will leave the reader with a more favorable impression of you.
Discover your chances at hundreds of schools
Our free chancing engine takes into account your history, background, test scores, and extracurricular activities to show you your real chances of admission—and how to improve them.
Here are Nine Must-have Tips and Tricks to Get a Good Score on the Prose Essay:
- Carefully read, review, and underline key instruction s in the prompt.
- Briefly outlin e what you want to cover in your essay.
- Be sure to have a clear thesis that includes the terms mentioned in the instructions, literary devices, tone, and meaning.
- Include the author’s name and title in your introduction. Refer to characters by name.
- Quality over quantity when it comes to picking quotes! Better to have a smaller number of more detailed quotes than a large amount of vague ones.
- Fully explain how each piece of evidence supports your thesis .
- Focus on the literary techniques in the passage and avoid summarizing the plot.
- Use transitions to connect sentences and paragraphs.
- Keep your introduction and conclusion short, and don’t repeat your thesis verbatim in your conclusion.
Here is an example essay from 2020 that received a perfect 6:
 In this passage from a 1912 novel, the narrator wistfully details his childhood crush on a girl violinist. Through a motif of the allure of musical instruments, and abundant sensory details that summon a vivid image of the event of their meeting, the reader can infer that the narrator was utterly enraptured by his obsession in the moment, and upon later reflection cannot help but feel a combination of amusement and a resummoning of the moment’s passion.
 The overwhelming abundance of hyper-specific sensory details reveals to the reader that meeting his crush must have been an intensely powerful experience to create such a vivid memory. The narrator can picture the “half-dim church”, can hear the “clear wail” of the girl’s violin, can see “her eyes almost closing”, can smell a “faint but distinct fragrance.” Clearly, this moment of discovery was very impactful on the boy, because even later he can remember the experience in minute detail. However, these details may also not be entirely faithful to the original experience; they all possess a somewhat mysterious quality that shows how the narrator may be employing hyperbole to accentuate the girl’s allure. The church is “half-dim”, the eyes “almost closing” – all the details are held within an ethereal state of halfway, which also serves to emphasize that this is all told through memory. The first paragraph also introduces the central conciet of music. The narrator was drawn to the “tones she called forth” from her violin and wanted desperately to play her “accompaniment.” This serves the double role of sensory imagery (with the added effect of music being a powerful aural image) and metaphor, as the accompaniment stands in for the narrator’s true desire to be coupled with his newfound crush. The musical juxtaposition between the “heaving tremor of the organ” and the “clear wail” of her violin serves to further accentuate how the narrator percieved the girl as above all other things, as high as an angel. Clearly, the memory of his meeting his crush is a powerful one that left an indelible impact on the narrator.
 Upon reflecting on this memory and the period of obsession that followed, the narrator cannot help but feel amused at the lengths to which his younger self would go; this is communicated to the reader with some playful irony and bemused yet earnest tone. The narrator claims to have made his “first and last attempts at poetry” in devotion to his crush, and jokes that he did not know to be “ashamed” at the quality of his poetry. This playful tone pokes fun at his childhood self for being an inexperienced poet, yet also acknowledges the very real passion that the poetry stemmed from. The narrator goes on to mention his “successful” endeavor to conceal his crush from his friends and the girl; this holds an ironic tone because the narrator immediately admits that his attempts to hide it were ill-fated and all parties were very aware of his feelings. The narrator also recalls his younger self jumping to hyperbolic extremes when imagining what he would do if betrayed by his love, calling her a “heartless jade” to ironically play along with the memory. Despite all this irony, the narrator does also truly comprehend the depths of his past self’s infatuation and finds it moving. The narrator begins the second paragraph with a sentence that moves urgently, emphasizing the myriad ways the boy was obsessed. He also remarks, somewhat wistfully, that the experience of having this crush “moved [him] to a degree which now [he] can hardly think of as possible.” Clearly, upon reflection the narrator feels a combination of amusement at the silliness of his former self and wistful respect for the emotion that the crush stirred within him.
 In this passage, the narrator has a multifaceted emotional response while remembering an experience that was very impactful on him. The meaning of the work is that when we look back on our memories (especially those of intense passion), added perspective can modify or augment how those experiences make us feel
More essay examples, score sheets, and commentaries can be found at College Board .
While AP Scores help to boost your weighted GPA, or give you the option to get college credit, AP Scores don’t have a strong effect on your admissions chances . However, colleges can still see your self-reported scores, so you might not want to automatically send scores to colleges if they are lower than a 3. That being said, admissions officers care far more about your grade in an AP class than your score on the exam.
Related CollegeVine Blog Posts
- AP English Literature and Composition
AP English Literature and Composition Article Type: Connect
Ap® english literature and composition sample essays (the good, the bad, and the ugly).
The free response section of the beloved AP® Lit exam requires three written responses from students:
(1) A literary analysis of a given poem (2) A literary analysis of a given passage of prose fiction (this may include drama) (3) An analysis that examines a specific concept, issue, or element in a work of literary merit selected by the student
We're focusing on the third here, which scores students on a scale of 1-9 (and fingers crossed, not 0). The essays below represent the range of scores, and they're followed up with a score breakdown showing you what to do, and uh, what not to do.
Something else you should do? Prepare for your AP exams with Shmoop .
For all things AP Lit, including exam format, past exams, and scoring information, refer to the College Board's AP Central page .
According to the College Board : "The score should reflect the quality of the essay as a whole—its content, style, and mechanics. Reward the students for what they do well . The score for an exceptionally well-written essay may be raised by 1 point above the otherwise appropriate score. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3."
Many works of literature deal with family conflicts, or with individual characters whose relationships with family members change over time, or play a significant role in the character's understanding of him- or herself.
In a well-written essay, analyze how a character's relationship to a family member or members, or a character's understanding of family, functions in the work, and what it shows about the characters and themes of the work as a whole. Do not merely summarize the plot. You may select a novel or a play of literary merit.
Madness, a theme that runs throughout William Shakespeare's Hamlet , manifests itself as both an authentic illness as well as a shrewd manipulation. By play's end, there is even a gray area between the two that is difficult to discern. But whether the concern is Ophelia truly losing her mind following her father's murder, Hamlet's act of madness after meeting with his father's ghost, or the arguable proposition that Hamlet's "antic disposition" has devolved into the genuine article, one thing is for certain—Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius have the greatest effect, directly or indirectly, on all of these instances.
