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Harvard Referencing Style Guide

What is referencing.

Whenever you write, the writings of others will influence your work. Although it is difficult to gauge all the influences, many of your ideas can be traced back to the resources and materials that you have consulted. These might be books, images , articles, reports, or, of course, the internet. These sources help enrich your writing by giving you ideas to build on. It is important always to give credit to the original thinkers and authors.

Referencing is the method that gives credit to the sources you have used in your work. You should provide references whenever you use a direct quote, paraphrase someone else’s idea, or borrow conceptual words and phrases.

Referencing not only allows credit to be given where credit is due, but it also helps track the various influences on any original piece of writing. If you do not cite the sources of the ideas that you have used in your work, you run the risk of plagiarism. Plagiarism is not only unethical but is also an actual crime in some of its forms. But how do you reference?

Elements of Harvard referencing style

Harvard referencing is a popular method of adding citations to your work. Its appeal lies in the simplicity of the basic system it uses – the author-date structure. Along with this, in Harvard style, you only need to mention the source in two locations: in the in-text reference(s) and in the reference list. Both elements together incorporate all the necessary details about a source in the most efficient way.

So, while reading something, when you come across a citation that looks something like this:

Furley (1999) or (Furley, 1999)

it is an in-text reference that follows the author-date system.

This is an entry in the reference list for the same in-text reference.

Furley, D. (1999) Routledge history of philosophy volume II: from Aristotle to Augustine . 1st edn. London: Routledge.

These Harvard referencing examples provide details about the citation formats for different types of sources.

In-text reference/citation

As is obvious from the name, Harvard in-text citations are references included within the text, that is, inside the sentences that make up its content. These can either be direct statements or quotes, or a paraphrasing of the original work. This type of reference helps in precisely pointing out which portions of the text are borrowed from or influenced by which particular source.

In his work, Furley (1999) wrote about… OR …from Aristotle’s works (Furley, 1999).

As you can see, in-text references provide the author’s surname and the year of publication. The year is provided because sometimes two or more works by the same author are referenced. In this case, the year helps in distinguishing between these works. Note that if you are citing a direct quotation, the in-text citation should also include the page number of that quote, for example (Furley, 1999, p. 2).

However, in-text citations don’t provide other important details about these resources. Rather, they are short enough that you don’t get interrupted while reading the text. Other details are presented in the reference list that you include at the end of your paper.

Reference list

A reference list presents the details of all the resources cited throughout the text in the form of a list at the end of your paper. It includes detailed entries about each of the referenced sources.

Citation structure:

Surname, Initial. (Publication year) Name of the document . Place of publication: Publisher.

Every in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the reference list. So, the reference list entry for the in-text citations discussed above would be:

Einstein, M. (2004) Media diversity: economics, ownership, and the FCC. New Jersey: Routledge.

This entry can also include other details like page numbers, editor’s name, edition, URL, access date, etc., depending upon the type of resource. A reference list allows you to provide all the necessary information without crowding your paper. With this list, you can keep track of how many materials you have consulted and even see if you need to include any more or any other kind of references in your text.

The difference between a bibliography and the Harvard referencing system

Typically, you’ll refer to multiple sources and materials for writing a text, and just using a bibliography can be confusing. You can use the Harvard referencing system to point out the exact location of all your references.

By marking the in-text reference, you can easily locate which idea or quote corresponds to which author. This makes your work easy to read and understand. This way, you and your reader can easily trace the specific portions of the work back to the original texts.

You can also show how much of your text uses source material (whether directly or indirectly) and how much of it is your own ideas and thoughts.

Format for Harvard Referencing

Typically, a paper that uses Harvard referencing has the following format:

  • 2.5 cm OR 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Recommended fonts: Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman, with double-spacing
  • Title is in the center of the page just above the text
  • Left-aligned text, with the first sentence of every paragraph indented by 0.5 inch
  • Last name is at the top-right corner of the header, followed by page number
  • Title page is centre-aligned
  • Subheadings are in sentence case and left-aligned

Key takeaways

  • Referencing is a way of crediting the various resources consulted while writing a text. Harvard referencing is a system that allows you to include information about the source materials. It is based on the author-date system.
  • It includes references: 1) as in-text citations and 2) in a reference list (which is different from a bibliography).
  • In-text citations: (Author Surname, Year Published).
  • Reference list entry: Author Surname, Initial. (Year Published) Title . Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

For more help creating citations in Harvard style, try the EasyBib Harvard referencing generator !

Published October 25, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

Harvard Formatting

  • et al Usage
  • Direct Quotes
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Page Numbers
  • Writing an Outline
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Reference Examples

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Harvard Referencing Examples

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Harvard Format (With Example)

Harvard style paper guidelines, harvard style cover page.

Harvard essay format is very specific and organized unlike argumentative essay . It requires a very particular title page with the following instructions:

  • The title of the paper is placed halfway down the page and written in capital letters.
  • After the title, three lines down write the name of the author in small letters.
  • Move four lines down and place the name of the class.
  • Move one line down put the name of the professor.
  • The next line entails the name of the school.
  • Then move to the next and write the city and state located and the final line should have the date.
  • The cover page of the Harvard essay format gives you all the information one needs to know about the author in question.

There are several key components to note when using the Harvard format. The title in a Harvard essay format is right justified. A partial title expresses the main idea in the essay between it, and the page number is exactly five spaces. The Harvard essay format cover sheet would like roughly like this:

The Harvard Essay Template

  • by (Name of the author)
  • Name of the Class (Course)
  • Name of University
  • City and State where university is located

Here are other essay formatting styles:

Paragraphs in a Harvard Format Essay

The Harvard essay format paragraphs are highly structured. The first section of the article is supposed to be captivating and entertaining. The article may begin with a lively quotation or an interesting fact and information that sheds light on the essay in question.

As in the  definition essay , introduction should smoothly lead to the thesis statement. The thesis statement refers to the main idea of the sentence and a summary of what the article body entails.

The first sentence in the body paragraph should tell the reader what the paragraph is discussing. The topic sentence is followed by supporting facts that relate to it. The details in the supporting sentences can be facts, quotations or analysis.

The paragraph then concludes with a sentence that summarizes what the paragraph is about and leads into the next section smoothly. Subheadings can also be used to introduce new subtopics and are italicized.

Transition between the Paragraphs

Writing an article using the Harvard format one should show the transition from one paragraph to the next and these paragraphs should be interconnected.

The topic should gradually grow from one point to the next. A paragraph in Harvard format has three parts:

– The topic sentence

– Supporting details 

– Closing sentence form

Citations in a Harvard Style Paper

One can use in-text citations. With the Harvard style, a quote uses the author’s name and first initial, year of publication and page number where the information appears. Citation for each fact is provided, if not it is considered plagiarism which is a serious offense. In-text citations for example from J. K. Rowling book published in 2004 page 45 would look like (Rowling J.K,2004,45).These quotes make the Harvard format essay easy to understand and comprehend as one read.

Harvard style uses a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial at size 12. Fancy fonts are not allowed because the Harvard format is used in writing outstanding academic and research essays. The essay should be double-spaced with smooth left margins. In the Harvard format titles of journals, newspapers or books or websites are italicized in in-text citations while that of poems and short stories is written in “quotation marks”. This helps readers know what they are referring to read quickly through an essay written in the Harvard format.

The conclusion of a Harvard format essay is vital and should be written with high accuracy understanding and mastery. The first sentence of the conclusion is used to put emphasis on the thesis statement and remind the reader what the essay has proved showed or theorized. After the first sentence provides brief information of the main points that were discussed throughout the whole piece to encourage remembrance of the most important points that were discussed. It mainly involves a summary of the main points of the article in other words. The essay should then finish with an outstanding powerful message that leaves the reader still thinking minutes or hours after they have finished reading the article.

The conclusion is followed by the reference page which consists of the reference list and is placed in its page known as the reference page.

Harvard essay

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Standard Harvard Formatting

Write flawless – write perfect, harvard referencing formatting style guide.

Harvard style is a well-known referencing style used for the purpose of citing sources and formatting papers written within the domain of social sciences.

The page numbers should be put in the right hand top corner.

General Guidelines The paper should be written using 12 pt. Times New Roman font with 1.5 spacing on a standard sized paper (8.5”x 11”) with a margin of 1” on all four sides. The alignment of the entire writing should be made justified.

The paper consists of three main sections: Title Page, Main Body, Reference List.

The first page must contain the title of the written paper written in bold using 12 pt. Times New Roman font with starting letter of each world in caps and middle aligned.

[Heading 1] should be left aligned, bold using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. The first letter of each of the words must be in caps except for articles and conjunctions.

[Heading 2] should be left aligned, bold using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. The first letter of each of the words must be in caps except for articles and conjunctions.

[Heading 3] should be left aligned using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.

Reference List A reference list in Harvard style gives a detailed list of all the sources used for citing any piece of work. The list comprises of various information of the citations like the name of the author, publication date of the source and title of the cited work. The referencing style varies depending on the type of source used like book, journal and electronic source like websites.

A Harvard referencing style must include the following:

  • It is included at the end of the work document and on a distinct sheet of paper.
  • It must be arranged alphabetically based on the surname of the authors whose work has been cited in the writing.
  • Multiple works of same author are arranged in a chronological order and for works whose publication date is of the same year must be arranged alphabetically on the basis of title.  The date must be followed by an alphabet like a, b, c, etc….
  • It must contain full references of all the works cited in the writing.
  • The formatting should be justified using 1.5 spacing and 12pt Times New Roman.
  • Reference List should be Heading 1 and un-bold.

Basics of Referencing In-Text Citations: The portions paraphrased or quoted from someone else’s work must be cited properly using in-text citations.

The in-text citations are written all throughout the main body of the text using proper citations against a piece of quotation or paraphrased portion. The in-text citations in Harvard referencing style consists of the surname of the author(s) or editors(s)’s followed by publication year. Example of in-text referencing citation is of the form:

One Author: For direct quotation: Wang, Courtright and Colbert (2015) states that…. For paraphrased portion: (Wang, Courtright and Colbert, 2015)

Two or Three Authors: For direct quotation: Wang, Courtright and Colbert (2015) states that…. For paraphrased portion: (Wang, Courtright and Colbert, 2015)

Four or More Authors: The surname of the first author must be followed by et al.: For direct quotation: Wang et al. (2015) states that…. For paraphrased portion: (Wang et al., 2015)

Reference List Format: Book: Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title. Place of publication: Name of publisher. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014.  Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach . Boston: Cengage Learning.

Edited Book: Surname of author(s), initial(s), eds., Year. Title. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Smith, J.A. eds., 2015.  Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods . California: Sage.

Journal: Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of Journal. Name of Journal, Issue (Volume), pp. From-To.

García-Morales, V.J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M.M. and Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L., 2012. Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation.  Journal of business research , 65(7), pp.1040-1050.

Online Article: Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of article. [online] Name of web page. Available at: <url> [Accessed Date Month Year].

Marr, B., 2017. 5 Massive 'Big Data' Myths Most People Believe - But Shouldn't. [online] Forbes. Available at: < https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2017/09/26/5-massive-big-data-myths-most-people-believe-but-shouldnt/#115b4ab52414 > [Accessed 26 September 2017].

