- In-Text Citation Examples–MLA Style
- Works Cited Examples–MLA Style
- APA 7th Ed: In-Text Citations
- APA 7th Ed: References
- NLM Style This link opens in a new window
- APSA Style This link opens in a new window
- Chicago/Turabian Style
- Legal Style (Bluebook)
- Reference Examples: APA Style website The APA Style website includes many more examples for how to cite sources
What is in-text citation.
In APA style, you will use in-text citations to refer readers to a reference list.
When you are writing a paper in APA style, you cite other works (articles, books, etc.) using the author-date citation method. By naming the author and the date of the work you are citing in your in-text citation, you're helping the reader find the work in your reference list at the end of your paper.
In-Text Citation Prevents Plagiarism
As emerging scholars, researchers, and creators, students cite their sources to show they've researched their topics by reading what other experts have said on their topic. In-text citations prevent plagiarism, which is when an individual presents another person's ideas as their own.
About Creating In-Text Citations
Create an in-text citation whenever you quote another work, or whenever you paraphrase another work in your own words.
Make sure to include citation information either in the narrative of your paper, or as a parenthetical citation. See the examples in the boxes on this page for examples.
Parenthetical vs. Narrative Citation
In-text citations, including both narrative and parenthetical citations, are crucial to establishing the sources of the ideas you present in your writing.
There are two main ways to cite a source as you write: narrative and parenthetical.
Narrative citation is when you write out the author's name as you write their quote, or paraphrase their work:
Instead, Grady et al. (2019) suggest that "when children are read storybooks that represent characters from ethnic or racial groups other than their own, [they] may receive a wider array of emotion learning opportunities than when they are read storybooks with characters that represent only their own race or ethnicity" (p. 215).
Parenthetical citation is how you use the author-date citation system. Use this type of citation when it is not easy to use narrative citation, and identify authors' names in-text. Include names, dates, and pages in parentheses.
One study found that ethnicities of protagonists in children's fiction correlated with differences in types of emotions displayed by those characters (Grady et al., 2019).
Direct Quotations and Paraphrasing
APA 7 Style uses the author-date citation method with parentheses. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) the quote appears.
For quotations that are on one page, type "p." before the page number. For quotations that start on one page and end on another page, use "pp." instead.
Quote, one page: "Sometimes I feel quite CERTAIN there's a JERTAIN in the CURTAIN" (Seuss, 1974, p. 4).
Quote, two pages: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).
If you use more than one work by the same author, use the letters a, b, etc., after the year.
"The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007a, pp. 7-8).
If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.
"The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).
For works with two or more authors see the chart below under Authors: In-Text Citations.
When you use the author's last name in the narrative of your paper, leave their name out of the parentheses.
In his scholarly study, Dr. Seuss observed that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (2007, pp. 7-8).
In 2007, Dr. Seuss suggested that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (pp. 7-8).
Citations with Missing Elements
When no author name is available, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title). Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages, and italicize titles of books, journals, etc.
"The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Fox in Socks, 2007).
When no page numbers are available, use paragraph numbers or other subsection identifiers instead.
One paragraph: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, para. 5).
More than one paragraph: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, paras. 5-6).
Presentation slide: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, Slide 7).
Paraphrasing restates one or more person's ideas in your own words, allowing you to summarize and synthesize information effectively (p. 269). You can use both narrative or parenthetical citations when paraphrasing ideas.
Stories can be used to teach social skills through already existing classroom literature instruction, emphasizing lessons that help students interpret events and empathize with characters (Wolf & Baker, 2012).
Wolf and Baker (2012) offer a case study example from one classroom teacher who used Dr. Seuss' books teach social skills to their students (p. 174).
Note: When paraphrasing or mentioning a source, still provide page numbers if the source text is long or difficult, or if it would help the reader find the text being paraphrased.
Authors: In-Text Citations
Authors' names, organizations or groups as authors.
- << Previous: APA Style
- Next: APA 7th Ed: References >>
- Last Updated: Aug 22, 2023 1:16 PM
- URL: https://libguides.sjfc.edu/citations
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
In-Text Citations: The Basics
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
Note: On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998) finds ).
APA Citation Basics
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.
Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining
- Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
- If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media , There Is Nothing Left to Lose .
( Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media .)
- When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs .
- Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo ."
- If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text: The Closing of the American Mind ; The Wizard of Oz ; Friends .
- If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).
You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.
Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.
Quotations from sources without pages
Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.
Summary or paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work.
APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : In-Text Citation
- What Kind of Source Is This?
- Books & eBooks
- Book Reviews
- Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Government Documents
- Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Personal Communication (Interviews, Emails)
- Social Media
- Videos & DVDs
- Works Cited in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Sample Paper, Reference List & Annotated Bibliography
- Powerpoint Presentations
On This Page
- About In-Text Citations
- Video: APA 7th Edition: In-Text Citations
- How do I cite two or more works by the same author with the same year of publication?
- Do I need to cite after each sentence in a paragraph?