Ophelia's madness is the only example that is assuredly real. Throughout much of the play, she is level-headed and quite competent. She's a bit sad, perhaps, at the vulgarity Hamlet displays toward her, especially prior to the play-within-a-play. It seems as if she truly loved Hamlet and was hopeful to marry him someday. Yet, she's able to carry out her father's wishes, returning the gifts Hamlet had given her in the past and informing him she does not love him.
When Ophelia appears before the king and queen following Polonius' death, though, she speaks nonsense and appears to have cracked. Her madness later takes the ultimate toll on her, as her drowning in the river is presumed a suicide.
This madness, and Ophelia's death, are certainly the result of Hamlet killing her father. But they can be traced back beyond her love for her father, all the way to Hamlet's relationship with his uncle/new stepfather. Hamlet's relationship with Claudius is already poor when the play begins because he's upset about Claudius taking his father's place so soon. It becomes immeasurably worse when King Hamlet's ghost arrives. The ghost informs Hamlet that Claudius murdered him so he could wear the crown of Denmark.
Once Hamlet learns of this duplicity, his whole relationship with Claudius is based on his desire for and inability to take revenge. Even though he takes an unreasonably long amount of time before finally gaining that revenge at the end of the play, everything he does from this point forward has something to do with it. It doesn't matter to Hamlet who is affected as he plots his revenge. It doesn't even matter to him that Ophelia, the woman he loved, is at first an innocent bystander, and then a pawn of her father and the king. Hamlet's act of madness centers on treating her in a borderline abusive manner.
Along with the way Hamlet treats her, the primary factor in Ophelia's suicide is Hamlet's murder of Polonius. Hamlet doesn't mean to kill Polonius, but it's a moment that most closely represents his act descending into real madness. When he is summoned to his mother's room following the play he stages, Hamlet's plan has just proven that the ghost told the truth, and Claudius really did murder his father. Hamlet's ire, and his desire to kill Claudius, are never higher than they are just then. This is also the moment when he hears a noise from behind the arras and, believing it's Claudius, Hamlet finally attempts to take his vengeance in a fit of rage. So, although he mistakenly kills the wrong man, Hamlet's utter disdain for Claudius ultimately leads to Ophelia's own madness and suicide.
Another moment where Hamlet might have truly lost it is when he stumbles upon Ophelia's funeral, which is how he learns of her suicide. After seeing Laertes' overblown show of grief, Hamlet makes a similar demonstration. He pronounces his love for Ophelia, jumps into the grave with Laertes, and they fight. He later claims he was just upset at Laertes' public display of affection, but it appears possible Hamlet is truly overcome at this point when realizing all that has happened. And again, since Ophelia's death can ultimately be traced back all the way to Hamlet's relationship with Claudius, it's fair to say this is another example of that relationship emphasizing the theme of madness in the play.
Despite Claudius being the center of his revenge plot, Hamlet is also greatly affected by his deteriorating relationship with Gertrude. Even before knowing the truth of his father's murder, Hamlet has lost his respect for his mother. He feels she's disrespected his father by remarrying so quickly after his father's death, and by marrying his father's brother. This is the main source of Hamlet's depression at the start of the play.
His relationship with his mother, then, makes his plan easier to carry out after meeting the ghost. Considering the change in his demeanor that everyone around the castle has noticed due to his depression, the "crazy" act he puts on seems like a logical progression. Had it been more out of character, more people might have caught on to his act.
The way things have changed with Gertrude also affects Hamlet because he doesn't have that source of comfort he should have from his mother. Considering she's part of the problem, he can't go to her for support, guidance, or comfort when trying to deal with Claudius and make good on his promise of revenge. Their relationship, then, isn't as directly responsible for the different acts of madness as is Hamlet's relationship with Claudius, but it holds some responsibility in terms of its omission from the help it should provide.
It's impossible to know whether Hamlet ever truly descends into madness, or if it never advances beyond his planned performance. Either possibility, though, is influenced most clearly by his relationships with Claudius and Gertrude. And the one definitive example of madness—Ophelia's cracking—is also a result of those relationships. Madness ultimately shapes this play more than any other theme, and the various types of madness on display all result from these two relationships of Hamlet.
Hoo boy, there's a lot of madness going on in Hamlet . This essay expertly argues that Hamlet's mommy and daddy problems are the cause of pretty much all of it. Doesn't matter much if it's real or fake, or even if he's the one gone mad.
This essay even makes a compelling case about how Ophelia's madness is only linked to her father's death superficially, and is really due to Hamlet's beef with Claudius.
Complete with textual evidence, attention to detail, and insightful analysis, this well-organized essay has a clear and convincing message. If there's a weakness, it's that this essay doesn't give equal time to Hamlet's relationship with Gertrude as it does to his relationship with Claudius. But the College Board understands that writing three essays in two hours is hard work, so those gracious folks aren't expecting absolute perfection. And because the prompt doesn't require more than one relationship discussion, anything mentioned about Gertrude is just gravy as far as we're concerned.
A central theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet is madness, which is demonstrated through Hamlet himself and through Ophelia. Hamlet's madness is seemingly all an act he perpetuates to help him gain vengeance for his father, while Ophelia's madness is a true tragedy. In both cases, the real and imagined cases of madness can be traced back to Hamlet's relationships with his mother and stepfather, Gertrude and Claudius.
Ophelia's madness is undeniably real. In her early scenes, she shows herself as a good daughter who is willing to carry out her father's plans, even though it pits her against Hamlet. Yet, following her father's death, she cracks. She sings and talks nonsense, and unlike Hamlet, there's no reason for her to put on an act. Following the unhinged manner in which she acts in front of the king and queen, it's not much of a surprise to discover that Ophelia has committed suicide.
Ophelia's madness and death are a direct result of Hamlet killing her father. But there's also a deeper reason for her madness. Her father's death isn't even supposed to happen. It's a mistake that stems from Hamlet's relationship with Claudius, and his desire for revenge.
Once Hamlet learns of Claudius' role in his father's death, everything becomes about taking revenge. All Hamlet's thoughts and actions are driven by what he's learned about Claudius. It doesn't matter to Hamlet who is affected as he plots his revenge. It doesn't matter to Hamlet that Ophelia is at first an innocent bystander, and then a pawn of her father and the king. He still purposely uses her, the woman he loves, as his primary way of putting on his act of madness. He treats her intentionally poorly as a means of showing everyone around him how crazy he's become, all in the name of fulfilling his plans for revenge.