Online PDF: Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of article. [pdf] Available at: <url> [Accessed Date Month Year]. Tesco PLC, 2016. Annual Report and Financial Statements 2016. [pdf] Available at: < https://www.tescoplc.com/media/264194/annual-report-2016.pdf > [Accessed 26 September 2017].

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Harvard referencing style

Harvard Style & Format: A 5-Minute Guide + Samples

Emma Flores

Table of contents

The Harvard referencing style is a widely used system for citing and referencing sources in academic writing. It provides a consistent and standardized format for acknowledging the works of others that you have used in your research.

Struggling to remember tricky peculiarities of Harvard style referencing and formatting? Don’t worry, you have come across a helpful material. In this article, you will find the basics of Harvard style formatting which would be useful for your academic progress. This easy but detailed Harvard style guide contains all format requirements for a paper and some structural tips. Besides, it covers general rules on how to cite your sources properly in your text. Feel free to use these guidelines for your academic endeavors. Let us go through details of Harvard style referencing and formatting together!  

Reference Harvard Style: Basics

Harvard style is an author-date system of referencing. It’s similar to an  APA paper format  in terms of general formatting of pages and text. But this style follows its own rules for bibliography and in-text citations formatting. Harvard style is typically used for essays in such academic disciplines:  

  • Behavioral Sciences
  • Philosophy.

But this doesn’t mean you can’t use this paper format in other areas of study. The general rule is to put references to your sources in round brackets. Specify author’s name and publication year. These references should come after your quotes (direct or indirect) in the end of a respective sentence or paragraph. Full details about all sources you have used should be provided at the end of your work. This section should be named ‘Reference List’. Buy coursework or any other type of research paper that will be referenced for you by our experts. 

Harvard Format: General Requirements

Let us explore some general rules for Harvard formatting:

  • Font: Times New Roman or Arial
  • Size: 12 pt
  • Text: double-spaced and left-aligned
  • Indent: first line of a paragraph has indent of 0.5 inch
  • Margins: 1 inch from each side

A Harvard style citation  must have a Title page, header (or running head), headings and Reference list. We will take a closer look at formatting each section down below.  

Harvard Style Title Page

What are the requirements for a Harvard style cover page? Title page is otherwise known as front page. This is the first page of your paper to be observed by your reader, i.e. your teacher first of all. Therefore, it is highly important to format it properly. Formatting rules for Harvard Title page:  

  • Paper title is fully capitalised and centered. Should be placed at approximately 33% of your page counting from its top.
  • Your name as an author, centered and placed at the middle of your page.
  • Course name at approximately 66% of the page.
  • Instructor’s name on a new line.
  • University’s name.
  • Submission date.

See the sample of a Harvard title page down below.

Example of Harvard  title page

Formatting a Header in Harvard

An important detail: you are required to use a header in  Harvard referencing  format. This section is repeatedly shown on all pages of your paper except the title page. You have to configure it once. Then, headers will get automatically added on each new page. Headers in Harvard referencing format contains such information:  

  • Page number, right aligned
  • Shortened title of your paper, not capitalized, right-aligned, to the left of page number.

It is important to use shortened title because there is not too much space in any header. Also, another requirement is putting exactly 5 spaces between your title and a page number in headers.

Harvard Style Heading

Now let us explore some rules of using subheadings in Harvard style, in detail. Typically there are 2 levels of section headings recommended for use in such papers. They have different formatting. This helps to tell one from another, without using different font sizes for them.

  • Level-1 subheadings for a bigger section. They must be centered, capitalized, but at the same time not indented, not bold, not underscored, not italicized.
  • Level-2 subheading for any subsection, typically 1-2 paragraphs. They must be capitalized, left-aligned, not indented. Besides, they should be italicized.

The plain text of any paragraph should go on a new line after subheadings in Harvard style, be it Level-1 or Level-2 subheading.

Harvard Reference List

Listing all sources you have used for your research in a proper order is a core element of Harvard style. Reference list should be the last part of your paper but absolutely not the least. Now let us explore some critical rules for a reference list formatting. The Harvard-style reference list section has its own subtitle, namely ‘Reference List’. Similarly to a Level-1 subheading, it should be capitalized and centered. The rest of your content in this section goes from a new line after your title. No extra empty lines are to be added. Your references in this list are numbered and sorted alphabetically. No lines are indented. Each item in this list starts from a new line. Below we will describe a format for referencing in detail.  

Harvard Style Bibliography

Sometimes your professor or instructor might ask you to create a Bibliography section instead of a common Reference list. So what is the Harvard Bibliography format? Harvard style bibliography includes not only those sources you have cited in your text but also. It also includes materials which you have read to get ideas for your research and to better understand the context of a selected problem. So, such section would contain more items than a Reference list. Apart of that, the general Harvard Bibliography format is the same:  

  • Heading, ‘Bibliography’ is formatted the same way as a Level-1 subheading
  • Sources are put into alphabetical order
  • List is double-spaced
  • Lines do not have any indent
  • Each item of this list starts from a new line.

Harvard Style Citations: General Rules

Another crucial element of Harvard style is referring to your sources inside your essay. That’s why you should know how to cite in Harvard style. Keep in mind that the main purpose of a proper format is to ensure your paper is plagiarizm-free. Sometimes, you should cite ideas from books, magazines or newspapers. But you can only refer to such ideas, otherwise it will be considered a form of plagiarism. Below we will show you how to cite in Harvard style, providing general information about published sources. So let us proceed and learn more about shortened quotes and full references.  

How to Quote in Harvard Style

Here are the rules of Harvard format in-text citation:

  • Add them in parentheses, usually at the end of quotes.
  • Put an author’s last name and a publication year into round brackets, add page number if needed.

Example of in-text citation a quote in Harvard style

  • When quoting a web page, give a paragraph number instead of a page since many websites don’t divide text into pages.
  • Direct citation requires quotation marks and a page number is mandatory in parenthesis
  • If you have mentioned an author’s name in your quote, do not include it into brackets, just leave a year and a page numbers there.

Example of Harvard style citation a quote with author’s name

  • Sometimes you might need to quote two different sources at once. In such case include both into the same parenthesis and divide them by a semicolon.

Example of Harvard style citation a quote from two different sources

Creating References in Harvard Style

And this is how you should be referencing in Harvard style, providing full descriptions of the sources you have used. Let us start with the general book format:

  • Last name of the author followed by comma and initials
  • If there are multiple authors, their names are separated with comma, except the last one which must be separated by ‘&’
  • Year of publication follows, without a comma
  • A full title of the book is given, italicized
  • Publisher name
  • City and country where this book was published are the last to be provided.

Example of Harvard style citing  references

Here are several Harvarvard referencing rules for other source types:

  • Refer to an edited book by putting ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ after the editor name(s)
  • If a book was translated, add ‘trans. I Lastname’
  • Refer to an article in any book or journal by adding an article name in quotation marks but not italicized
  • Refer to a website by adding ‘viewed’ and the date when you’ve opened it, followed by the URL in angle brackets.

Bottom Line

In this article we have explored the Harvard referencing guide, one of the most popular ones for students in the UK. Feel free to use these tips and proceed to writing a winning essay with flawless formatting! Just keep in mind the following key concepts of the Harvard style:

  • Title or cover page
  • Headers and their contents
  • Subheadings of two levels with different formatting
  • Reference list with full-detailed description of sources
  • In-text citations with lots of different forms for various quote types.

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If you have questions, please visit our FAQ section or contact our expert writers. They will gladly help you create references in line with all requirements. On top of that, our writers are highly experienced in academic writing and can assist you with any type of formatting.  

FAQ About Harvard Format

1. is harvard reference style used in colleges.

The Harvard style can be used in colleges as well as in other educational institutions and even by professional researchers. While it is relatively popular in many countries for research paper referencing, Harvard style is most widespread in universities of the UK nowadays. Other styles (APA, MLA and Chicago) dominate the US educational institutions.

2. What is the difference between Harvard and Oxford referencing styles?

The Harvard style format is a typical example of an author-date system as it requires using author’s names and publication dates for in-text referencing. You should create a complete reference list as a separate section in the end of your research paper. The Oxford style on the contrary uses numbered footnotes for citing sources used on your page. In-text citations on this page consist just from numbers of respective notes.  


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When preparing the dissertation for submission, students must follow strict formatting requirements. Any deviation from these requirements may lead to rejection of the dissertation and delay in the conferral of the degree.

The language of the dissertation is ordinarily English, although some departments whose subject matter involves foreign languages may accept a dissertation written in a language other than English.

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Fonts and Point Size

Use 10-12 point size. Fonts must be embedded in the PDF file to ensure all characters display correctly. 

Recommended Fonts

If you are unsure whether your chosen font will display correctly, use one of the following fonts: 

If fonts are not embedded, non-English characters may not appear as intended. Fonts embedded improperly will be published to DASH as-is. It is the student’s responsibility to make sure that fonts are embedded properly prior to submission. 

Instructions for Embedding Fonts

To embed your fonts in recent versions of Word, follow these instructions from Microsoft:

  • Click the File tab and then click Options .
  • In the left column, select the Save tab.
  • Clear the Do not embed common system fonts check box.

For reference, below are some instructions from ProQuest UMI for embedding fonts in older file formats:

To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2010:

  • In the File pull-down menu click on Options .
  • Choose Save on the left sidebar.
  • Check the box next to Embed fonts in the file.
  • Click the OK button.
  • Save the document.

Note that when saving as a PDF, make sure to go to “more options” and save as “PDF/A compliant”

To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2007:

  • Click the circular Office button in the upper left corner of Microsoft Word.
  • A new window will display. In the bottom right corner select Word Options . 
  • Choose Save from the left sidebar.

Using Microsoft Word on a Mac:

Microsoft Word 2008 on a Mac OS X computer will automatically embed your fonts while converting your document to a PDF file.

If you are converting to PDF using Acrobat Professional (instructions courtesy of the Graduate Thesis Office at Iowa State University):  

  • Open your document in Microsoft Word. 
  • Click on the Adobe PDF tab at the top. Select "Change Conversion Settings." 
  • Click on Advanced Settings. 
  • Click on the Fonts folder on the left side of the new window. In the lower box on the right, delete any fonts that appear in the "Never Embed" box. Then click "OK." 
  • If prompted to save these new settings, save them as "Embed all fonts." 
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  • Click on the Adobe PDF link at the top again. This time select Convert to Adobe PDF. Depending on the size of your document and the speed of your computer, this process can take 1-15 minutes. 
  • After your document is converted, select the "File" tab at the top of the page. Then select "Document Properties." 
  • Click on the "Fonts" tab. Carefully check all of your fonts. They should all show "(Embedded Subset)" after the font name. 
  •  If you see "(Embedded Subset)" after all fonts, you have succeeded.

The font used in the body of the text must also be used in headers, page numbers, and footnotes. Exceptions are made only for tables and figures created with different software and inserted into the document.

Tables and figures must be placed as close as possible to their first mention in the text. They may be placed on a page with no text above or below, or they may be placed directly into the text. If a table or a figure is alone on a page (with no narrative), it should be centered within the margins on the page. Tables may take up more than one page as long as they obey all rules about margins. Tables and figures referred to in the text may not be placed at the end of the chapter or at the end of the dissertation.

  • Given the standards of the discipline, dissertations in the Department of History of Art and Architecture and the Department of Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning often place illustrations at the end of the dissertation.