- How do I cite a work quoted in another source?
- How do I cite more than one source in one in-text citation?
- Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference?
- In-text citations for two or more authors
APA 7th Edition: In-Text Citations
About In-Text Citation
In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.
- In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).
- If you are quoting directly the page number should be included, if given. If you are paraphrasing the page number is not required.
- If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the title, such as italics: ( Naturopathic , 2007).
If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation. Instead include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. For example:
Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).
FAQ - How do I cite two or more works by the same author with the same year of publication?
When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.
Example In-Text :
Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).
Example Reference List entries:
Daristotle, J. (2015a). Name of book used as first source . Toronto, ON: Fancy Publisher.
Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of book used as second source . Toronto, ON: Very Fancy Publisher.
FAQ - Do I need to cite after each sentence in a paragraph?
Unfortunately citing only once at the end of the paragraph isn't enough, as it doesn't clearly show where you started using information from another person's work or ideas. The good news is you can avoid having to write full in-text citations each and every time by using a lead-in to your paragraph. For a detailed example of how to use lead-in sentences, please see Rasmussen College's FAQ page .
FAQ - How do I cite a work quoted in another source?
Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. The work that is mentioned in the article you are reading is called the primary source. The article you are reading is called the secondary source.
For example, suppose you are reading an article by Brown (2014) that cites information from an article by Snow (1982) that you would like to include in your essay. For the reference list, you will only make a citation for the secondary source (Brown). You do not put in a citation for the primary source (Snow) in the reference list. For the in-text citation, you identify the primary source (Snow) and then write "as cited in" the secondary source (Brown). If you know the year of the publication of the primary source, include it in the in-text citation. Otherwise, you can omit it. See below for examples.
Examples of in-text citations:
According to a study by Snow (1982, as cited in Brown, 2014), 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework.
Note: If you don't have the publication date of Snow's article, you just omit it like this: According to a study by Snow (as cited in Brown, 2014), 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework.
In fact, 75% of students believe that teachers should not assign nightly homework (Snow, 1982, as cited in Brown, 2014).
Snow (1982, as cited in Brown, 2014) concluded that "nightly homework is a great stressor for many students" (p.34).
Example of Reference list citation:
Brown, S. (2014). Trends in homework assignments. Journal of Secondary Studies , 12(3) , 29-38. http://doi.org/fsfsbit
FAQ: How do I cite more than one source in one in-text citation
If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear on the References List.
(Bennett, 2015; Smith, 2014).
( Brock, 2016; "It Takes Two," 2015).
Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference?
There are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.
Paraphrasing is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.
Quoting is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly it was originally written. When quoting place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
- << Previous: Websites
- Next: Quoting >>
- Last Updated: Sep 1, 2023 2:06 PM
- URL: https://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/apa
APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide
- Information for EndNote Users
- Authors - Numbers, Rules and Formatting
Everything must match!
Types of citations, in-text citations, quoting, summarising and paraphrasing, example text with in-text referencing, slightly tricky in-text citations, organisation as an author, secondary citation (works referred to in other works).
- Reference List
- Books & eBooks
- Book chapters
- Journal Articles
- Conference Papers
- Newspaper Articles
- Web Pages & Documents
- Specialised Health Databases
- Using Visual Works in Assignments & Class Presentations
- Using Visual Works in Theses and Publications
- Using Tables in Assignments & Class Presentations
- Custom Textbooks & Books of Readings
- ABS AND AIHW
- Videos (YouTube), Podcasts & Webinars
- Blog Posts and Social Media
- First Nations Works
- Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries
- Personal Communication
- Theses and Dissertations
- Film / TV / DVD
- AI software
- APA Format for Assignments
- What If...?
- Other Guides
There are two basic ways to cite someone's work in text.
In narrative citations , the authors are part of the sentence - you are referring to them by name. For example:
Becker (2013) defined gamification as giving the mechanics of principles of a game to other activities.
Cho and Castañeda (2019) noted that game-like activities are frequently used in language classes that adopt mobile and computer technologies.
In parenthetical citations , the authors are not mentioned in the sentence, just the content of their work. Place the citation at the end of the sentence or clause where you have used their information. The author's names are placed in the brackets (parentheses) with the rest of the citation details:
Gamification involves giving the mechanics or principles of a game to another activity (Becker, 2013).
Increasingly, game-like activities are frequently used in language classes that adopt mobile and computer technologies (Cho & Castañeda, 2019).
Using references in text
For APA, you use the authors' surnames only and the year in text. If you are using a direct quote, you will also need to use a page number.
If an in-text citation has the authors' names as part of the sentence (that is, outside of brackets) place the year and page numbers in brackets immediately after the name, and use 'and' between the authors' names: Jones and Smith (2020, p. 29)
If an in-text citation has the authors' names in brackets use "&" between the authors' names : (Jones & Smith, 2020, p. 29).