The combination of Hamlet's horrendous treatment of her, topped with his murder of her father, is what drives Ophelia over the edge. When Hamlet kills Polonius, this is one moment where his act might possibly have given way to true madness. This happens directly after the play-within-a-play, which is when Hamlet discovers proof for himself that Claudius really killed his father. That revelation, and his belief that Claudius was the one spying on his mother and him, drives Hamlet to blindly drive his sword through the tapestry, which conceals Polonius. He does this in a fit of rage because of his hatred of Claudius. Polonius really ends up as collateral damage—as does Ophelia—but her madness, both their deaths, and Hamlet's possible true madness in that moment, are all the result of Hamlet's hatred of Claudius.
If Hamlet's feelings toward Claudius are to blame for all these events, then they are also naturally the reason Hamlet might have lost his mind a second time, this time at Ophelia's funeral. When he and Horatio come upon her funeral and he realizes she has killed herself, he understands the reasoning must be due to Polonius' death, possibly coupled with how he'd been treating her. And Hamlet knows better than anyone that, without his grudge against Claudius and need to put on his "antic disposition," none of this would have happened. This drives Hamlet to reveal himself to the gathering, jump down into the grave with Laertes, and begin a fight with him. It is possible this is simply a continuation of his act, but this could also be a moment of true emotion and hysteria overtaking him. He knows his actions drove Ophelia to her grave. He also knows Claudius is the reason behind all his actions.
Hamlet's poor relationship with his mother is also a cause of issues for him. He has already lost his respect for his mother because of her remarrying so quickly after his father's death, and because she married his father's brother. Even as the play begins, Hamlet is depressed, and it's primarily based on his mother's actions and what they've done to his relationship with her.
This relationship with his mother, then, helps him carry out his plan after meeting the ghost. Everyone has already seen a drastic change in his behavior and demeanor, so the "crazy" act he puts on seems like a logical progression. If it had come out of nowhere, it might have been harder for anyone to buy into.
Hamlet's madness, whether entirely an act or a combination of performance meeting reality, is a result of his relationships with Gertrude and Claudius. And though Ophelia would probably blame Hamlet for her condition, it's clear her madness also finds its roots in the toxic state of affairs between Hamlet and his parents. There's no escaping madness throughout the play, and all examples of it are rooted in that relationship.
Hamlet's relationship with Claudius is center stage again in this essay. Most of the persuasive analysis about the theme of madness comes from this area, with just a little bit of help provided by his disgust with Gertrude.
No doubt this essay is still plenty insightful when it discusses the reasons for Ophelia's transformation from dutiful daughter to raving crackpot. But there's a bit less evidence from the text and sophisticated language in this essay than in the nine-pointer.
A central theme in Hamlet is madness, which is demonstrated through both Hamlet and Ophelia. Hamlet's madness is primarily an act to help him gain vengeance for his father, although it's possible it becomes real at a few key moments. Meanwhile, Ophelia's madness is definitely real. In either case, this madness can be traced back to Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius.
Ophelia's madness is undeniably real. Early in the play, she seems fine. She's a good daughter to Polonius and does what he says, even though it hurts her to make Hamlet upset. Following her father's death, though, she cracks. She's nothing like what she was earlier, singing and talking nonsense. Later, we find out she has committed suicide. This is a drastic change from what she's like in the beginning. And while this change is because of what Hamlet does, it goes deeper than that. Everything that causes her madness stems from Hamlet's relationship with Claudius, and his desire for revenge.
All Hamlet's thoughts and actions are driven by what he's learned about Claudius. It doesn't even matter to him that he hurts Ophelia in the process of his revenge. He purposely uses her, the woman he loves, as his primary way of putting on his act of madness. He treats her poorly to show everyone around him how crazy he's become, all to help him fulfill his plans for revenge.
Hamlet's abusive treatment of Ophelia, along with his murder of her father, drives her to madness. When Hamlet kills Polonius, this is one moment where his act might possibly have given way to true madness. He commits this murder in a fit of rage, but he believes it's Claudius he's killing, not Polonius. Polonius' interference puts him in the wrong place at the wrong time, right when Hamlet might be demonstrating genuine madness himself.
Hamlet might have also legitimately been mad with grief at Ophelia's funeral. When Hamlet discovers she has killed herself, he realizes his actions must have caused this. And he knows that, without his grudge against Claudius and need to act crazy, she would still be alive. This drives Hamlet to reveal himself to the gathering, jump down into the grave with Laertes, and begin a fight with him. It is possible this is simply a continuation of his act, or it might be something more.
Hamlet's relationship with Gertrude also plays a part in the theme of madness in the play. Even before knowing the truth of his father's murder, Hamlet has lost his respect for his mother because he feels she's disrespected his father by remarrying so quickly after his father's death, and by marrying his father's brother. This is why Hamlet is depressed at the start of the play.
His relationship with his mother, then, makes his plan easier to carry out after meeting the ghost. Considering how he has changed because of his depression, the "crazy" act he puts on seems like a logical progression.
All the madness displayed in this play has its roots in Hamlet's relationships with Claudius and Gertrude. The toxic nature of those relationships causes him to act crazy, possibly to really be crazy at a few points in time, and causes the actions that instigate Ophelia's madness.
This essay gives "reasonable analysis," as the College Board would put it, of Hamlet's scheme, how it causes Ophelia's mental breakdown, and how it all stems from the toxic fumes of his relationships with Claudius and Gertrude.
The analysis isn't as thorough or perceptive as the highest scored essays, though. For example, when Hamlet and Laertes duke it out in the graveyard like the Undertaker and Kane, there's only a passing mention of the fact that Hamlet might not be acting anymore.
Madness plays a crucial role in William Shakespeare's Hamlet . Hamlet himself has toxic relationships with his mother, Queen Gertrude, and his uncle, King Claudius. These relationships instigate a great deal of the madness in the play, from both Hamlet and Ophelia.
Ophelia is the character who demonstrates genuine madness. Late in the play, she seems to lose her mind. She speaks a lot of nonsense to the king and queen, and shortly later, we find out that she's dead of an apparent suicide. It seems as if her father's murder at Hamlet's hands is the cause of her madness. But, looking deeper, Hamlet only kills Polonius accidentally, when he thinks he's killing Claudius. So it's still Hamlet's terrible relationship with Claudius, and his desire for revenge, that really causes Ophelia's madness.