Figure and table numbering must be continuous throughout the dissertation or by chapter (e.g., 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.). Two figures or tables cannot be designated with the same number. If you have repeating images that you need to cite more than once, label them with their number and A, B, etc. 

Headings should be placed at the top of tables. While no specific rules for the format of table headings and figure captions are required, a consistent format must be used throughout the dissertation (contact your department for style manuals appropriate to the field).

Captions should appear at the bottom of any figures. If the figure takes up the entire page, the caption should be placed alone on the preceding page, centered vertically and horizontally within the margins.

Each page receives a separate page number. When a figure or table title is on a preceding page, the second and subsequent pages of the figure or table should say, for example, “Figure 5 (Continued).” In such an instance, the list of figures or tables will list the page number containing the title. The word “figure” should be written in full (not abbreviated), and the “F” should be capitalized (e.g., Figure 5). In instances where the caption continues on a second page, the “(Continued)” notation should appear on the second and any subsequent page. The figure/table and the caption are viewed as one entity and the numbering should show correlation between all pages. Each page must include a header.

Landscape orientation figures and tables must be positioned correctly and bound at the top so that the top of the figure or table will be at the left margin. Figure and table headings/captions are placed with the same orientation as the figure or table when on the same page. When on a separate page, headings/captions are always placed in portrait orientation, regardless of the orientation of the figure or table. Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page.

If a graphic artist does the figures, Harvard Griffin GSAS will accept lettering done by the artist only within the figure. Figures done with software are acceptable if the figures are clear and legible. Legends and titles done by the same process as the figures will be accepted if they too are clear, legible, and run at least 10 or 12 characters per inch. Otherwise, legends and captions should be printed with the same font used in the text.

Original illustrations, photographs, and fine arts prints may be scanned and included, centered between the margins on a page with no text above or below.

Use of Third-Party Content

In addition to the student's own writing, dissertations often contain third-party content or in-copyright content owned by parties other than you, the student who authored the dissertation. The Office for Scholarly Communication recommends consulting the information below about fair use, which allows individuals to use in-copyright content, on a limited basis and for specific purposes, without seeking permission from copyright holders.

Because your dissertation will be made available for online distribution through DASH , Harvard's open-access repository, it is important that any third-party content in it may be made available in this way.

Fair Use and Copyright 

What is fair use?

Fair use is a provision in copyright law that allows the use of a certain amount of copyrighted material without seeking permission. Fair use is format- and media-agnostic. This means fair use may apply to images (including photographs, illustrations, and paintings), quoting at length from literature, videos, and music regardless of the format. 

How do I determine whether my use of an image or other third-party content in my dissertation is fair use?  

There are four factors you will need to consider when making a fair use claim.

1) For what purpose is your work going to be used?

  • Nonprofit, educational, scholarly, or research use favors fair use. Commercial, non-educational uses, often do not favor fair use.
  • A transformative use (repurposing or recontextualizing the in-copyright material) favors fair use. Examining, analyzing, and explicating the material in a meaningful way, so as to enhance a reader's understanding, strengthens your fair use argument. In other words, can you make the point in the thesis without using, for instance, an in-copyright image? Is that image necessary to your dissertation? If not, perhaps, for copyright reasons, you should not include the image.  

2) What is the nature of the work to be used?

  • Published, fact-based content favors fair use and includes scholarly analysis in published academic venues. 
  • Creative works, including artistic images, are afforded more protection under copyright, and depending on your use in light of the other factors, may be less likely to favor fair use; however, this does not preclude considerations of fair use for creative content altogether.

3) How much of the work is going to be used?  

  • Small, or less significant, amounts favor fair use. A good rule of thumb is to use only as much of the in-copyright content as necessary to serve your purpose. Can you use a thumbnail rather than a full-resolution image? Can you use a black-and-white photo instead of color? Can you quote select passages instead of including several pages of the content? These simple changes bolster your fair use of the material.

4) What potential effect on the market for that work may your use have?

  • If there is a market for licensing this exact use or type of educational material, then this weighs against fair use. If however, there would likely be no effect on the potential commercial market, or if it is not possible to obtain permission to use the work, then this favors fair use. 

For further assistance with fair use, consult the Office for Scholarly Communication's guide, Fair Use: Made for the Harvard Community and the Office of the General Counsel's Copyright and Fair Use: A Guide for the Harvard Community .

What are my options if I don’t have a strong fair use claim? 

Consider the following options if you find you cannot reasonably make a fair use claim for the content you wish to incorporate:

  • Seek permission from the copyright holder. 
  • Use openly licensed content as an alternative to the original third-party content you intended to use. Openly-licensed content grants permission up-front for reuse of in-copyright content, provided your use meets the terms of the open license.
  • Use content in the public domain, as this content is not in-copyright and is therefore free of all copyright restrictions. Whereas third-party content is owned by parties other than you, no one owns content in the public domain; everyone, therefore, has the right to use it.

For use of images in your dissertation, please consult this guide to Finding Public Domain & Creative Commons Media , which is a great resource for finding images without copyright restrictions. 

Who can help me with questions about copyright and fair use?

Contact your Copyright First Responder . Please note, Copyright First Responders assist with questions concerning copyright and fair use, but do not assist with the process of obtaining permission from copyright holders.

Pages should be assigned a number except for the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate . Preliminary pages (abstract, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface) should use small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc.). All pages must contain text or images.  

Count the title page as page i and the copyright page as page ii, but do not print page numbers on either page .

For the body of text, use Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) starting with page 1 on the first page of text. Page numbers must be centered throughout the manuscript at the top or bottom. Every numbered page must be consecutively ordered, including tables, graphs, illustrations, and bibliography/index (if included); letter suffixes (such as 10a, 10b, etc.) are not allowed. It is customary not to have a page number on the page containing a chapter heading.

  • Check pagination carefully. Account for all pages.

A copy of the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate (DAC) should appear as the first page. This page should not be counted or numbered. The DAC will appear in the online version of the published dissertation. The author name and date on the DAC and title page should be the same. 

The dissertation begins with the title page; the title should be as concise as possible and should provide an accurate description of the dissertation. The author name and date on the DAC and title page should be the same. 

  • Do not print a page number on the title page. It is understood to be page  i  for counting purposes only.

A copyright notice should appear on a separate page immediately following the title page and include the copyright symbol ©, the year of first publication of the work, and the name of the author:

© [ year ] [ Author’s Name ] All rights reserved.

Alternatively, students may choose to license their work openly under a  Creative Commons  license. The author remains the copyright holder while at the same time granting up-front permission to others to read, share, and (depending on the license) adapt the work, so long as proper attribution is given. (By default, under copyright law, the author reserves all rights; under a Creative Commons license, the author reserves some rights.)

  • Do  not  print a page number on the copyright page. It is understood to be page  ii  for counting purposes only.

An abstract, numbered as page  iii , should immediately follow the copyright page and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. The abstract will appear in the online and bound versions of the dissertation and will be published by ProQuest. There is no maximum word count for the abstract. 

  • double-spaced
  • left-justified
  • indented on the first line of each paragraph
  • The author’s name, right justified
  • The words “Dissertation Advisor:” followed by the advisor’s name, left-justified (a maximum of two advisors is allowed)
  • Title of the dissertation, centered, several lines below author and advisor

Dissertations divided into sections must contain a table of contents that lists, at minimum, the major headings in the following order:

  • Front Matter
  • Body of Text
  • Back Matter

Front matter includes (if applicable):

  • acknowledgements of help or encouragement from individuals or institutions
  • a dedication
  • a list of illustrations or tables
  • a glossary of terms
  • one or more epigraphs.

Back matter includes (if applicable):

  • bibliography
  • supplemental materials, including figures and tables
  • an index (in rare instances).

Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the end of the dissertation in an appendix, not within or at the end of a chapter. If additional digital information (including audio, video, image, or datasets) will accompany the main body of the dissertation, it should be uploaded as a supplemental file through ProQuest ETD . Supplemental material will be available in DASH and ProQuest and preserved digitally in the Harvard University Archives.

As a matter of copyright, dissertations comprising the student's previously published works must be authorized for distribution from DASH. The guidelines in this section pertain to any previously published material that requires permission from publishers or other rightsholders before it may be distributed from DASH. Please note:

  • Authors whose publishing agreements grant the publisher exclusive rights to display, distribute, and create derivative works will need to seek the publisher's permission for nonexclusive use of the underlying works before the dissertation may be distributed from DASH.
  • Authors whose publishing agreements indicate the authors have retained the relevant nonexclusive rights to the original materials for display, distribution, and the creation of derivative works may distribute the dissertation as a whole from DASH without need for further permissions.

It is recommended that authors consult their publishing agreements directly to determine whether and to what extent they may have transferred exclusive rights under copyright. The Office for Scholarly Communication (OSC) is available to help the author determine whether she has retained the necessary rights or requires permission. Please note, however, the Office of Scholarly Communication is not able to assist with the permissions process itself.

  • Missing Dissertation Acceptance Certificate.  The first page of the PDF dissertation file should be a scanned copy of the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate (DAC). This page should not be counted or numbered as a part of the dissertation pagination.
  • Conflicts Between the DAC and the Title Page.  The DAC and the dissertation title page must match exactly, meaning that the author name and the title on the title page must match that on the DAC. If you use your full middle name or just an initial on one document, it must be the same on the other document.  
  • Abstract Formatting Errors. The advisor name should be left-justified, and the author's name should be right-justified. Up to two advisor names are allowed. The Abstract should be double spaced and include the page title “Abstract,” as well as the page number “iii.” There is no maximum word count for the abstract. 
  •  The front matter should be numbered using Roman numerals (iii, iv, v, …). The title page and the copyright page should be counted but not numbered. The first printed page number should appear on the Abstract page (iii). 
  • The body of the dissertation should be numbered using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, …). The first page of the body of the text should begin with page 1. Pagination may not continue from the front matter. 
  • All page numbers should be centered either at the top or the bottom of the page.
  • Figures and tables Figures and tables must be placed within the text, as close to their first mention as possible. Figures and tables that span more than one page must be labeled on each page. Any second and subsequent page of the figure/table must include the “(Continued)” notation. This applies to figure captions as well as images. Each page of a figure/table must be accounted for and appropriately labeled. All figures/tables must have a unique number. They may not repeat within the dissertation.
  • Any figures/tables placed in a horizontal orientation must be placed with the top of the figure/ table on the left-hand side. The top of the figure/table should be aligned with the spine of the dissertation when it is bound. 
  • Page numbers must be placed in the same location on all pages of the dissertation, centered, at the bottom or top of the page. Page numbers may not appear under the table/ figure.
  • Supplemental Figures and Tables. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the back of the dissertation in an appendix. They should not be placed at the back of the chapter. 
  • Permission Letters Copyright. permission letters must be uploaded as a supplemental file, titled ‘do_not_publish_permission_letters,” within the dissertation submission tool.
  •  DAC Attachment. The signed Dissertation Acceptance Certificate must additionally be uploaded as a document in the "Administrative Documents" section when submitting in Proquest ETD . Dissertation submission is not complete until all documents have been received and accepted.
  • Overall Formatting. The entire document should be checked after all revisions, and before submitting online, to spot any inconsistencies or PDF conversion glitches.
  • You can view dissertations successfully published from your department in DASH . This is a great place to check for specific formatting and area-specific conventions.
  • Contact the  Office of Student Affairs  with further questions.