Note: Some lecturers want page numbers for all citations, while some only want page numbers with direct quotes. Check with your lecturer to see what you need to do for your assignment. If the direct quote starts on one page and finishes on another, include the page range (Jones & Smith, 2020, pp. 29-30).
Smith (2020) found that "the mice disappeared within minutes" (p. 29).
The author stated "the mice disappeared within minutes" (Smith, 2020, p. 29).
Jones and Smith (2020) found that "the mice disappeared within minutes" (p. 29).
The authors stated "the mice disappeared within minutes" (Jones & Smith, 2020, p. 29).
For 3 or more authors , use the first author and "et al." for all in-text citations
Green et al.'s (2019) findings indicated that the intervention was not based on evidence from clinical trials.
It appears the intervention was not based on evidence from clinical trials (Green et al., 2019).
If you cite more than one work in the same set of brackets in text , your citations will go in the same order in which they will appear in your reference list (i.e. alphabetical order, then oldest to newest for works by the same author) and be separated by a semi-colon. E.g.:
- (Corbin, 2015; James & Waterson, 2017; Smith et al., 2016).
- (Corbin, 2015; 2018)
- (Queensland Health, 2017a; 2017b)
- Use only the surnames of your authors in text (e.g., Smith & Brown, 2014) - however, if you have two authors with the same surname who have published in the same year, then you will need to use their initials to distinguish between the two of them (e.g., K. Smith, 2014; N. Smith, 2014). Otherwise, do not use initials in text .
If your author isn't an "author".
Whoever is in the "author" position of the refence in the references list is treated like an author in text. So, for example, if you had an edited book and the editors of the book were in the "author" position at the beginning of the reference, you would treat them exactly the same way as you would an author - do not include any other information. The same applies for works where the "author" is an illustrator, producer, composer, etc.
It is always a good idea to keep direct quotes to a minimum. Quoting doesn't showcase your writing ability - all it shows is that you can read (plus, lecturers hate reading assignments with a lot of quotes).
You should only use direct quotes if the exact wording is important , otherwise it is better to paraphrase.
If you feel a direct quote is appropriate, try to keep only the most important part of the quote and avoid letting it take up the entire sentence - always start or end the sentence with your own words to tie the quote back into your assignment. Long quotes (more than 40 words) are called "block quotes" and are rarely used in most subject areas (they mostly belong in Literature, History or similar subjects). Each referencing style has rules for setting out a block quote. Check with your style guide .
It has been observed that "pink fairy armadillos seem to be extremely susceptible to stress" (Superina, 2011, p. 6).
NB! Most referencing styles will require a page number to tell readers where to find the original quote.
It is a type of paraphrasing, and you will be using this frequently in your assignments, but note that summarising another person's work or argument isn't showing how you make connections or understand implications. This is preferred to quoting, but where possible try to go beyond simply summarising another person's information without "adding value".
And, remember, the words must be your own words . If you use the exact wording from the original at any time, those words must be treated as a direct quote.
All information must be cited, even if it is in your own words.
Superina (2011) observed a captive pink fairy armadillo, and noticed any variation in its environment could cause great stress.
NB! Some lecturers and citation styles want page numbers for everything you cite, others only want page numbers for direct quotes. Check with your lecturer.
Paraphrasing often involves commenting about the information at the same time, and this is where you can really show your understanding of the topic. You should try to do this within every paragraph in the body of your assignment.
When paraphrasing, it is important to remember that using a thesaurus to change every other word isn't really paraphrasing. It's patchwriting , and it's a kind of plagiarism (as you are not creating original work).
Use your own voice! You sound like you when you write - you have a distinctive style that is all your own, and when your "tone" suddenly changes for a section of your assignment, it looks highly suspicious. Your lecturer starts to wonder if you really wrote that part yourself. Make sure you have genuinely thought about how *you* would write this information, and that the paraphrasing really is in your own words.
Always cite your sources! Even if you have drawn from three different papers to write this one sentence, which is completely in your own words, you still have to cite your sources for that sentence (oh, and excellent work, by the way).
Captive pink fairy armadillos do not respond well to changes in their environment and can be easily stressed (Superina, 2011).
NB! Some lecturers and citation styles want page numbers for all citations, others only want them for direct quotes. Check with your lecturer.
This example paragraph contains mouse-over text. Run your mouse over the paragraph to see notes on formatting.
Excerpt from "The Big Fake Essay"
You can read the entire Big Fake Essay on the Writing Guide. It includes more details about academic writing and the formatting of essays.
- The Big Fake Essay
- Academic Writing Workshop
When you have multiple authors with the same surname who published in the same year:
If your authors have different initials, then include the initials:
As A. Smith (2016) noted...
...which was confirmed by J.G. Smith's (2016) study.
(A. Smith, 2016; J. G. Smith, 2016).
If your authors have the same initials, then include the name:
As Adam Smith noted...
...which was confirmed by Amy Smith's (2016) study.
(Adam Smith, 2016; Amy Smith, 2016).
Note: In your reference list, you would include the author's first name in [square brackets] after their initials:
Smith, A. [Adam]. (2016)...