The reason Hamlet's relationship with Claudius is so toxic is two-fold. The main reason forms when the ghost of Hamlet's father shows up and tells him that Claudius actually killed him. This is what causes Hamlet to act crazy. He's beside himself with anger and grief, but he still feels he needs to determine if the ghost is telling the truth. He thinks that by acting as if he's lost his mind, he'll be able to investigate what the ghost has told him, and probably carry out vengeance against Claudius, as well.
Even before the ghost showed up, though, Hamlet's relationship with Claudius was also strained because of Hamlet's depression. Hamlet already hated that Gertrude remarried so quickly. And it's worse that she remarried Claudius, since he was the king's brother. Claudius doesn't like the way Hamlet was acting so down in the dumps, or the way he continually makes nasty remarks toward Gertrude. But once Hamlet really starts acting crazy and putting on this show to investigate, Claudius actually tries to have him killed. He seems to see through the act more than everyone else, who all think Hamlet is only acting this way because Ophelia rejected him.
Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius are the determining factor in all the madness in the play. These relationships had already been affected because of Hamlet's grief for his dead father and his perceived lack of respect from his mother. Learning of Claudius' betrayal is too much for him to bear, causing his act of madness, and also indirectly being responsible for Ophelia's madness, as well.
The fall from a 7 score to a 6 score is more apparent than the fall from a 9 to an 8, and maybe even from an 8 to a 7. In this essay, the link between Hamlet's steaming pile of a relationship with Claudius and Gertrude and the play's madness is still explained, but the insight is getting weaker and less thorough. The discussion's beginning to get a little artificial for everyone's liking here.
The student's analysis, or lack thereof, of Ophelia's madness, and the need to look beyond her father's death to understand the real cause, is noticeably short and underdeveloped when compared to the higher scored essays. This essay also fails to examine whether Hamlet might've actually gone a little crazy himself in a couple of instances. It's just presumed that everything he does is an act, which could be true...if we had more discussion to back it up. (But really, that's probably giving him too much credit.)
In Hamlet , by William Shakespeare, the character Hamlet's poor relationships with his mother, Queen Gertrude, and his uncle, King Claudius, show a great deal about his madness, and madness is a major theme in the play.
It's shown early on that Hamlet is unhappy with the fact that his mother remarried so soon after her husband's (Hamlet's father's) death. The fact that she marries Hamlet's uncle just makes it worse. Hamlet consistently acts childish and makes snide remarks, like when he refers to Claudius as his "uncle-father" and Gertrude as his "aunt-mother." He has great disdain for her actions and considers them incestuous. Even though he goes on to put on a show of madness, it's possible that he actually does go a little mad, and there's no question that Gertrude's actions are a part of that.
Hamlet's relationship with Claudius contributes to his madness even more. He's already upset about this new marriage, which has caused him to lose his respect for his mother. Now, when the ghost of his father shows up and tells him that Claudius actually killed him, this makes things even worse. This is what actually causes Hamlet to act crazy. He thinks that by acting as if he's lost his mind, it will be easier for him to investigate what the ghost has told him, and probably to carry out vengeance against Claudius, as well.
Even before the ghost showed up, though, Hamlet's relationship with Claudius was also strained because of Hamlet's depression. Claudius doesn't like the way Hamlet was acting so down in the dumps, or the way he continually makes nasty remarks toward Gertrude. Once Hamlet really starts acting crazy, Claudius goes so far as to try to have him killed. He seems to see through the act more than everyone else, who all think Hamlet is only acting this way because Ophelia rejected him.
Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius have a huge impact on the theme of madness. The changes that occur when you take a young man already grieving over his dead father and his perceived lack of respect from his mother, and combine them with the news of betrayal from another member of his own family, is enough to cause Hamlet to choose to act mad, and maybe even to actually go a little mad.
The difference between a 6 and a 5 is that a 5 is lacking even more in organization, is more simplistic and general in its analysis, and the biggie: it leans on plot summary more than it should.
This essay provides an accurate, but relatively one-dimensional, discussion of Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius, and how they affect his show of madness. But the discussion doesn't go deeper than some nicely summarized plot points and it never digs into Ophelia's madness, which is a major part of the theme throughout the play.
There is no doubt that a character's relationship with one or more family members or friends in a book or play can have a drastic impact on the story as a whole. In the play Hamlet , the relationships that Hamlet, the main character, has with Gertrude, Claudius, and Ophelia, are these types of relationships. These relationships affect the theme of madness in the play.
Hamlet's relationship with his mother has taken a significant turn for the worse since his father died and she quickly remarried his uncle, the dead king's brother. Hamlet sees this as a betrayal of his father, as if his death didn't even affect Gertrude at all. He feels it's totally unreasonable for her to have moved on and remarried so quickly. Hamlet's relationship with her, then, becomes testy, as he treats her quite badly for what he thinks are her sins. If Hamlet really goes mad, Gertrude's actions are definitely a part of that.
Claudius has an even more direct effect on Hamlet's madness. Hamlet is disgusted enough with him already because he views this new marriage as incestuous. But when the ghost of King Hamlet appears and tells Hamlet that Claudius actually murdered him for the crown, this is what really puts Hamlet on the road toward madness. It's his desire to avenge his father that causes him to put on a display of madness.
Lastly, and maybe most importantly, is Hamlet's relationship with Ophelia. It appears that Hamlet and Ophelia had been in love with one another at some point in time. It's never entirely clear how Hamlet really feels about her as the play progresses. His treatment of her is a major part of his plan, since she's the one who relays information about his behavior back to Polonius and Claudius. So, their relationship is part of Hamlet's fake madness. But after Hamlet kills Polonius, it manifests real madness. Ophelia truly loses her mind and winds up killing herself. And Hamlet, upon discovering this at her funeral, jumps out of hiding and into her grave, seeming to have gone mad himself, at least momentarily.
In conclusion, madness is a major theme throughout the play. Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius both cause him to put his plan of demonstrating madness into effect. And his relationship with Ophelia is not only a major part of that plan, but it also might cause him some real, temporary madness, as well as Ophelia's legitimate fatal madness.
This essay is about as deep as an above ground swimming pool.
It's fairly well-written, but Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius are only given a paragraph each, so there's not much going on beyond, "Hamlet's uncle killed his father, so now Hamlet will act crazy." We'd call that an unsupported, oversimplified, plot-based explanation.