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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, how to format a college essay: 15 expert tips.

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College Essays


When you're applying to college, even small decisions can feel high-stakes. This is especially true for the college essay, which often feels like the most personal part of the application. You may agonize over your college application essay format: the font, the margins, even the file format. Or maybe you're agonizing over how to organize your thoughts overall. Should you use a narrative structure? Five paragraphs?

In this comprehensive guide, we'll go over the ins and outs of how to format a college essay on both the micro and macro levels. We'll discuss minor formatting issues like headings and fonts, then discuss broad formatting concerns like whether or not to use a five-paragraph essay, and if you should use a college essay template.

How to Format a College Essay: Font, Margins, Etc.

Some of your formatting concerns will depend on whether you will be cutting and pasting your essay into a text box on an online application form or attaching a formatted document. If you aren't sure which you'll need to do, check the application instructions. Note that the Common Application does currently require you to copy and paste your essay into a text box.

Most schools also allow you to send in a paper application, which theoretically gives you increased control over your essay formatting. However, I generally don't advise sending in a paper application (unless you have no other option) for a couple of reasons:

Most schools state that they prefer to receive online applications. While it typically won't affect your chances of admission, it is wise to comply with institutional preferences in the college application process where possible. It tends to make the whole process go much more smoothly.

Paper applications can get lost in the mail. Certainly there can also be problems with online applications, but you'll be aware of the problem much sooner than if your paper application gets diverted somehow and then mailed back to you. By contrast, online applications let you be confident that your materials were received.

Regardless of how you will end up submitting your essay, you should draft it in a word processor. This will help you keep track of word count, let you use spell check, and so on.

Next, I'll go over some of the concerns you might have about the correct college essay application format, whether you're copying and pasting into a text box or attaching a document, plus a few tips that apply either way.


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Formatting Guidelines That Apply No Matter How You End Up Submitting the Essay:

Unless it's specifically requested, you don't need a title. It will just eat into your word count.

Avoid cutesy, overly colloquial formatting choices like ALL CAPS or ~unnecessary symbols~ or, heaven forbid, emoji and #hashtags. Your college essay should be professional, and anything too cutesy or casual will come off as immature.


Mmm, delicious essay...I mean sandwich.

Why College Essay Templates Are a Bad Idea

You might see college essay templates online that offer guidelines on how to structure your essay and what to say in each paragraph. I strongly advise against using a template. It will make your essay sound canned and bland—two of the worst things a college essay can be. It's much better to think about what you want to say, and then talk through how to best structure it with someone else and/or make your own practice outlines before you sit down to write.

You can also find tons of successful sample essays online. Looking at these to get an idea of different styles and topics is fine, but again, I don't advise closely patterning your essay after a sample essay. You will do the best if your essay really reflects your own original voice and the experiences that are most meaningful to you.

College Application Essay Format: Key Takeaways

There are two levels of formatting you might be worried about: the micro (fonts, headings, margins, etc) and the macro (the overall structure of your essay).

Tips for the micro level of your college application essay format:

  • Always draft your essay in a word processing software, even if you'll be copy-and-pasting it over into a text box.
  • If you are copy-and-pasting it into a text box, make sure your formatting transfers properly, your paragraphs are clearly delineated, and your essay isn't cut off.
  • If you are attaching a document, make sure your font is easily readable, your margins are standard 1-inch, your essay is 1.5 or double-spaced, and your file format is compatible with the application specs.
  • There's no need for a title unless otherwise specified—it will just eat into your word count.

Tips for the macro level of your college application essay format :

  • There is no super-secret college essay format that will guarantee success.
  • In terms of structure, it's most important that you have an introduction that makes it clear where you're going and a conclusion that wraps up with a main point. For the middle of your essay, you have lots of freedom, just so long as it flows logically!
  • I advise against using an essay template, as it will make your essay sound stilted and unoriginal.


Plus, if you use a college essay template, how will you get rid of these medieval weirdos?

What's Next?

Still feeling lost? Check out our total guide to the personal statement , or see our step-by-step guide to writing the perfect essay .

If you're not sure where to start, consider these tips for attention-grabbing first sentences to college essays!

And be sure to avoid these 10 college essay mistakes .

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Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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Style guidelines & best practices.

The following fonts are designated for use in Harvard signatures and signature extensions. Anziano Pro is the designated serif font and Benton Sans is the designated sans-serif font.   

Signature Fonts

Anziano pro.

Anziano Pro is a transitional style font that features a flat apex on its letters “A” and “V” among others, furthering its resemblance to the engraved, Roman-style it was based on. Anziano Pro bears some resemblance to the font Albertus but has a softer curve to its serifs. Anziano Pro features a short foot on its serifs–more so than other serif fonts in this classification. Anziano Pro is derived from a Roman engraved style of font and thus uses less contrast in its stroke weights. Each of the three weights available for Anziano Pro are represented below.

Anziano Pro should only be used in files with the Harvard wordmark. Anziano should not be used for headers or for body text. Please use Caslon for body text and for headers in a serif font.


Benton Sans and Benton Sans Condensed

Benton Sans should be used as the supporting typeface of Anziano Pro when tertiary information is used. It should NOT be used as the primary font. Each of the weights available for Benton Sans and Benton Sans condensed are represented below.

In addition to its use in signatures, Benton Sans can be used as headers in web and print design.


Body text and header Fonts

Web fonts - Serif and San Serif

Georgia, a serif font, and Arial, a sans serif, are recommended for use on the web. 

Print fonts - Serif and Sans Serif

Caslon is recommended for body text and for headers. Benton Sans is recommended for body text and headers.

Complementary Font Selection

Font selection is a key component in the creation of successful communications. Typography should work in concert with the overall design, photography, and editorial writing to help describe and define the Harvard graphic identity. Since our intention is to depict Harvard as a unified, global institution representing a tradition of academic excellence, choosing the right style of type is critical.

In general, the fonts listed on this site are recommended for Harvard communications materials. When selection of those fonts is not possible, we recommend that you:

  • Use clean and classic faces, with a preference for sans-serif fonts
  • Don’t use fonts that are overly stylized
  • Don’t use Harvard crimson for text color
  • Don’t use type with drop shadows
  • Don’t stretch type; always scale proportionally
  • Don’t outline type
  • Avoid condensing, excessive tracking, or horizontal scaling
  • Use italicized styles sparingly

Font Purchasing

Our fonts are licensed only for installation on your local system at Harvard they cannot be shared outside of the university or transferred to a colleague, and are restricted to print media or digital media such as PDF’s. If you want to embed a font in your website, you’ll need an extended license. Please use the following contacts to purchase additional font licenses for Anziano Pro and Benton Sans.

Anziano Pro from MyFonts 


Benton Sans from the TypeNetwork via the Font Bureau



You cannot share fonts with users that do not have a license. You cannot embed a non-licensed font into a Website or Application. One license is granted per computer.

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  • Signature Extensions
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  • Print Materials
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  • Identity Standards Manual

Obtaining the Harvard Fonts

Graphical website elements such as banners, footers, or charts should be created in Anziano Pro and Benton Sans, which are the fonts used within the Harvard University signature system. However, website body copy should utilize web safe fonts such as Arial or Georgia .

For more information about obtaining the Harvard fonts, please contact  [email protected]

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Harvard Style Citation and Referencing: a Detailed Guide from Experts

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Defining What is Harvard Citation Style and Referencing

From the first time we put our pen on paper, we're taught how important it is to give credit where it's needed. Whether a research paper outline or a doctoral dissertation, proper references, and citations are the foundation of academic work in any field. And when it's time to cite sources, there's one style that stands out: Harvard style. In this article, we will explore the nuances of Harvard style citations and help you navigate the complexity of this important academic tool.

Developed by the Harvard Graduate School for Education, the Harvard style citation is a Ferrari of citations designed for the ultimate advantage of your research. Harvard Style, like a sports car, is streamlined, precise, and designed for speed. From its inception at Harvard at the beginning 20th century, this style has become a standard of academic reference and has been praised for its clarity and sophistication.

Intended to be simple and accessible to all, the Harvard style quickly became popular in the mid-20s and is based upon using the date-author citation in the document text, together with the detailed list of references at the document's end. Nowadays that it has gained universal acknowledgment, Harvard referencing is a critical instrument for scientists in multiple disciplines, owing to its simple yet tasteful design that has endured for many years.

Importance of Using Harvard Style Citation Properly

Using Harvard style citations and references correctly is like putting a hidden weapon in the arsenal of your academics. It'll be more than just following rules; it'll be about proving your credibility and that your work is grounded in solid evidence and reliable sources. Therefore, proper citations and references are crucial for a wide range of purposes:

  • First, by acknowledging your sources, you avoid plagiarism and demonstrate that you've taken the necessary precautions and are not attempting to pass on someone else's work as yours.
  • Secondly, Harvard citation style and references allow readers to track their sources and verify their assertions. This is especially relevant in fields in which precision and accuracy are important, e.g., in the fields of science and technology.
  • Thirdly, using Harvard style citations and references shows you belong to a larger academic community and know their standards and norms. By conforming to the customary citation and referencing guidelines, you can communicate that you are a reliable and trustworthy scholar who values their work.

Before finding out more of the important details about the Harvard referencing style, you might want to delegate your ' Do My Math Homework ' request to our experts!

Key Features of Harvard Style Citation and Referencing

Below are a few of the principal characteristics of Harvard Style that make it such a popular choice among scholars:

key feaures

In-text Citation: For in-text citations, the Harvard citation style adopts a straightforward author-date structure, implying that, after a direct quotation or paraphrase, you should provide the author's last name and the date of publication in parenthesis. This way, your readers can quickly identify your sources of information without looking for a specific reference list.

Example 1: There is considerable debate within the literature on sustainable development about the relationship between sustainable development and economic growth (Mitlin, 1992)

Reference List: A full reference list with complete bibliographic details for each work you referenced in your text is included at the conclusion of your paper. Reference lists in Harvard Style must follow a certain structure containing the author's name, the work's title, the year of publication, and other details.

Example: Mitlin, D., 1992. Sustainable development: A guide to literature. Environment and urbanization , 4 (1), pp.111-124.

Consistency : Consistency is one of the hallmarks of Harvard Style, which means you should adhere to the same structure for all citations and references and include any relevant information.

Flexibility : Books, journal articles, web pages, and other sources can all be formatted in Harvard Style. Depending on the kind of source, it also allows differences in the citation style.

How to Use Harvard Style Citation and Referencing

As was already established, references and citations in the Harvard style are commonly accepted. Therefore, you should take the required actions to ensure accurate citation. Let's adhere to these basic guidelines to give credit where credit is due:

how to use

Step 1: Understand the Basics

The Harvard style requires a list of references at the end of the document that contains all the information about the sources and a text citation that includes the author's name and the year of publication. Before you begin, be sure you understand these fundamental principles.

Step 2: Collect Your Sources

Before you begin, gather all the resources you'll need for the paper, such as books and websites. Make sure to write down all the pertinent details for each source, such as the author's name and title, the publication date, and the publisher.