Smith, A. [Amy]. (2016)...
When you have multiple works by the same author in the same year:
In your reference list, you will have arranged the works alphabetically by title (see the page on Reference Lists for more information). This decides which reference is "a", "b", "c", and so on. You cite them in text accordingly:
Asthma is the most common disease affecting the Queensland population (Queensland Health, 2017b). However, many people do not know how to manage their asthma symptoms (Queensland Health, 2017a).
When you have multiple works by the same author in different years:
Asthma is the most common disease affecting the Queensland population (Queensland Health, 2017, 2018).
When you do not have an author, and your reference list entry begins with the title:
Use the title in place of the author's name, and place it in "quotation marks" if it is the title of an article or book chapter, or in italics if the title would go in italics in your reference list:
During the 2017 presidential inauguration, there were some moments of awkwardness ("Mrs. Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’", 2018).
Note: You do not need to use the entire title, but a reasonable portion so that it does not end too abruptly - "Mrs. Obama Says" would be too abrupt, but the full title "Mrs. Obama Says 'Lovely Frame' in Box During Awkward Handoff" is unecessarily long. You should also use title case for titles when referring to them in the text of your work.
If there are no page numbers, you can include any of the following in the in-text citation:
- "On Australia Day 1938 William Cooper ... joined forces with Jack Patten and William Ferguson ... to hold a Day of Mourning to draw attention to the losses suffered by Aboriginal people at the hands of the whiteman" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., para. 4).
- "in 1957 news of a report by the Western Australian government provided the catalyst for a reform movement" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., The catalyst for change section, para. 1)
- "By the end of this year of intense activity over 100,000 signatures had been collected" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., "petition gathering", para. 1).
When you are citing a classical work, like the Bible or the Quran:
References to works of scripture or other classical works are treated differently to regular citations. See the APA Blog's entry for more details:
Happy Holiday Citing: Citation of Classical Works . (Please note, this document is from the 6th edition of APA).
In text citation:
If the name of the organisation first appears in a narrative citation, include the abbreviation before the year in brackets, separated with a comma. Use the official acronym/abreviation if you can find it. Otherwise check with your lecturer for permission to create your own acronyms.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2013) shows that...
The Queensland Department of Education (DoE, 2020) encourages students to... (please note, Queensland isn't part of the department's name, it is used in the sentence to provide clarity)
If the name of the organisation first appears in a citation in brackets, include the abbreviation in square brackets.
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2013)
(Department of Education [DoE], 2020)
In the second and subsequent citations, only include the abbreviation or acronym
ABS (2013) found that ...
DoE (2020) instructs teachers to...
This is disputed ( ABS , 2013).
Resources are designed to support "emotional learning pedagogy" (DoE, 2020)
In the reference list:
Use the full name of the organisation in the reference list.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). Australia's welfare 2017 . https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-welfare/australias-welfare-2017/contents/table-of-contents
Department of Education. (2020, April 22). Respectful relationships education program . Queensland Government. https://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/stages-of-schooling/respectful-relationships
Academically, it is better to find the original source and reference that.
If you do have to quote a secondary source:
- In the text you must cite the original author of the quote and the year the original quote was written as well as the source you read it in. If you do not know the year the original citation was written, omit the year.
- In the reference list you only list the source that you actually read.
Wembley (1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999) argues that impending fuel shortages ...
Wembley claimed that "fuel shortages are likely" (1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999, pp. 10-12).
Some have noted that fuel shortages are probable in the future (Wembley, 1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999).
Olsen, M. (1999). My career. Gallimard.
- << Previous: Dates
- Next: Reference List >>
- Last Updated: Aug 24, 2023 2:43 PM
- URL: https://libguides.jcu.edu.au/apa
Generate accurate APA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 7th edition
- Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation
APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info
Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on September 30, 2022.
In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.
APA in-text citations consist of the author’s last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41) .
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
- Worried about in-text citation errors?
Run a quick check to see how many APA citation errors your paper contains before submitting your work.
- Checked on over 100 APA guidelines
- Result within one minute
- APA Style 6th & 7th edition
Table of contents
Apa in-text citations explained in 4 minutes, parenthetical vs. narrative citations, apa in-text citations with multiple authors, no author, date or page number, multiple sources in one parenthesis, avoiding ambiguity in apa in-text citations, citing indirect sources (“as cited in”), citing personal communication, general mentions of websites and software, example paragraph with in-text citations, frequently asked questions.
The in-text citation can be placed in parentheses or naturally integrated into a sentence.
- Parenthetical : There is a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers (Parker, 2019) .
- Narrative: Parker (2019) found a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers.
The publication year appears directly after the author’s name when using the narrative format. The parenthetical citation can be placed within or at the end of a sentence, just before the period. Check out a full example paragraph with in-text citations .
If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.
Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.
If the author of a source is unknown, try to determine if there is an organization or government responsible for creating the content. If so, include its name in the in-text citation (and reference entry).