Plus, instead of discussing Ophelia's madness as a consequence of Hamlet's relationship with Claudius, this student discusses Hamlet's direct relationship with Ophelia. The problem is, Ophelia's not a family member, so not only does this discussion not fit the question, but there are a lot of complexities left unexplained here.
In Hamlet , Hamlet's understanding of family, and his relationship with some of his family members, affects the themes of the whole play. His relationships with his mother, Gertrude, and uncle/stepfather, Claudius, in particular, have the most drastic effects on the themes.
Hamlet's relationship with his mother isn't good anymore. When the play begins, his father, the king, is already dead, and his mother has already remarried Hamlet's uncle. Hamlet doesn't like the fact that she remarried right away. He thinks this happened way too quickly. Hamlet also thinks that the fact that she married her dead husband's brother is disgusting and wrong.
Hamlet's relationship with his uncle, the new king and his new stepfather, also isn't good anymore. Hamlet doesn't get along with him for all the same reasons he doesn't get along with his mother anymore. But Claudius also became the king, which is supposed to be Hamlet's job in the future. So, Hamlet has even more reason to hate Claudius now.
The changes in Hamlet's relationships with his mother and stepfather affect the play's themes pretty drastically. They show that family is important, but if what the ghost told Hamlet is true, then it's really not everything. Clearly, Gertrude and Claudius valued power more than family when they plotted against the old king. And Hamlet's sanity is also directly impacted by these two relationships. These changes are what cause him to put on an act of madness. But it's possible that he actually goes a little mad. Some readers read the play that way, and if Hamlet really does go crazy a little bit, it's because of the crimes Gertrude and Claudius committed, and how they affected Hamlet.
Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius have a huge effect on the whole play. Their evil actions change who Hamlet is as a person and a character. The changes in these relationships have major repercussions on the themes of family and madness.
Yikes. This essay is way oversimplified. It's a 3 and not a 4 because it's oversimplified to the point of it being a "misreading and/or inept writing," as the College Board would call it. Sure, it hits on the changes in Hamlet's relationships with Gertrude and Claudius, but by barely scraping the surface, it's little more than a summary.
This essay attempts to touch on the ghost, but misses the mark in discussing this figure's critical role in informing Hamlet of the truth and driving the wedge between him and his "parents." The essay also fails to go beyond identifying family and madness as two themes in the play, so there's no real insight presented on these talking points.
In Hamlet , Hamlet had a lot of problems. Hamlet's problems include problems with his family, including his mother Gertrude, his new father Claudius and his sister Ophelia. Hamlet's problems are that he thinks his mother married his new father too fast after his original father died and also that he's in love with his sister. Because Hamlet hates his mother and new father, it causes him to have a lot of angst. He thinks a lot about killing himself. And when he finds out Opheila doesn't love him the way he loves her it makes him even more upset; this is why he jumped into Ophelia's grave at her funeral after he escaped from the pirates who took over his ship and killed Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Hamlet's also upset that his friends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern don't like him anymore and are trying to trap him because the king asked them to.
If his mom didn't remarry only two days after his dad died then Hamlet wouldn't be so upset. He's not a fan of his uncle so he doesn't want him to be king. And also, Hamlet wants to be king someday. He feels like he's being replaced and like he'll never get to be king now. He thinks the king is after him so he never has a challenger to the throne, but Hamlet still doesn't want to kill the king. He thinks it's wrong and that it will automatically send him to hell, so he refuses to do it for the ghost.
Because of the death of Hamlet's father, his mother remarrying his uncle after just two days, and his sister not loving him romantically like he loved her (and then she killed herself, too, which upset Hamlet even more), Hamlet is upset, angry, and suicidal. His relationships with all his family members really changed a lot because all these things happened to him, and because his friends turned their back on him.
We've moved on to the College Board's class of poorly-written essays here. This writer clearly misread certain parts of the play, and the essay, aside from being poorly-written and weighed down with poor grammar and structure, is filled with inaccuracies.
For starters, Ophelia isn't Hamlet's sister, so (1) the essay is mainly a summary, (2) it's poor summary at that, and (3) it's completely haphazard. It jumps around from Ophelia's death to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to Claudius not wanting Hamlet to challenge him for the throne. All without rhyme or reason. This incoherent essay also fails to answer the question, because it never mentions the themes of the play and how they're influenced by Hamlet's relationships with his family.
Hamlet used to, like, love his mom. But then she helped kill his dad. And then she married his uncle. So now he hates her.
Hamlet doesn't really know how family works. Now he's got a messed up situation with his mom and his uncle. His uncle is the new king and his dad is dead. His dad was the king. His dad's ghost is hanging around trying to get Hamlet to kill the new king.
Hamlet doesn't have a relationship with his uncle. I mean, how do you have a relationship with the guy who killed your dad and married your mom? He wants to kill his uncle for most of the book but he always chickens out or can't do it at the right time.
This is a bad and weird situation for Hamlet. He doesn't get along with anybody in his family. He's always moping around and acting all emo. And then he kills a bunch of people and gets killed. His family situation doesn't really work good.
There's no real introduction or conclusion to this essay, and there's only the vaguest attempt to answer the question. At one point, the essay—er, this informal piece of writing unrecognizable as an essay—even addresses the reader. It's a 1 because it gets a few facts right, but aside from those, this writing is way too short to carry any substance.
"This is a bad and weird situation" hardly passes for insight. 'Nuff said.
A score of 0 is either blank or very ugly. Avert your eyes.
AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Tired of ads?
Logging out…, logging out....
You've been inactive for a while, logging you out in a few seconds...
W hy's T his F unny?
Introducing Question 3 in AP® English Literature
by Michelle Lindsey
I love teaching Question 3, the Literary Argument Essay, of the AP English Literature Exam . I thoroughly enjoy seeing one beautifully written novel wrapped into a pretty little package that is the essay. My students always tell me my enthusiasm is nauseating, but to be able to eloquently condense a rich novel into such a narrow lens, is an art form.
I never want to wait until an entire novel is read before introducing this prompt. Sure, the students read novels in AP English Language so I could always pull from last year’s texts to introduce this question, but sometimes I get new kids that didn’t take AP English Language… or who haven’t read a novel recently enough to remember it.
Because of this, I turn to movies so that I can jump into question 3 early in the year and satisfy my hopes and dreams.