Step 3: Create In-Text Citations

In-text references must be used when using someone else's words or ideas in your writing. Usually, the cited passage or paraphrase is followed by a Harvard style in text citation. As long as it is obvious to whom it refers, it comes at the conclusion of the pertinent phrase. For example, (Neal, 2022).

Step 4: Create a Reference List

Make a list of references towards the conclusion where you can discover all the information about each source. The author's last name and first initial appear at the top of the reference entry. Only the first word of the title and any proper nouns are capitalized. Similar to in-text citations, only the first author should be listed when there are four or more; beyond that, add 'et al.' to the end of the list.

Step 5: Check Your Formatting

Make sure your references are properly formatted in accordance with Harvard Style Guidelines. This may include:

  • Use a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial in size 12.
  • Set margins to 1 inch on all sides.
  • Use double spacing throughout the document, including the reference list.
  • Place a header on each page, which should include the title of your paper and the page number, located in the top right-hand corner.
  • Make sure to include a title page with your paper title, your name, the name of your institution, and the date of submission. Or you can always find out more on how to title an essay from our expert writers!
  • Use headings as a way to organize and simplify your paper with bold or italic letters.
  • Include in-text citations
  • Include a reference list at the end of your paper.

By selecting the button below, you may get a template from our research paper writing services that includes a sample of an essay cover page, headers, subheadings, and a reference list.

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Harvard Style Citation for Books

Here you can check out Harvard citation style example for books in different scenarios:

  • Book with one author: Smith, J. (2010). The Power of Habit. Random House.
  • Book with two authors: Brown, M., & Jones, K. (2015). A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books.
  • Book with three authors: Davis, M., Johnson, L., & Clark, S. (2012). The Art of Public Speaking. McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Book with four or more authors: Thompson, R. et al. (2018). Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology. Pearson.
  • Chapter in an edited book: Jones, R. (2017). The impact of social media on modern marketing. In T. Brown (Ed.), Advances in Marketing Research (pp. 55-72). Wiley.
  • Book with no author: Merriam-Webster. (2019). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.
  • E-book: Gladwell, M. (2011). Outliers: The Story of Success. Little, Brown and Company. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Outliers-Story-Success-Malcolm-Gladwell-ebook/dp/B001ANYDAO

Harvard Style Citation for Periodicals

  • Journal article: Miller, J. (2019). The effects of social media on mental health. Journal of Social Psychology, 159(3), 243-250. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2018.1444823
  • Conference proceedings: Smith, L., & Johnson, R. (2018). The future of renewable energy. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Energy and Environment (pp. 72-83). Springer.
  • Newspaper article: Jones, K. (2021, May 1). The local restaurant receives national recognition. The New York Times, p. B3.
  • Online newspaper: Brown, S. (2021, April 28). The pandemic spurs a rise in virtual mental health care. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/virtual-mental-health-care-pandemic/2021/04/28/7d6628d4-a6c4-11eb-a8a7-5f45ddcdf364_story.html

Harvard Style Citation for Other Sources

Below you'll find referencing examples for Harvard style blog citation, research papers, movies, and more!

  • Web page: National Institute of Mental Health. (2021). Anxiety disorders. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
  • Blog article: Johnson, L. (2021, April 30). The benefits of meditation for stress relief. Mindful Living Blog. https://www.mindfullivingblog.com/the-benefits-of-meditation-for-stress-relief/
  • Dissertation or thesis (printed version): Smith, J. (2019). The impact of social media on consumer behavior (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles.
  • Dissertation or thesis (retrieved from the web): Jones, K. (2020). The role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Accession No. 101010101)
  • Motion picture (movie): Nolan, C. (Director). (2010). Inception [Motion picture]. Warner Bros.
  • Television program: Rhimes, S. (Producer). (2014). How to Get Away with Murder [Television series]. ABC Studios.
  • Radio broadcast: Smith, L. (Host). (2021, May 3). Understanding the science behind vaccine hesitancy. In Science Today. National Public Radio.

Meanwhile, if you're not really feeling like dealing with the nitty-gritty of referencing your character analysis essay using Harvard style, no sweat! We've got your back on that one too.

Common Errors and Pitfalls in Using Harvard Style

While the Harvard Style citation may seem straightforward, there are several common errors and pitfalls that students and researchers should be aware of to ensure they are using the style correctly.

One common error is forgetting to include page numbers when referencing a source. Harvard style requires that page numbers be included when citing a direct quote or paraphrasing from a source. Failing to include page numbers can make it difficult for readers to locate the information being cited and can result in lost points on an assignment or paper.

Another pitfall is the improper formatting of references. Harvard style requires specific formatting for different types of sources, such as italicizing book titles and using quotation marks for article titles. Failure to follow these guidelines can result in a loss of points and confusion for readers.

Another common mistake is inconsistency in formatting and citation styles. It is important to use the same style throughout a document, including in-text citations and the reference list. Mixing different styles can make the document difficult to read and may result in a lower grade. And, if this problem sounds familiar and you wish 'if only somebody could rewrite my essay ,' get our essay writing help in a flash!

Finally, another pitfall to avoid is relying too heavily on online Harvard referencing generator tools. They can be useful for creating references, although they are not always reliable and might not adhere to the exact rules of Harvard style. To guarantee that the references produced by these tools are accurate and in the right format, it is crucial to carefully review and adjust them.

Key Takeaways

In conclusion, knowing what is Harvard citation style and how to properly cite sources using this style is an essential ability for any student or researcher writing academically. The main lesson to be learned is that accurate citation not only shows academic honesty but also strengthens the authority of your work and backs up your claims. You may make sure that your writing is correctly referenced, structured, and accepted in the academic world by including these important lessons in it.

And if you feel like you need extra help, our expert paper writing services will provide you with a high-quality Harvard style citation example paper that demonstrates correct citation and formatting, giving you the knowledge and confidence to cite sources effectively in your own work!

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A Complete Essay Format Guide

25 June, 2020

11 minutes read

Author:  Tomas White

So, you’ve crafted your essay. Congratulations! The hard part is truly over. Now comes the time to choose the proper essay format. It is no longer about your content, but rather about the way you arrange it. You do it to meet your school’s requirements.

Essay Format Guide

In this guide, we will focus on common formatting styles:

  • APA essay format;
  • MLA essay format;
  • Harvard format essay, and
  • Chicago essay format.

So, without further ado, let’s get right to business.

What is an Essay Format?

An essay format is the structure and the general guidelines of an essay that keep its content organized and well-structured.

The primary purpose of the college essay format is to help the readers follow main ideas behind the content without stumbling upon its structure. It is not a daunting task to deal with. It is a great way to organize your thoughts for the target audience to understand what you were trying to say in the first place.

Moreover, at least 10% of your grade depends on the proper essay format . Thus, it is in your best interests to stick to the guidelines and use correct essay format.

And it is also true in case you want to get into a college of your dream. Half of the success is in proper college application essay format. So, don’t miss your chance!

Educational institutions require different essay formats. Therefore, to get the highest grades, one must know the difference between types of essay formats and follow the guidelines when working on a piece.

In just a bit, you will find out the difference between the APA, Chicago, Harvard, and MLA format for essays.

Types of Essay Formats

Here are four most common types of essay formats, as we have mentioned above.

They all have their specifics, and each school has its own requirements. However, MLA remains the top essay format. We don’t say that it’s the best essay writing format. However, it is the most popular one.

And unless you have clear instructions on what essay format to use in your paper, you’d rather opt for an MLA format essay.

The essay format style has nothing to do with the complexity of your paper. The argumentative essay format at your school depends on the preferences of your tutors, not on the academic level of the paper. So, don’t fall victim to this silly idea.

How to Format a College Essay

To get the highest grade, a student has to know how to format an essay in accordance with these requirements. Here’s an example of how essay formats might differ.

The Difference Between MLA and APA Essay Formats

We’ll give more details on each of these essay formats later in the guide, but for now, let’s see what differences one should know about when it comes to these two formats.

  • The list of works used in the paper is called differently in APA and MLA formats (“ References ” and “ Works cited ” respectively). And even though both of them list works used in the essay alphabetically, with MLA, the name of the author is written in full, while with the APA, only the first letter of his name is mentioned following the last name.
  • In general, APA essay format is mostly used in papers on social studies , while the MLA essay format is typically the top choice for other subjects .
  • Finally, in case you are adding citations inside the text and mention the author within the quote, MLA essay format requires you to add a number of the page you found the quote on at the end of the sentence while in case of the APA essay format you need to mention the year . Here is an APA format essay example with the quote: “Bill Gates (1985) stated that young people would have no problem finding a good job as long as they view computers as tools.”

These might seem like insignificant differences. Yet, when it comes to grading your paper, the tutor will look closely at each of these essay format requirements to see how well you did your homework.

Now that you understand the differences between MLA and APA essay formats let’s go into specifics of each one of them.

How to Write an Essay in MLA Format

The basic guidelines for the MLA essay format are the following:

  • Font : Times New Roman
  • Size of the font : 12pt
  • Margins : 1-inch margin on all the sides of the pape
  • Header : Each page should have a header that will contain the author’s last name and a page number
  • Alignment : To the left-hand side
  • Spacing : Double
  • Indentation : Yes, at the beginning of each paragraph
  • Title : The title comes on the first page at the same font size as the rest of the text, only aligned to the center of the page.
  • Footnotes : Not required

When explaining to you how to start an essay in MLA format, we have to mention that every piece begins with a heading. Place it in the upper right corner, and make sure to include the following facts into it:

  • Your first and last name;
  • Your tutor’s (or professor’s) name;
  • The course you’re taking;

Here is a good MLA essay format example of the headline:

“Mark Snow Jonathan Brown Psychology September 24, 2018.”

If you need more information on the MLA essay format , check our recent guide on this topic.

How to Write an Essay in APA Format

This essay format is also quite common. Its main requirements include but are not limited to:

  • Margins : 1-inch margin on all the sides of the paper
  • Header : Each page should have a header that will contain the title of the paper and a page number. Note that in this essay format the title cannot exceed 50 characters.
  • Title : The title comes on the first page at the same font size as the rest of the text. With it, according to this essay format guidelines, a student must mention his full name and the educational establishment he is currently studying at.

In this case, the APA essay format example of the cover page will look like this:

“Foreign Language Education: How to Teach English to Adults” Mark Snow Yale University”

To find more details on this essay format, please read our complete guide to APA essay format .

Chicago Style Essay Format

Requirements for this essay format include but are not limited to:

  • Font : Times New Roman (unless your tutor specified a different one)
  • Font size : 12pt
  • Margins : 1-inch margins on sides, top, and bottom;
  • Header : Each page should have a page number at the top right corner and your last name. Don’t put a number on the title page.
  • Indentation : 1/2″ indent for paragraph beginnings
  • Footnotes : Required

A title page in case of this essay format starts with a title of your paper placed ¼ page down from the top. Then ½ page down from top comes your full name followed by the course number, the name of the professor and due date at the bottom of the page. You should write each of these points in separate lines with double spacing.

Take a look at this essay format example of a cover page if you need brighter examples to clarify the subject.

Harvard Format

Last but not least is the Harvard essay format . Here are the requirements for this essay writing format:

  • Font : Times New Roman or Arial
  • Header : Each page should have a short version of the paper’s title and a page number in the top right corner with exactly five spaces in between them.
  • Alignment : To the left-hand side.