Alternatively, use the source title in place of the author. Italicize the title if it’s italicized in the reference entry (except for court cases , which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry). Otherwise, enclose it in double quotation marks.
Apply title case capitalization, and shorten long titles. The first word of the title should always be included so readers can easily locate the corresponding reference entry.
- (“U.S. Flood Risk,” 2015)
- ( Thinking, Fast and Slow , 2017)
No publication date
If the publication date is unknown, write “n.d.” (no date) in the in-text citation.
No page number (alternative locators)
Page numbers are only required with direct quotes in APA . If you are quoting from a work that does not have page numbers (e.g., webpages or YouTube videos ), you can use an alternative locator, such as:
- (Liu, 2020, 03:26 )
- (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3 )
- (McCombes, 2016, para. 4 )
- (Davis, 2016, Slide 15 )
- (Flores, 2020, Table 5 )
- (Streefkerk, 2020, “No page number” section )
Note that Bible citations always use chapter and verse numbers, even when page numbers are available:
If a statement is supported by multiple sources, the in-text citations can be combined in one parenthesis. Order the sources alphabetically, and separate them with a semicolon.
When citing multiple works from the same author, list the years of publication separated by a comma.
When in-text citations are ambiguous because they correspond to multiple reference entries, apply the solutions outlined in the table below.
If you want to refer to a source that you have found in another source, you should always try to access the original or primary source .
However, if you cannot find the original source , you should cite it through the secondary source that led you to it, using the phrase “as cited in”.
If the publication date of the primary source is unknown, include only the year of publication of the secondary source.
Only include a reference entry for the secondary source, not the primary source.
Personal communications , such as phone calls, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list because readers can’t access them. The in-text citation is also formatted slightly differently.
Include the initials and last name of the person you communicated with, the words “personal communication,” and the exact date in parentheses.
General mentions of a website or software don’t have to be cited with an in-text citation or entry in the reference list. Instead, incorporate relevant information into the running text.
- The website of Scribbr (www.scribbr.com) contains various useful resources.
- Statistical software SPSS (version 25) was used to analyze the data.
When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:
- Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
- Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
- Abbreviated heading: ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.
If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:
Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
Always include page numbers in the APA in-text citation when quoting a source . Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole – for example, an entire book or journal article.
If your source does not have page numbers, you can use an alternative locator such as a timestamp, chapter heading or paragraph number.
If you cite several sources by the same author or group of authors, you’ll distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations using the year of publication.
If you cite multiple sources by the same author(s) at the same point , you can just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021).
To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and the same publication year, add a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b). Add the same letters to the corresponding reference entries .
In an APA in-text citation , you use the phrase “ as cited in ” if you want to cite a source indirectly (i.e., if you cannot find the original source).
Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) Narrative citation: Brown (1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) states that…
On the reference page , you only include the secondary source (Mahone, 2018).
An APA in-text citation is placed before the final punctuation mark in a sentence.
- The company invested over 40,000 hours in optimizing its algorithm (Davis, 2011) .
- A recent poll suggests that EU membership “would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” in a referendum (Levring, 2018) .
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Streefkerk, R. (2022, September 30). APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info. Scribbr. Retrieved September 1, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, direct quotes in apa style, setting up the apa reference page | formatting & references (examples), how to paraphrase | step-by-step guide & examples, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
- About Citation
About APA 7th ed.
In-text citations, formatting your apa paper.
- MLA 9th Ed.
- Chicago 17th Ed.
More Style Tips
APA is more than just citation and referencing! It's a whole style of writing designed to refer to people in research with dignity and respect and present research results in a standard style so that others can easily evaluate your work and replicate it.
- APA inclusive writing guidelines
- Bias free language for sexual orientation
- Bias free language for racial and ethnic identities
- Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers
This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychological Association (APA) Style for references and citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA or the APA Style website for detailed standards and procedures.
- APA Style Comprehensive style and grammar guidelines from APA.
- A Quick Guide to APA Citation 7th Edition CSUDH Library
When you reference another source use an in-text citation in the body of your paper.
Basic Format: (Author's Last Name(s) or Organization, Year).
Summarizing or Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the publication, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.
According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status.
If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.
- According to Brown (2019), "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
- Brown (2019) found that "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
- [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Brown, 2019, p. 1021).
If you're directly quoting more than 40 words, use a blockquote . Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.
Shavers (2007) study found the following:
While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)
Toro Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.
In-text citations differ depending on the number of authors listed for a work, and if there is a group author .
I'm citing a work with...
You only need the author's last name comma year in parentheses.
Connect both authors' last names with & (ampersand) comma and the year.
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
3 or More Authors
If there are 3 or more authors use et al., which means "and others," comma and the year.
(Harris et al., 2018)
First time with an abbreviation:
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019)
Then all subsequent citations: (CDC, 2019)
Include the complete citation at the end of your paper in a references section. References are organized by the author's last name in alphabetic (A-Z) order. Use an hanging indent to separate each list item.