- Context My go-to is Jurassic Park. Although now, with all the remakes, the students get very upset when I don’t pinpoint one particular film title. Or I let them choose. Either way, the students have enough context to write this essay. One person I know (and by “know” I mean me) has watched, “The Greatest Showman” more than 14 times and can recite every line. Quiz me, it’s an addiction. The soundtrack is in my CD player in my car. I can honestly say I have not read any novel 14 times, not even 4 times. Ok, I have probably read Life of Pi 4 times. But I don’t need to rely on students reading an entire novel, I can offer them a list of movies (like the suggested list on the AP Exam) or, they can pull from their brain. It’s fast and easy and the students enjoy debating which movie would be best for the given prompt.
- Memory I always spring this activity on them. I don’t want them to study a film in order to do this activity. Instead, I want to see how well they remember the nuances within these films from their memories. I want to see how well they remember the complex relationship like that between Dory and Marlin in “Finding Nemo.” Do they remember that Dory teaches Marlin to enjoy life just a little more even though he is on this frantic hunt to find his son? And, if they can manage to remember that, can they remember specific enough details within the plot to prove their point?
- Scaffolding Movies are great scaffolding tools. Some of my students say (more like complain rather loudly) that tackling an entire novel in an essay sounds daunting. I suppose it is why movies are an excellent stepping stone. It offers them solid practice without the burden of adding rich literature to it. When I ask my students to recall a character from a book with a complicated family life, they just stare at me. If I ask them to recall a character with a complicated family life within a movie and I can’t get them to stop providing examples, it’s beautiful chaos that I embrace.
- Analysis vs. Summary This is one of the biggest reasons why I start with movies. This rationale paired with the scaffolding technique is key. Writing about movies is an excellent way to move those kids beyond summary. I always tell them, “Don’t you dare explain the plotline of ‘The Greatest Showman’ to me. I know that plot better than anyone.” That’s when I direct them to teach me something. Teach me a perspective or interpretation or significant theme that I may have missed.
Introducing the Literary Argument Essay to AP English Literature students can be challenging. Using movies helps them to practice a new skill with a medium they may be more comfortable with.
For more advice on creative ways of teaching AP English Literature, check out this article about great digital tools for teaching this course.
Michelle Lindsey has been a high school teacher in Florida for nine years, and currently teaches AP ® Capstone as well as literature and writing courses .
Please read Marco Learning’s Terms and Conditions, click to agree, and submit to continue to your content.
Please read Marco Learning’s Terms and Conditions, click to agree, and submit at the bottom of the window.
Last Modified: 1/24/2023
Accessing the Website and Account Security
We reserve the right to withdraw or amend this Website, and any service or material we provide on the Website, in our sole discretion without notice. We will not be liable if for any reason all or any part of the Website is unavailable at any time or for any period. From time to time, we may restrict access to some parts of the Website, or the entire Website, to users, including registered users.
If you choose, or are provided with, a user name, password, or any other piece of information as part of our security procedures, you must treat such information as confidential, and you must not disclose it to any other person or entity. You also acknowledge that your account is personal to you and agree not to provide any other person with access to this Website or portions of it using your user name, password, or other security information. You agree to notify us immediately of any unauthorized access to or use of your user name or password or any other breach of security. You also agree to ensure that you exit from your account at the end of each session. You should use particular caution when accessing your account from a public or shared computer so that others are not able to view or record your password or other personal information.
Intellectual Property Rights
The Website and its entire contents, features, and functionality (including but not limited to all information, software, text, displays, images, graphics, video, other visuals, and audio, and the design, selection, and arrangement thereof) are owned by the Company, its licensors, or other providers of such material and are protected by United States and international copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, and other intellectual property or proprietary rights laws. Your use of the Website does not grant to you ownership of any content, software, code, date or materials you may access on the Website.
- Your computer may temporarily store copies of such materials in RAM incidental to your accessing and viewing those materials.
- You may store files that are automatically cached by your Web browser for display enhancement purposes.
- You may print or download one copy of a reasonable number of pages of the Website for your own personal, non-commercial use and not for further reproduction, publication, or distribution.
- If we provide desktop, mobile, or other applications for download, you may download a single copy to your computer or mobile device solely for your own personal, non-commercial use, provided you agree to be bound by our end user license agreement for such applications.
- If we provide social media features with certain content, you may take such actions as are enabled by such features.
You must not:
- Modify copies of any materials from this site.
- Use any illustrations, photographs, video or audio sequences, or any graphics separately from the accompanying text.
- Delete or alter any copyright, trademark, or other proprietary rights notices from copies of materials from this site.
You must not access or use for any commercial purposes any part of the Website or any services or materials available through the Website.
If you wish to make any use of material on the Website other than that set out in this section, please contact us
Trademarks, logos, service marks, trade names, and all related names, logos, product and service names, designs, and slogans are trademarks of the Company or its affiliates or licensors (collectively, the “ Trademarks ”). You must not use such Trademarks without the prior written permission of the Company. All other names, logos, product and service names, designs, and slogans on this Website are the trademarks of their respective owners.
- In any way that violates any applicable federal, state, local, or international law or regulation (including, without limitation, any laws regarding the export of data or software to and from the US or other countries).
- For the purpose of exploiting, harming, or attempting to exploit or harm minors in any way by exposing them to inappropriate content, asking for personally identifiable information, or otherwise.
- To transmit, or procure the sending of, any advertising or promotional material, including any “junk mail”, “chain letter”, “spam”, or any other similar solicitation.
- To impersonate or attempt to impersonate the Company, a Company employee, another user, or any other person or entity (including, without limitation, by using email addresses or screen names associated with any of the foregoing).
- To engage in any other conduct that restricts or inhibits anyone’s use or enjoyment of the Website, or which, as determined by us, may harm the Company or users of the Website or expose them to liability.
Additionally, you agree not to:
- Use the Website in any manner that could disable, overburden, damage, or impair the site or interfere with any other party’s use of the Website, including their ability to engage in real time activities through the Website.
- Use any robot, spider, or other automatic device, process, or means to access the Website for any purpose, including monitoring or copying any of the material on the Website.
- Use any manual process to monitor or copy any of the material on the Website or for any other unauthorized purpose without our prior written consent.
- Use any device, software, or routine that interferes with the proper working of the Website.
- Introduce any viruses, Trojan horses, worms, logic bombs, or other material that is malicious or technologically harmful.