The cover page in the Harvard essay format is very specific.

The title of your essay should be capitalized and written ½ page down. Then you have to go three lines down to place the author of the work (no capitalization here). From there, you have to go four more lines down to mention the class you are taking first and the tutor’s full name in the next line. Finally, this essay format requires you to specify the name of the educational establishment, its location, and the due date in the following lines.

It doesn’t matter what paper you are writing using this essay format. The structure stays the same.

Here is an example of the compare and contrast essay format. Feast your eyes on it:

Essay Outline Format

Apart from sticking to the requirements of these essay formats, students should also pay close attention to following the essay writing guidelines when it comes to its outline.

Thus, the scholarship essay format, as well as the persuasive essay format, are only considered correct if the text contains all the essential components.

Any essay should have the following structure.

Related Posts: Essay outline | Research Paper outline

Over to You

These are four common essay formats every student should know. Use this guide as a cheat sheet whenever needed.

And in case you don’t want to deal with essay formats, you can always trust us with this important task. Our Online Essay Writer service is your best choice when it comes to excellent essay writing services and perfect essay format.

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harvard essay format font

Essay Format: Harvard Style

By Published Writing Guides

Whether you love essays or not, you can’t just do without them in college. And using a standard essay format like Harvard style is a good way to make your work look professional and eventually earn yourself more marks. The Harvard referencing style is famously used in fields such as Humanities, Behavioral Sciences, and Philosophy.

How do I write an essay at Harvard myself?

If this is your first time writing an essay like this, make sure you have enough time to format it. Start asap and allow as much time as you can to customize your item to meet your specific needs. This particular style requires a great structure.

How do I write an essay at Harvard without the help of someone? Starting the essay should be fun. Start your paper with a quote to get the attention of your readers. Introduce your topic and share your thesis statement with the readers.

Be sure to talk about the topic of the essay in the first sentence of the essay body. Provide facts to support the topic. Use facts, quotes, and analysis to prove that you have researched the subject thoroughly. Present new ideas with subheadings. This will help readers to separate each idea and have a clear understanding of them.

In the Conclusion, which is the last part of the essay. Summarize each ideal and analyze it. Write your thesis again. The main idea of ​​the paper, all the facts and analysis should lead to a strong message. This should make sense and make readers think about your essay.

The word limit for a Harvard essay should not be less than 500 words. However, the limit must not go beyond 600 words. Therefore, the text of your essay must contain at least 500 words, except the title page. In addition, the length of a Harvard essay does not include citations in the text and in the bibliography.

What is the Harvard formatting style?

The Harvard style is one of the formatting styles most commonly used in academic work, along with APA, MLA, and Chicago. The general format of the essay, including the size of the margins, the selected font, etc. is determined by the Harvard format. There are also guidelines for citing sources – in the text and a reference list at the end of the essay.

What kind of format is a Harvard essay?

The format of the academic paper at Harvard is a very specific style. It is similar to the APA style; however, the first has two main differences. Harvard format does not have a manual or book to be followed.

The elements that connect both Harvard and APA together are that the two formats use the same citation format: author’s name and date. These formats have citations and bibliography at the end, in alphabetical order. Therefore, if you have already written APA essays, adopting the Harvard format will be much easier.

Ensure you follow the writing guidelines for Harvard essay format on this page. Work with the guide in order to format your essay and give it a professional look. The tips and various examples will inspire you to create an excellent outline, format the essay, and correctly cite it.

Some of the things needed to write with a Harvard format

Writing a professional essay needs you to have some skillsets, and this includes technical and qualitative expertise, in-depth knowledge of the subject, and other aspects as well. One of the crucial skills is the ability to present information in a format that reflects your ideas and does not interfere with the studies and works cited in the text.

The academic writing used in different institutions has different formats and standards to guide and educate students and professionals about the proper and detailed organization and reference of sources. One of the oldest and most famous styles is the Harvard reference and formatting.

Why is referencing important?

Reference is crucial to conduct research successfully, and it is crucial for your readers to see how you did your research. If you know why you need to make references, you will understand why it is important to know how to create the reference.

The major reason why creating reference is important to you and your colleagues are that plagiarism is a very serious and real offense, and ensuring that you acknowledge the research of another person and ideas reduces your chances of being accused of this. No matter how tempting it is to try to adopt someone else’s work as yours, do not try it! If you are interested in their ideas or you have a thing to say about them, then cite their name with an exact reference.

Another reason to include references in your essay is that many people (probably like you) have worked hard to form ideas and opinions, and it will only be good to accords the credit and recognition they deserve. The reference allows the reader to track and locate the original source if desired. You are judged or marked by what you know; you have to show how you know that information, referring to the person or people who originally owns the idea.

In addition, your lecturers are eager to see a good list of references. Convince them of the quality of the information you are using and your references, and you will get even better grades.

Paper Formatting Guidelines

General rules.

  • 1-inch margins on each side.
  • Roman Times or New Arial 12 pt. Fonts are mostly recommended.
  • Double line spacing throughout the essay.
  • The text is aligned to the left.
  • The first line of each paragraph is indented by 0.5.
  • Title in the middle of the first page before the text.
  • Headers and page numbers
  • The essay can include subheadings (breaking it into different sections), a title page, an outline, and the reference list.

Harvard Format Cover Page

  • The Harvard-based format is unique and organized. A very particular title page is required with the instructions that are listed below:
  • The title of the essay is placed in the center of the page and in capital letters.
  • After the title, three lines below, write the author’s name in lower case.
  • Move four lines down and enter the class name.
  • Move down one line and enter the professor’s name.
  • The next line contains the name of the school.
  • Then go to the next one and write down the city and local state, and the date should be on the bottom line.
  • The Harvard essay format cover page offers all the information you need to know about the author of the essay.

Title, Headers, and Page numbers

Position the title before the text of your essay and align it to the center. Capitalize all the major keywords, for instance: How to write an essay. Articles, short conjunctions, and prepositions are not written in the upper case. Do not indent, italicize, highlight, or bold your title.

Include a page number in the title of your essay in the upper right corner of a page. Put your last name in the header before the page number.


Divide your essay subheadings into sections. For instance, level 1 titles divide the entire essay into parts. Level 2 headings will divide these sections into subsections.

Headings at Level 1 are similar to the essay title. In other words, they are positioned at the center, in capital letters, without bold, without emphasis, without italics, and without indent. After the heading, start typing the new line text as usual; indent the first line of the text to 0.5.

Headings at Level 2 are also in upper cases. But they are aligned to the left (aligned to the left edge of the paper). They are also in italics. After this subheading, start typing the new subsection on another line as usual.

Paragraphs in a Harvard Format Essay

The items in the Harvard essay format are very structured. The first part of the article should be engaging and fun. The article can begin with a fun quote or with interesting facts and information that give an insight into the essay in question.

The introduction should lead to an excellent thesis statement. The thesis statement refers to the key idea of ​​the sentence, and a summary of what the body of the essay implies.

The first sentence of the body part should make the reader understand. The topic sentence would be followed by a fact that is relevant to it. The details in the supporting statements may contain facts, quotations, or analysis. The paragraph then concludes with a sentence that summarizes what the paragraph is about and leads into the next section smoothly. Subheadings can also be used to introduce new subtopics and are italicized.

The transition between the Paragraphs

When writing an essay using the Harvard format, it should show the transition from one paragraph to another, and these paragraphs must have a connection.

The subject should gradually grow from one point to another. A paragraph in Harvard format is available in three parts:

  • The topic sentences
  • Supporting facts
  • Closing sentence form

Completing an essay in Harvard format is crucial and must be written with high precise understanding and expertise. The first sentence of the conclusion is used to emphasize the thesis statement and to remind the reader what the essay represented, demonstrated, or theorized. After the first sentence, provides short information about the key points discussed in the essay to encourage remembering the most important points discussed. That is, it is basically a summary of the key points of the essay. The essay should end with a strong and powerful message that will make the reader think for a few minutes or hours after finishing the essay.

What comes after the conclusion is the reference page. The reference page is made up of the list of references and written on the page known as ‘Reference.’

Referencing in Harvard format has a general referencing style which is as follows:

  • The last name of the author of the book, First initial.
  • Publication year
  • The title of the book in the upper case
  • City of Publication: Publisher
  • You will find the complete guideline for referencing in Harvard below.

Harvard Style Reference List

Your Harvard reference list should be titled “Reference List.” Both words must be capitalized and centralized, similar to the level 1 subheadings. The list must include a bibliographic entry for each source mentioned in the essay. Instead, all sources cited in the essay should have a reference list entry that corresponds to it.

You can know more about how you can format the entries for your reference below or you can just inquire with an expert to help you out:

Formatting Harvard In-Text Citations

General rules.

Cite all your sources

When using information from any source in your essay, you must provide a Harvard style in-text citation to show where that information came from. Otherwise, your essay will be regarded as being plagiarized.

The general appearance of in-text citations

In Harvard style, the quotation is in brackets, consisting of the author’s name and year of publication.

They look like this: (John & Peter, 2020). You may also include the page number, like so: (John & Peter 2020, p. 30).

Direct quotes

For Harvard references, if you provide the words exactly from a particular source, you must include that quote using quotation marks and write the page number in the in-text citation. If you use some from a website, it must include the paragraph number from which the words were taken, as follows: (John & Peter 2020, par. 4). Just count the paragraph on the webpage you are referring to.

Mentioning authors in the text

If you mention the names of the authors in the text, do not include the brackets. Also, use the word “and” rather than using the (&) sign. For instance, you could write: In their book, John and Peter (2020, p. 14) argue that jumping out of a skyscraper can be bad for your health.

Citing an author discussed in a different source

If you are making reference to an author discussed in a secondary source, you must indicate the name of the original author; however, state that this author is “mentioned” in the source you are using. For instance, if Kraut talks about Plato, you can say:

Plato believed that the soul is independent of the body in which it lives (quoted in Kraut 2017).

Note: in this case, you will need to provide a bibliographic entry for Kraut and not for Plato in the reference list.

Several sources in one citation

If you want to cite several sources in a set of parentheses, you must list them in the same order as they are on your reference list and use a semicolon to separate them as follows: (John 2017; Peter 2016).

Different Types of In-Text Citations + Examples

For Harvard references, in-text citations in a text differ depending on the number of authors that you have in your source. We provide two reference examples for each case: in one case, the source is not mentioned in the text, and in the other, yes.

Citation for an Author

It is good to clean your teeth early in the morning (Jason 2014). Jason (2014) said it’s good to clean your teeth every morning.

Citation if the Authors are up to two

Some students may actually enjoy reading at midnight (Sarah & Anne, 2017). According to Sarah and Anne (2017), some students may actually enjoy reading at midnight.

Three Authors

Pets and kids can play together without any problem (John, Sarah & Anna 2017). According to John, Sarah, and Anna (2017), pets and kids can play together without any problem.

Four or More Authors

Playing outside in the harsh weather is not good for toddlers (Annabelle et al. 2018). Annabelle et al. (2018) state playing outside in the harsh weather is not good for toddlers.

Citation from an edited Source

Avoiding smoking is lowers your risk of cancer (eds Andres waters et al. 2018). According to the book edited by Andres waters et al. (2018), Avoiding smoking is lowers your risk of cancer.