Basic Format: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of the work. Source where you can retrieve the work . URL or DOI if available
I'm citing a...
- Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initial as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name. Read more from the APA Style website if there are 21 or more authors.
- Title of the article. Note: For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. articles, chapter), use sentence case. Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.
- Title of the Journal , Note: Italicize and capitalize each word in the journal.
- Volume Note: Italicize the journal volume. If there is no issue, include a comma before the page range.
- (Issue), Note: If there is a issue number in addition to a volume number, include it in parentheses.
- Page range. Note: If there is no page range within the journal volume/issue, this can be excluded.
- DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Read more about DOIs from the APA Style wesbite.
Ashing‐Giwa, K. T., Padilla, G., Tejero, J., Kraemer, J., Wright, K., Coscarelli, A., Clayton, S., Williams, I., & Hills, D. (2004). Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: A qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology , 13 (6), 408-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.750
Online News/Magazine Article
- Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
- (Year, Month Date). Note: You do not need to abbreviate the month.
- Title of the online newspaper or publication . Note: Capitalize each word in the publication and italicize. If the publication has an associated newly newspaper in print, use the newspaper article reference example .
Rogers, O. (2021, July 9). Why naming race is necessary to undo racism. Psychology Today . https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/who-am-i-who-are-we/202107/why-naming-race-is-necessary-undo-racism
- Title of the book. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
- (Edition). Note: If there is an edition or volume, include it in parentheses and use abbreviations of ed. or vol.
- Publisher. Note: You do not need to include the publisher location or databases where you retrieved it.
Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2017). Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
Book Chapter with Editor(s)
- Author(s). Note: List each chapter author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
- Title of the chapter. Note: For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. articles, chapter), use sentence case. Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.
- In Editor(s), Note: List each editor's last name and initials as A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, & C. C. Editors, include (Ed.) or (Eds.) in parentheses, and end with a comma.
- Title of the book Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
McCormack, B., McCance, T., & Maben, J. (2013). Outcome evaluation in the development of person-centred practice. In B. McCormack, K. Manley, & A. Titchen (Eds.), Practice development in nursing and healthcare (pp. 190-211). John Wiley & Sons.
- Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization or site.
- (Year, Month Date). Note: Read more about date formats from the APA Style website . Provide as specific a date as is available. Use the date last updated, but not the date last reviewed or copyright date. If there is no date, use (n.d.).
- Title of page or section. Note: Italicize the title of the page.
- Source. Note: Usually the official name of the website. If the source would be the same as the author, you can omit the source to avoid repetition.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Preventing HPV-associated cancers . https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/basic_info/prevention.htm/
- Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization that published the report.
- (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available.
- Title of the report or document. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
- Source. Includes the names of parent agencies or other organizations not listed in the group author name here.
Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. (2017, January). Key indicators of health by service planning area . http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/ha/
Dissertation or Thesis
- Author. Note: List the author's last name and initials as Author, A. A. There is usually only one author for a thesis or dissertation, you don't need to include any faculty advisers.
- Title of the dissertation or thesis [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of University]. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, dissertations, theses), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns. The title page will indicate whether it's a Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis and list the name of the university granting the degree.
- Source. Note: Include the name of the database or institutional repository where you can access the work (e.g. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, PQDT Open, CSU ScholarWorks) here.
- URL Note: If available it's available.
Valentin, E. R. (2019, Summer). Narcissism predicted by Snapchat selfie sharing, filter usage, and editing [Master's thesis, California State University Dominguez Hills]. CSU ScholarWorks. https://scholarworks.calstate.edu/concern/theses/3197xm925?locale=en
Check out more examples for citing dissertations and theses on the APA Style site .
Citing a letter, photograph, text document, graphic material, or ephemera? Consult the Gerth Archives APA Citation Guide for Archival Materials .
What does an example APA paper look like?
APA Style offers sample student and professional paper s, including a free annotated student sample paper .
- Sample Student Paper (APA 7th edition) Download and use this Word document as a template for your paper!
How do I make a hanging indent in Word?
1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor.
2. Right click.
3. Select Paragraph .
4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging .
How can I save time formatting my paper?
Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text!
1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply.
2. Select Format Painter .
3. Highlight the text you want to change.
Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics.
- << Previous: About Citation
- Next: MLA 9th Ed. >>
- Last Updated: Mar 1, 2023 11:55 AM
- URL: https://libguides.csudh.edu/citation
Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: In-text Citations
- Books & Ebooks
- Book Chapter & Ebook Chapter
- Conference Presentations
- Course Resources (PowerPoint, Handouts, etc.)
- Journal Article
- Legal Materials
- Magazine Article
- Master's Thesis, Dissertation, or Capstone Project
- Movies & Streaming Video
- Newspaper Article
- Personal Communication (email, interviews, lectures, course materials, etc.)
- Webpages & Websites
- Formatting Your Paper
- In-text Citations
- Ethically Use Sources
In-text Citation Introduction
What is an in-text citation.