- Attempt to gain unauthorized access to, interfere with, damage, or disrupt any parts of the Website, the server on which the Website is stored, or any server, computer, or database connected to the Website.
- Attack the Website via a denial-of-service attack or a distributed denial-of-service attack.
- Otherwise attempt to interfere with the proper working of the Website.
If you use, or assist another person in using the Website in any unauthorized way, you agree that you will pay us an additional $50 per hour for any time we spend to investigate and correct such use, plus any third party costs of investigation we incur (with a minimum $300 charge). You agree that we may charge any credit card number provided for your account for such amounts. You further agree that you will not dispute such a charge and that we retain the right to collect any additional actual costs.
The Website may contain message boards, chat rooms, personal web pages or profiles, forums, bulletin boards, and other interactive features (collectively, “ Interactive Services “) that allow users to post, submit, publish, display, or transmit to other users or other persons (hereinafter, “ post “) content or materials (collectively, “ User Contributions “) on or through the Website.
Any User Contribution you post to the site will be considered non-confidential and non-proprietary. By providing any User Contribution on the Website, you grant us and our affiliates and service providers, and each of their and our respective licensees, successors, and assigns the right to use, reproduce, modify, perform, display, distribute, and otherwise disclose to third parties any such material for any purpose.
You represent and warrant that:
- You own or control all rights in and to the User Contributions and have the right to grant the license granted above to us and our affiliates and service providers, and each of their and our respective licensees, successors, and assigns.
You understand and acknowledge that you are responsible for any User Contributions you submit or contribute, and you, not the Company, have full responsibility for such content, including its legality, reliability, accuracy, and appropriateness.
For any academic source materials such as textbooks and workbooks which you submit to us in connection with our online tutoring services, you represent and warrant that you are entitled to upload such materials under the “fair use” doctrine of copyright law. In addition, if you request that our system display a representation of a page or problem from a textbook or workbook, you represent and warrant that you are in proper legal possession of such textbook or workbook and that your instruction to our system to display a page or problem from your textbook or workbook is made for the sole purpose of facilitating your tutoring session, as “fair use” under copyright law.
We are not responsible or liable to any third party for the content or accuracy of any User Contributions posted by you or any other user of the Website.
Monitoring and Enforcement: Termination
We have the right to:
- Remove or refuse to post any User Contributions for any or no reason in our sole discretion.
- Disclose your identity or other information about you to any third party who claims that material posted by you violates their rights, including their intellectual property rights or their right to privacy.
- Take appropriate legal action, including without limitation, referral to law enforcement, for any illegal or unauthorized use of the Website.
Without limiting the foregoing, we have the right to cooperate fully with any law enforcement authorities or court order requesting or directing us to disclose the identity or other information of anyone posting any materials on or through the Website. YOU WAIVE AND HOLD HARMLESS THE COMPANY AND ITS AFFILIATES, LICENSEES, AND SERVICE PROVIDERS FROM ANY CLAIMS RESULTING FROM ANY ACTION TAKEN BY ANY OF THE FOREGOING PARTIES DURING, OR TAKEN AS A CONSEQUENCE OF, INVESTIGATIONS BY EITHER SUCH PARTIES OR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES.
However, we do not undertake to review material before it is posted on the Website, and cannot ensure prompt removal of objectionable material after it has been posted. Accordingly, we assume no liability for any action or inaction regarding transmissions, communications, or content provided by any user or third party. We have no liability or responsibility to anyone for performance or nonperformance of the activities described in this section.
These content standards apply to any and all User Contributions and use of Interactive Services. User Contributions must in their entirety comply with all applicable federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations. Without limiting the foregoing, User Contributions must not:
- Contain any material that is defamatory, obscene, indecent, abusive, offensive, harassing, violent, hateful, inflammatory, or otherwise objectionable.
- Promote sexually explicit or pornographic material, violence, or discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation, or age.
- Infringe any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other intellectual property or other rights of any other person.
- Be likely to deceive any person.
- Promote any illegal activity, or advocate, promote, or assist any unlawful act.
- Cause annoyance, inconvenience, or needless anxiety or be likely to upset, embarrass, alarm, or annoy any other person.
- Impersonate any person, or misrepresent your identity or affiliation with any person or organization.
- Involve commercial activities or sales, such as contests, sweepstakes, and other sales promotions, barter, or advertising.
- Give the impression that they emanate from or are endorsed by us or any other person or entity, if this is not the case.
(collectively, the “ Content Standards ”)
If you believe that any User Contributions violate your copyright, please contact us and provide the following information:
- An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest;
- A description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
- A description of where the material you claim is infringing is located on the website (and such description must reasonably sufficient to enable us to find the alleged infringing material);
- Your address, telephone number and email address;
- A written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and
- A statement by you, made under the penalty of perjury, that the above information in your notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.
We may terminate the accounts of any infringers.
Reliance on Information Posted
From time to time, we may make third party opinions, advice, statements, offers, or other third party information or content available on the Website or from tutors under tutoring services (collectively, “Third Party Content”). All Third Party Content is the responsibility of the respective authors thereof and should not necessarily be relied upon. Such third party authors are solely responsible for such content. WE DO NOT (I) GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS OR USEFULNESS OF ANY THIRD PARTY CONTENT ON THE SITE OR ANY VERIFICATION SERVICES DONE ON OUR TUTORS OR INSTRUCTORS, OR (II) ADOPT, ENDORSE OR ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY OR RELIABILITY OF ANY OPINION, ADVICE, OR STATEMENT MADE BY ANY TUTOR OR INSTRUCTOR OR ANY PARTY THAT APPEARS ON THE WEBSITE. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL WE BE RESPONSBILE OR LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE RESULTING FROM YOUR RELIANCE ON INFORMATION OR OTHER CONENT POSTED ON OR AVAILBLE FROM THE WEBSITE.
Changes to the Website
We may update the content on this Website from time to time, but its content is not necessarily complete or up-to-date. Any of the material on the Website may be out of date at any given time, and we are under no obligation to update such material.
Information About You and Your Visits to the Website
Online Purchases and Other Terms and Conditions
Linking to the Website and Social Media Features
You may link to our homepage, provided you do so in a way that is fair and legal and does not damage our reputation or take advantage of it, but you must not establish a link in such a way as to suggest any form of association, approval, or endorsement on our part without our express written consent.