When there are no Authors

If the authors of the source are not cited, include the title of that source in your in-text citation. Note that in the Harvard reference system, the title is written in italics for books, brochures, magazines, and reports. However, the title is enclosed in single quotation marks when it is necessary to cite the name of a website, article, newspaper, or chapter. Just capitalize the first word of the title.

Books, periodicals, brochures, and reports

Some people might think exercising is unnecessary (The psychology of exercise: an introduction 2018). According to the psychology of exercise: an introduction (2018), Some people might think exercising is unnecessary.

For newspapers, articles, chapter titles, and Web pages

It is advisable to act wisely in hard times (‘Ten best tips to become wise’ 2019). The article ‘Ten best tips to become wise’ (2019) helpfully recommends acting wisely in hard times.

In addition, you can write the title briefly if it is too extended. For example, in the above-mentioned example, you can write the psychology of exercise instead of the psychology of pressure: an introduction (2010).

If the date is not added in the source, use the abbreviation “n.d.”- no date instead. The usual rules also apply. It is stated that football is exciting (‘The coach’s diary’ n.d.) It might not catch someone as a surprise that eating is better than staying hungry, according to Ethan (n.d.).

Formatting the Reference List

Alphabetical order: Your list of references should be sorted alphabetically by the first letter of the first word of every entry in the reference (generally the surname of the first author). However, if the reference entry begins with “a,” “an,” or “the,” ignore them and put them in alphabetical order based on the first letter of the next word.

For example, if you are citing a source that has no author on the list and the entry begins with its title, such as “The importance of performing excellently,” you should sort it alphabetically by word “importance.”

Positioning the entries: In the Harvard reference system, all bibliographic entries must start on a new line. These are flushed to the left and are not indented (making your reference list look like a complete mess).

Maintain double-spacing throughout your reference list.

Capitalization: In book titles, chapters of the book, and web articles, only put the first letter in upper case. However, when citing scientific journals or newspapers, put all keywords in your titles in upper case (i.e., no prepositions, articles, conjunctions, etc.).

See Harvard-specific reference examples below.

Referring to several authors: Although Harvard’s style of quoting the text requires “et al.” when there are four or more authors in a source, you must list all authors in a bibliographic entry. It is essential that you list all of them even if they are up to 27.

A lot of works by the same author: In the list of references in the Harvard style, the sources of the same author must be organized by year of publication. If there are several works by the same author that were published in the same year, organize them in alphabetical order of their title and add the letters “a,” “b,” “c,” etc. after the year, as follows:

  • John, JH 2015a, A rose book, Rose Publisher, Atlanta, US.
  • John, JH 2015b, A tulip book, Tulip Book Publisher, Atlanta, US

The guideline above is well researched to make your next essay assignment a breeze. It does not matter the type of essay in question; whether informative, 5-paragraph or argumentative, the format will always come in handy. Trying to search for an official handbook writing on this format might be the best thing to do; however, it can be difficult and even impossible. In addition, the format will fit in with any number of words (500 words and 1000 words) while writing an essay.


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Table of contents, what is harvard style, harvard outline for referencing, harvard outline format, harvard style guide, harvard format, harvard writing style cover page.

Many academic works involve researching various areas. Many Institutions of Higher Learning have courses that involve assigning students academic essays, papers, and other forms of academic writing. 

The Harvard style is a referencing style in use in a range of academic institutions. However, there is no elaborate standardization to the referencing style and various institutions modify it to meet their needs . Aspects like Harvard font and some referencing conventions are however elaborate.

Harvard Citation Rules


Writer144311 has a background in marketing, technology, and business intelligence. S/he enjoys writing about data science, BI, new marketing trends and branding strategies. On TrustMyPaper s/he shares her practical experience through academic writing.

In various ways, the Harvard referencing style starkly varies with other formatting styles. The Harvard style mainly includes in-text references as well as reference lists at the end of the work.

The Harvard Outline format differs when it comes to in-text references and reference lists.

In-text Referencing

In-text references or citations include the surname of the author or the authors and the year of publication . In some cases, the authoring body can be used in place of the names of the authors if the names are not available. There are no punctuation marks between the name and the year of the publication. However, the two should be in brackets.

(Atkin and Cava 2017).

There are cases where there is explicitly referencing a particular page or section in a book or journal or other published material. In such situations, there is a need to mention the page number in the in-text reference explicitly.

(Atkin and Cava 2017, p.6)

Reference Lists

In most cases, the reference list features at the final section of the paper and starts on a new page as is in the conventions. The reference list should start on a new page and most likely the last page with the word References as the title.

Here, the references should be in alphabetical order. The convention is that the author's name should start every reference in the list followed by other details as required. Reference lists often contain the sources used in crafting the essay or paper.

Atkin T. & Cava L. G. ‘The Transmission of Monetary Policy: How Does It Work?’ Reserve Bank of Australia.

Essentially, reference lists contain vital information that points readers to the source of information.

The Harvard referencing style, a component of the Harvard writing style guide, has its unique conventions when it comes to referencing.

References for Books with a Single Author

This involves a particular order for listing the main particulars required. The sequence c onsists in starting with the first name of the author, the last name, the title of the book, its Edition, city of publication and the publisher.

Soros, G. (1987). The Alchemy of Finance. New York: Simon & Schuster.

References for Books with Two or Three Authors

Here, the names of all the authors featured in the reference.

Christian B. and Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions. London: HarperCollins Publishers.

Evans, D., McDonald, F. and Jackson, T. (2008). Getting the Best Service. Nottingham: Delectable Publications.

References for Articles in Print Journals

Under Harvard Referencing, the convention includes writing the last name, first name, year of publication, the article title, name of the journal, volume issue and the pages of the article in the journal.

Fialkowski, A. and Tiwari H. (2019). SimCorrMix: Simulation of Correlated Data with Multiple Variable Types Including Continuous and Count Mixture Distributions. The R Journal, Vol 11/1, pp 250-286.

References for Newspaper Articles Online

When found in websites of newspapers, the articles take citations as follows.

Dawson, A. (2019, October 16). Patrick Day, a 27-year-old American, Has Died from Boxing Injuries Suffered in Saturday’s Fight. Business Insider.

Retrieved from: https://www.businessinsider.com/patrick-day-27-has-died-from-boxing-injuries-2019-10  

References for Websites

The main point here is to bring up or highlight the aspect of authorship. Websites that are not newspapers or online journals or magazines could have an individual author behind them. However, there are cases that authors are not traceable. In such scenarios, the website itself can take credit for the authorship.

The convention here involves naming the website if there is no author, and then the year. Details on the topic of the web page, the last day of modification or update and the Link to the website follow.

Ahrefs Blog (2019). What is SEO? How to Optimize for Search Engines Like Google. [online]. Available at: https:///www.ahrefs.com/blog/what-is-seo/

The Harvard format is uniquely for referencing purposes. Academic essay Harvard format requires students to consider the tenets of Harvard referencing. Whether it is in-text citations or referencing lists, students have to ensure that they meet the bare minimum.

At its core, Harvard referencing serves the purpose of presenting references in the most precise and elaborate fashion . Whether it is a book, an article in a journal, an article in a newspaper or an article on a website, Harvard allows for the creation of references for the same. In-text citations help to improve the quality of the essay and its referencing bit as well.

The organization of the cover page in Harvard style writing is very elaborate. The title of the essay or paper is halfway and written in capital letters. Its position is also half down the page. The name of the paper’s author features three lines below the title. The author’s name is in small letters.

Four lines down the author’s name are the class and a line down is the professor’s name or the course instructor’s name. The line that follows contains details that are the name of the school. The line that follows contains the name of the city and state, and the final name bears the date.

Primarily, the structure and outline of the cover page provide all the necessary information about the author of the work.

FREE Harvard Referencing Generator | Cite This For Me. (2010). Retrieved from Cite this for Me | Free Reference Generator – Harvard, APA, MLA, Chicago... website: https://www.citethisforme.com/citation-generator/harvard

Subject and Research Guides: Referencing : Harvard. (2010). Retrieved from Mq.edu.au website: https://libguides.mq.edu.au/referencing/Harvard

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Essay writing: Formatting

  • Introductions
  • Conclusions
  • Analysing questions
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On this page:

Essays are formal documents and should look professional Advice from the Skills Team

Whilst there are no hard rules about how you format essays, there are some conventions and common practices that are best to follow. If you use the settings on this page, you will produce an acceptably formatted essay.

Document layout

Visual display of the information on this page.

Margins - between 2 cm and 2.54 cm (1 inch) all around.

Line spacing - either 1.5 or double-line spacing.

Paragraph spacing - either 1 clear line between or at least 8 pt space after each paragraph (more if double-line spaced)

Alignment - left aligned (fully justified with a straight right-edge is not recommended as this reduces readability and accessibility). Some longer essays may require subheadings which should also be left-aligned.

Indents - no indents on first lines of paragraphs are needed.

It is also good practice to put your student number and module number in the header of the document and a page number at the bottom of the page.

Text formatting

Font - the default font that comes with MS Word (currently Calibri) is fine for academic work. You may see persistent advice in handbooks that suggests you should use Times New Roman or Arial. If you prefer these, you can change it - but this is no longer a requirement.

Font size - fonts should be 11 or 12 point.

Font style - headings and subheadings, if they are required (most essays will not use them), are usually formatted in bold and should be at least 2 point sizes larger than the standard text. Underlining should be avoided as this is seen as rather dated. Some text can be formatted in italics - see our page  Italics, when to use them , for guidance.

Shorter quotations in the text do not need to be italicised and should have double-quotations marks "like this" to indicate they are direct quotations. Longer quotations (what counts as this differs depending on your referencing style) should be created in their own paragraph, single spaced and indented by 1cm from both left and right margins:

For example:

Graduate attributes for employability are described as:

a set of achievements – skills, understandings and personal attributes – that makes graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations, which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy. (Yorke, 2006)

The main change in this definition compared to the earlier definition of graduate attributes from Bowden (2000) is that that the attributes are no longer ...

UoH Harvard/APA

Your reference list should be in alphabetical order (by author surname) and single line spaced. There should be a clear line space (or at least 6 pt space) between each reference. All references should be left-aligned with no indentation. For information about how to format individual references, see the Harvard Hull Referencing Guide.

UoH Footnotes

Your reference list should be in alphabetical order (by first author surname) and single line spaced.  All references should be left-aligned and have a hanging indent (all but the first line are indented by approx. 1cm). For information about how to format individual references, see the  Footnotes Hull Referencing Guide.

Other referencing styles

Please see your individual departmental guidance.

We provide here a Microsoft Word template that can be used for your essays. It has the correct layout and formatting, including useful styles.

  • Essay template

Download this template to somewhere you can access easily. When you click to open it, it will open a new document based on the template , leaving the original intact.

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Harvard Formatting Guidelines

Harvard style is a precise and well-structured formatting style, which requires a direct following of the instructions and rules. Its core element, the title page, must be performed according to strict requirements as well:

  • Write the title of the paper in capital letters and place in the middle of the page.
  • Put the author’s name in small letters three lines down the title.
  • Put the name of the class four lines down the author’s name.
  • Place the professor’s name one line down the class.
  • Write down the school’s name.
  • Write down the city and the state.
  • Write down the date at the end of the paper.