In APA Style, an in-text citation tells the reader where you got any and all information that did not come from inside your own head. This is more obvious when you are directly quoting from a source, but it is also needed when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source and even if you got an idea from somewhere else. In order to avoid plagiarism, it is extremely important that you cite all the words and ideas that you got from somewhere else. To learn more about plagiarism and how to avoid it, see Ethically Use Sources and Plagiarism guidance from APA.
When citing sources in an APA Style paper, APA uses the author-date citation system. In this system, the writer includes the author and date within the body of the paper and includes a corresponding reference in the reference list. This citation system allows the reader to identify sources used in the paper by reviewing the author and date within the text of the paper, and then easily locate the corresponding reference in the alphabetical reference list.
There are two types of in-text citations that are used within the body of an APA paper to help the reader locate the corresponding reference in the reference list. T he two types of in-text citations are parenthetical citations and narrative citations . A narrative citation is a type of citation where the author's name is used within the text of the sentence; whereas, a parenthetical citation is a type of citation where the author and date are in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations?
In APA Style, cite your sources by putting the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper as opposed to a footnote where the source information is at the bottom of the page or an endnote where it goes at the end of your paper. There are slight differences depending on which style you are using.
Give the author’s last name and the publication year.
Only use page numbers or paragraph numbers for a direct quote.
Make sure the source information in parentheses matches with your reference in the reference list.
The punctuation for the sentence goes AFTER the parentheses.
For a quote less than forty words put quotation marks around the quoted words. For sources with designated page numbers - if the author and date are introduced in the sentence as a narrative citation, then add the page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. If the source does not have designated page numbers, then add the paragraph number, heading, or a combination of both the heading and paragraph number. If the author and date are not introduced as part of the text, then include the author and date with the page or paragraph number. The period should come after the parentheses.
If your quote is more than forty words , set it off in a block text by beginning the block quote on a new line, indent 0.5 inches (one-half), and do not add quotation marks around the block quote. At the end of the quote put the period after the last word of the sentence followed by the parentheses. For more information, see Block Quote .
- Basic Principles of Citation Created by APA. This resource provides fundamental information about the basics of citations.
- Appropriate Level of Citations Created by APA - learn about how many references should be used in a paper and how many times to cite the same source in a paragraph.
- Paraphrasing This source provides the basics about paraphrasing, including the use of long paraphrases.
- Quotations Created by APA - learn about creating quotations for short quotes, block quotes, quotes for sources without page number, and more!
For more information about parenthetical and narrative citations, see pages 253-278 of the APA Manual 7th edition for further explanation and examples.
Basic In-Text Citation Styles
The basic in-text citation style for adding sources to the body of an APA style paper is to add the author and the date. There are a number of ways that can be done to aid in the readability and flow of the paper. However, the basic style for different authors types are listed in the table below.
Printable version of the basic in-text citation styles are available here:
- Basic In-Text Citation Styles - Google Doc version
- Basic In-Text Citation Styles - PDF version
Note. Adapted from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , by the American Psychological Association, 2020, Table 8.1, p. 266 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 ). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association. * Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or narrative citation. Once introduced, use only the abbreviation for all mentions of the group author in the text of your paper.
In-text Citation Examples
There are a number of ways that parenthetical and narrative citations can be added to the body of an APA style paper. Using variety helps with the readability and flow of the paper. The following table provides a few examples of common ways parenthetical and narrative citations are used for quotes and paraphrases.
For additional examples, see the following printable handouts:
- In-text Citation Examples - Google Doc version
- In-text Citation Examples - PDF version
Variations in APA References
See the following webpages for variations in your APA references:
- Sources with Multiple Authors
- Group Author
- Date Format
- Periodical Information
- Multiple Sources with the Same Author & Same Date
- Secondary Sources
- Personal Communication
- Missing Information
Variation - Multiple Sources in Same Citation?
Citing multiple works in the same citation.
Several studies report ... (D'Esposito & Gardner, 1999; Griffiths & Brophy, 2005; Kim & Sin, 2007).
Multiple sources within the same parenthetical citation should be listed alphabetically by author. Separate each citation with a semicolon.
For more information about citing multiple words in the same citation, see Section 8.12 on pages 263-264 fo the APA Manual, 7th edition.
- << Previous: Formatting Your Paper
- Next: Ethically Use Sources >>
- Last Updated: Aug 29, 2023 8:39 AM
- URL: https://libguides.css.edu/APA7thEd
University Libraries University of Nevada, Reno
- Skill Guides
- Subject Guides
APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation
- Audiovisual Media
- Books and eBooks
- Dictionaries, Thesauruses and Encyclopedias
- Figures and Tables
- Government Documents
- Journal, Magazine and Newspaper Articles
- Personal Communications
- Presentations and Class Notes
- Social Media
- Websites and Webpages
- Reference List and Sample Papers
- Annotated Bibliography
- Citation Software
What Is In-Text Citation?