This Website may provide certain social media features that enable you to:
- Link from your own or certain third-party websites to certain content on this Website.
- Send emails or other communications with certain content, or links to certain content, on this Website.
- Cause limited portions of content on this Website to be displayed or appear to be displayed on your own or certain third-party websites.
You may use these features solely as they are provided by us, and solely with respect to the content they are displayed with and otherwise in accordance with any additional terms and conditions we provide with respect to such features. Subject to the foregoing, you must not:
- Establish a link from any website that is not owned by you.
- Cause the Website or portions of it to be displayed on, or appear to be displayed by, any other site, for example, framing, deep linking, or in-line linking.
- Link to any part of the Website other than the homepage.
You agree to cooperate with us in causing any unauthorized framing or linking immediately to stop. We reserve the right to withdraw linking permission without notice.
We may disable all or any social media features and any links at any time without notice in our discretion.
Links from the Website
If the Website contains links to other sites and resources provided by third parties (“ Linked Sites ”), these links are provided for your convenience only. This includes links contained in advertisements, including banner advertisements and sponsored links. You acknowledge and agree that we have no control over the contents, products, services, advertising or other materials which may be provided by or through those Linked sites or resources, and accept no responsibility for them or for any loss or damage that may arise from your use of them. If you decide to access any of the third-party websites linked to this Website, you do so entirely at your own risk and subject to the terms and conditions of use for such websites.
You agree that if you include a link from any other website to the Website, such link will open in a new browser window and will link to the full version of an HTML formatted page of this Website. You are not permitted to link directly to any image hosted on the Website or our products or services, such as using an “in-line” linking method to cause the image hosted by us to be displayed on another website. You agree not to download or use images hosted on this Website or another website, for any purpose, including, without limitation, posting such images on another website. You agree not to link from any other website to this Website in any manner such that the Website, or any page of the Website, is “framed,” surrounded or obfuscated by any third party content, materials or branding. We reserve all of our rights under the law to insist that any link to the Website be discontinued, and to revoke your right to link to the Website from any other website at any time upon written notice to you.
The owner of the Website is based in the state of New Jersey in the United States. We provide this Website for use only by persons located in the United States. We make no claims that the Website or any of its content is accessible or appropriate outside of the United States. Access to the Website may not be legal by certain persons or in certain countries. If you access the Website from outside the United States, you do so on your own initiative and are responsible for compliance with local laws.
Disclaimer of Warranties
You understand that we cannot and do not guarantee or warrant that files available for downloading from the internet or the Website will be free of viruses or other destructive code. You are responsible for implementing sufficient procedures and checkpoints to satisfy your particular requirements for anti-virus protection and accuracy of data input and output, and for maintaining a means external to our site for any reconstruction of any lost data. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PROVIDED BY LAW, WE WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE CAUSED BY A DISTRIBUTED DENIAL-OF-SERVICE ATTACK, VIRUSES, OR OTHER TECHNOLOGICALLY HARMFUL MATERIAL THAT MAY INFECT YOUR COMPUTER EQUIPMENT, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA, OR OTHER PROPRIETARY MATERIAL DUE TO YOUR USE OF THE WEBSITE OR ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE OR TO YOUR DOWNLOADING OF ANY MATERIAL POSTED ON IT, OR ON ANY WEBSITE LINKED TO IT.
YOUR USE OF THE WEBSITE, ITS CONTENT, AND ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. THE WEBSITE, ITS CONTENT, AND ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE ARE PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE” BASIS, WITHOUT ANY WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. NEITHER THE COMPANY NOR ANY PERSON ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPANY MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WITH RESPECT TO THE COMPLETENESS, SECURITY, RELIABILITY, QUALITY, ACCURACY, OR AVAILABILITY OF THE WEBSITE. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, NEITHER THE COMPANY NOR ANYONE ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPANY REPRESENTS OR WARRANTS THAT THE WEBSITE, ITS CONTENT, OR ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE WILL BE ACCURATE, RELIABLE, ERROR-FREE, OR UNINTERRUPTED, THAT DEFECTS WILL BE CORRECTED, THAT OUR SITE OR THE SERVER THAT MAKES IT AVAILABLE ARE FREE OF VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL COMPONENTS, OR THAT THE WEBSITE OR ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE WILL OTHERWISE MEET YOUR NEEDS OR EXPECTATIONS.
TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PROVIDED BY LAW, THE COMPANY HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
THE FOREGOING DOES NOT AFFECT ANY WARRANTIES THAT CANNOT BE EXCLUDED OR LIMITED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW.
Limitation on Liability
TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PROVIDED BY LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL THE COMPANY, ITS AFFILIATES, OR THEIR LICENSORS, SERVICE PROVIDERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, OFFICERS, OR DIRECTORS BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, UNDER ANY LEGAL THEORY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH YOUR USE, OR INABILITY TO USE, THE WEBSITE, ANY WEBSITES LINKED TO IT, ANY CONTENT ON THE WEBSITE OR SUCH OTHER WEBSITES, INCLUDING ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PERSONAL INJURY, PAIN AND SUFFERING, EMOTIONAL DISTRESS, LOSS OF REVENUE, LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF BUSINESS OR ANTICIPATED SAVINGS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF GOODWILL, LOSS OF DATA, AND WHETHER CAUSED BY TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), BREACH OF CONTRACT, OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF FORESEEABLE.
THE FOREGOING DOES NOT AFFECT ANY LIABILITY THAT CANNOT BE EXCLUDED OR LIMITED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW.
Governing Law and Jurisdiction
Any proceeding to enforce this arbitration provision, including any proceeding to confirm, modify, or vacate an arbitration award, may be commenced in any court of competent jurisdiction. In the event that this arbitration provision is for any reason held to be unenforceable, any litigation against Company must be commenced only in the federal or state courts located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. You hereby irrevocably consent to the jurisdiction of those courts for such purposes.
Limitation on Time to File Claims
Waiver and Severability
Communications and Miscellaneous
If you provide us your email address, you agree and consent to receive email messages from us. These emails may be transaction or relationship communications relating to the products or services we offer, such as administrative notices and service announcements or changes, or emails containing commercial offers, promotions or special offers from us.
Your Comments and Concerns
This website is operated by Marco Learning LLC, a New Jersey limited liability company with an address of 113 Monmouth Road, Suite 1, Wrightstown, New Jersey 08562.
Please contact us for all other feedback, comments, requests for technical support, and other communications relating to the Website.