Once following the instructions, you will get a good cover page paper with the full information needed for a reader to get who is the author.

When using Harvard format, be aware of the need to put the title always right justified.

The standard Harvard essay template mostly covers the author’s name, the name of the class, professor’s name, University’s name, city, and state mentioned (use university location), and the date.

Harvard format

Paragraphs in Harvard Writing Style

Be very attentive when dealing with Harvard style paragraphs. It is important to provide a proper structure of the text, thus making the first paragraph quite appealing and informative. It is also useful to start the text with a captivating quotation or some unusual intriguing fact. In general, it keeps the information, which allows finding out what the essay paper is about, in fact.

The introduction part remains both captivating and allows bringing the reader closer to the main idea of the paper, its thesis sentence. Be aware that a thesis always reveals the main idea of the entire article.

The body part’s beginning always includes an indication of the further discussions. The further text embraces the supportive facts that must reveal the rightness or wrongness of the offered thesis. Mostly, this paragraph contains facts, analysis’ results and quotations.

The next paragraph contains the text, which summarizes the previous argumentation. It is possible to use subheads if it allows explaining the main thesis better.

Transition between the Paragraphs

It is important to provide a proper article’s structure, once using Harvard essay requirements. All paragraphs must be places with the transitions between them, thus they must never be unified.

The entire article must be written without losing the main idea of the text within an entire article. Therefore, Harvard academic paper formatting style has three main parts:

  • The main thesis;
  • Supportive facts;
  • Closing part.

Citations in Harvard Style Paper

It is proper to use in-text citations when formatting your paper in Harvard style. When citing in Harvard style, write down the author’s name and initials, year of publication, and page number. Be sure to provide the citations since facts and other’s people ideas without proper quoting can be considered as a plagiarism. For instance, the citation from Stephen Edwin King book published in 2012 page 58 will look like the following – King E. S., 2011, 58. With such an information description, it is easy for readers to find the original sources of the information. Harvard style is a professional formatting style that prefers such legible fonts like Ariel or Times New Roman 12. Avoid using any fancy fonts since in this formatting style they are not appropriate. Use left margins and arrange the essay double-spaced. Put quotes into quotation marks, and use italics for quotations. This allows users to find the referred sources easier.

Conclusion Section

The conclusion is a very important part of every article written in Harvard style. It is important to write it accurately and provide interesting thoughts and recommendations. The first sentence appeared in the conclusion must reveal the main thesis and remind the reader what was the main subject of an entire research work. Write down the core results of the research work, proven facts, and provide some recommendations. The conclusion remains some sort of an article’s summary together with the emphasized results and proven ideas. Make sure to provide a strong ending message to let your readers think long about yours researches after finishing reading an article. End the article with a proper reference page that contains references on the all used materials.

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As we have previously mentioned, we value our writers' time and hard work and therefore require our clients to put some funds on their account balance. The money will be there until you confirm that you are fully satisfied with our work and are ready to pay your paper writer. If you aren't satisfied, we'll make revisions or give you a full refund.

What is the native language of the person who will write my essay for me?

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Oddly enough, but many people still have not come across a quality service. A large number of users fall for deceivers who take their money without doing their job. And some still fulfill the agreements, but very badly.

A good essay writing service should first of all provide guarantees:

  • confidentiality of personal information;
  • for the terms of work;
  • for the timely transfer of the text to the customer;
  • for the previously agreed amount of money.

The company must have a polite support service that will competently advise the client, answer all questions and support until the end of the cooperation. Also, the team must get out of conflict situations correctly.

It is necessary to have several payment methods on the site to make it easier for the client to transfer money.

And of course, only highly qualified writers with a philological education should be present in the team, who will not make spelling and punctuation errors in the text, checking all the information and not stealing it from extraneous sites.

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You may be worried that your teacher will know that you took an expert's assistance to write my essay for me, but we assure you that nothing like that will happen with our write essay service. Taking assistance to write from PenMyPaper is both safe and private. We respect your privacy and thus do not ask for credentials like your name, college, location, or your phone number. To pay for the essay writing, you can either use your debit or credit cards to pay via PayPal or use your wallet balance from our website. All we would need is your card details and your email-id. This is our responsibility that your information will be kept all safe. This is what makes our service the best essay writing service to write with.

What is a good essay writing service?

Oddly enough, but many people still have not come across a quality service. A large number of users fall for deceivers who take their money without doing their job. And some still fulfill the agreements, but very badly.

A good essay writing service should first of all provide guarantees:

  • confidentiality of personal information;
  • for the terms of work;
  • for the timely transfer of the text to the customer;
  • for the previously agreed amount of money.

The company must have a polite support service that will competently advise the client, answer all questions and support until the end of the cooperation. Also, the team must get out of conflict situations correctly.

It is necessary to have several payment methods on the site to make it easier for the client to transfer money.

And of course, only highly qualified writers with a philological education should be present in the team, who will not make spelling and punctuation errors in the text, checking all the information and not stealing it from extraneous sites.

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  1. Harvard Writing Style: Formatting Guide & Example

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  2. Harvard Script Font : Download For Free, View Sample Text, Rating And

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  3. Download Harvard Font

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  1. Essay Writing Secrets Every Student Needs to Know! 💡📝

  2. How to Harvard Reference like a PRO

  3. Essay Format

  4. Harvard Accepted Essay (Homeless Trans Student)

  5. Harvard Medical AI: Liyue Shen on "GIT: A Generative Image-to-text Transformer for Vision& Language"

  6. Demystifying Harvard Citations: The No Author, No Date Dilemma


  1. PDF Harvard Formatting and Style Guide

    Presidency 1 There are several key components to note. First, the title is right justified instead of the normal left or center. There is only a partial title expressing the main idea in the essay. Between the partial title and the number are exactly five spaces. Always use the space bar and use just five spaces.

  2. Harvard Referencing Style Guide

    London: Routledge. These Harvard referencing examples provide details about the citation formats for different types of sources. In-text reference/citation As is obvious from the name, Harvard in-text citations are references included within the text, that is, inside the sentences that make up its content.

  3. Harvard Format (With Example)

    Professor Name of University City and State where university is located Date Here are other essay formatting styles: ORDER NOW Paragraphs in a Harvard Format Essay The Harvard essay format paragraphs are highly structured. The first section of the article is supposed to be captivating and entertaining.

  4. Harvard Style

    Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources Harvard Style What is Harvard Style? The Harvard referencing system is known as the Author-Date style. It emphasizes the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your paper.

  5. University approved Harvard formatting rules

    The paper should be written using 12 pt. Times New Roman font with 1.5 spacing on a standard sized paper (8.5"x 11") with a margin of 1" on all four sides. The alignment of the entire writing should be made justified. The page numbers should be put in the right hand top corner.

  6. Harvard Referencing Style & Format: Easy Guide + Examples

    Formatting Guides Harvard Style & Format: A 5-Minute Guide + Samples Emma Flores 7 min read UPD: May 12, 2023 The Harvard referencing style is a widely used system for citing and referencing sources in academic writing. It provides a consistent and standardized format for acknowledging the works of others that you have used in your research.

  7. How to Write the Perfect Harvard Essay: 3 Expert Tips

    A Real Harvard Essay Example. Our resident full SAT/ACT scorer and co-founder of PrepScholar, Allen Cheng, applied to, got into, and attended Harvard—and he's posted his own Harvard supplement essay for you to look at. You can read all about Allen's essay in his analysis of his successful Harvard application.. Allen describes his essay as "probably neutral to [his Harvard] application, not a ...

  8. Formatting Your Dissertation

    Check the box next to Embed fonts in the file. Click the OK button. Save the document. Note that when saving as a PDF, make sure to go to "more options" and save as "PDF/A compliant". To embed your fonts in Microsoft Word 2007: Click the circular Office button in the upper left corner of Microsoft Word.

  9. How to Format A College Essay: 15 Expert Tips

    Clearly delineate your paragraphs. A single tab at the beginning is fine. Use a font that's easy to read, like Times, Arial, Calibri, Cambria, etc. Avoid fonts like Papyrus and Curlz. And use 12 pt font. You may want to include a college essay heading with a page number and your application ID.

  10. Fonts

    In general, the fonts listed on this site are recommended for Harvard communications materials. When selection of those fonts is not possible, we recommend that you: Use clean and classic faces, with a preference for sans-serif fonts Don't use fonts that are overly stylized Don't use Harvard crimson for text color

  11. Complete Guide to Harvard Style Citation: Tips, Examples

    May 9, 2023 12 min read Defining What is Harvard Citation Style and Referencing From the first time we put our pen on paper, we're taught how important it is to give credit where it's needed. Whether a research paper outline or a doctoral dissertation, proper references, and citations are the foundation of academic work in any field.

  12. Harvard Referencing Sample Paper

    Harvard referencing format varies from school to school, but there are general guidelines you can follow. ... Font type and size: Use a clear and readable font, like Times New Roman or Arial, in 12 pt. font. ... For help writing your essay, research paper, or other project, check out these writing tips. Cover page formatting.

  13. College Essay Format Guide: APA, MLA, Chicago

    Here are the requirements for this essay writing format: Font: Times New Roman or Arial; Font size: 12pt; Margins: 1-inch margins on sides, top, ... The cover page in the Harvard essay format is very specific. The title of your essay should be capitalized and written ½ page down. Then you have to go three lines down to place the author of the ...

  14. Essay Format: Harvard Style

    The Harvard style is one of the formatting styles most commonly used in academic work, along with APA, MLA, and Chicago. The general format of the essay, including the size of the margins, the selected font, etc. is determined by the Harvard format. There are also guidelines for citing sources - in the text and a reference list at the end of ...

  15. How to Use Harvard Style in Academic Writing By Trust My Paper!

    Harvard Writing Style Cover Page. The organization of the cover page in Harvard style writing is very elaborate. The title of the essay or paper is halfway and written in capital letters. Its position is also half down the page. The name of the paper's author features three lines below the title. The author's name is in small letters.

  16. How to Format an Essay in MLA, APA, Harvard and Chicago

    Here we provided a Harvard essay format example: Like with the other essay formats, the Harvard style employs the Times New Roman font, 12 pt. and double spacing. Harvard referencing essay format. The citation rules in the Harvard style are almost the same as in the formatting styles we covered earlier in this guide.

  17. Formatting

    Font size - fonts should be 11 or 12 point. Font style - headings and subheadings, if they are required (most essays will not use them), are usually formatted in bold and should be at least 2 point sizes larger than the standard text. Underlining should be avoided as this is seen as rather dated.

  18. 1custompapers Blog

    Harvard style is a professional formatting style that prefers such legible fonts like Ariel or Times New Roman 12. Avoid using any fancy fonts since in this formatting style they are not appropriate. Use left margins and arrange the essay double-spaced. Put quotes into quotation marks, and use italics for quotations.

  19. Harvard Essay Format Font

    Harvard Essay Format Font, Professional Dissertation Proposal Editing Website Gb, Memories Of My School Life Essay, Thesis Question And Thesis Statement, 10th Grade Compare And Contrast Essay, An Example Of Application Letter To University, Once you've written your 10-page research paper, you are well on your way to becoming an absolute ...

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  21. Harvard Essay Format Font

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