In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. In the author-date method, the writer includes the author and date within the body of the paper and includes a corresponding reference in the Reference list. This method allows the reader to identify sources used in the paper by reviewing the author and date within the text of the paper, and then easily locate the corresponding reference in the alphabetical Reference list.
Create an in-text citation whenever you quote another work, or whenever you paraphrase another work in your own words.
In-text Citations Have Two Formats
- Parenthetical - the author name and publication date (or equivalent information) appear in parentheses. For example: Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Burnside, 2016).
- Narrative - the author name appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example: Burnside (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.
If you are referring to an idea from another work (paraphrasing or summarizing) but NOT directly quoting the material, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
If you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. For example, (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).
In-Text Citation Styles
The table below shows several examples of parenthetical and narrative citations.
Paraphrasing and Quoting: What Is the Difference?
There are two ways to integrate sources into your assignment:
- Paraphrasing is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.
- Quoting is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly as it was originally written. When quoting, place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.
If you refer to the author's name in a sentence, you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation; instead, include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or the paraphrased section. For example:
Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).
If a quotation consists of fewer than 40 words , treat it as a short quotation:
- Incorporate the quote into the text and enclose it within double quotation marks.
- Include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference.
- For example, Smith (2019) demonstrated how to "..." (p. 112).
- For example, "..." (Smith, 2019, p. 112).
Long (Block) Quotations
If a quotation contains 40 words or more , treat it as a long (block) quotation:
- Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.
- Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 inches from the left margin.
- If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 inches.
- Double-space the entire block quotation; do not add extra space before or after it.
- Either (1) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation, or (2) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation. Do NOT add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.
- See section 8.27 in the Publication Manual for examples of the block quotation.
Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers
When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (e.g., webpages, websites, some e-books), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Use any of the following approaches that will best help readers find the quotation:
- Provide a heading or a section name.
- Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered).
- Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number.
In-Text Citation for More than One Source
If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear in the Reference list. For example:
(Jones, 2015; Smith, 2014).
( Beckworth, 2016; "Nursing," 2015).
- << Previous: Websites and Webpages
- Next: Reference List and Sample Papers >>
Citation Style: APA 7th edition
- Citation help
- Free citation generators
- Journal, magazine & newspaper articles
- Other resource types
- Citing indirect / secondary sources
- APA Style Reference Examples This link opens in a new window
- Quoting, paraphrasing and signal phrases
- In-text citations
- Annotated bibliography
APA 7th Edition: The Basics of APA In-Text Citations
Video from Scribbr
In text citations: narrative vs. parenthetical citations
What is an in-text citation.
I n-text citations are citations that appear in the body of an essay or paper. In-text citations have two formats - narrative and parenthetical:
- Narrative citations : Author last name/s are included in the text as part of the sentence. The publication year and page number (if applicable) follows in parentheses. The author’s last name can be included any place in the sentence where it makes sense.
- Parenthetical citations : Author last name/s and publication year and page number (if applicable) appear in parentheses. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence.
- Example: Walters (2003) wrote that most people tend to follow the path of least resistance.
- Exception : The year can be omitted from a citation only when multiple narrative citations to a work appear within a single paragraph; but you must make it clear that you're still using someone else's ideas. See the example below.
Koehler (2016) experimentally examined how journalistic coverage influences public perception of the level of agreement among experts. Koehler provided participants with quotations from real reviews for movies that critics either loved or loathed. He found that participants better appreciated the level of expert consensus for highly rated movies when only positive reviews were provided rather than when both positive and negative reviews were provided, even when the proportion of positive to negative reviews was indicated. These findings, in combination with similar research, demonstrate that providing evidence for both sides when most experts agree may lead to a false sense of balance (Koehler, 2016; Reginald, 2015).
- Page numbers must be used inside the parentheses after a direct quote (a direct quote is a word-for-word quote that is placed within quotation marks). If page numbers are not available, other locators are used, such as paragraph numbers Example:: (para. 10). Page or paragraph numbers are not required when paraphrasing.
- Book titles and the titles of other standalone works are formatted in title case and in italics. Example: Little House in the Big Woods .
- Journal article titles and the titles of other parts of works are formatted in title case and in quotation marks. Example: "The Iridescent History of Light."
- A parenthetical citation is one where all the required information is placed in parentheses.
- In APA style, the information in parentheses consists of the last name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication, and page or paragraph number(s) in the case of an exact quote. Examples: (Smith, 2017); (James, Vargas, & Rhodes, n.d.).
- For long titles, a shortened form of the title is used in parentheses. For example , the title "Milk Chocolate Is Better Than Dark, the End," would be shortened in the parentheses to "Milk Chocolate."
In-text citations and the References list
In-text citations (narrative or parenthetical) must parallel the entries on the References list. She the examples below -- parallel elements are in maroon.
Formatting narrative and parenthetical citations
- APA Style In-Text Citations
- << Previous: Quoting, paraphrasing and signal phrases
- Next: Annotated bibliography >>
- Last Updated: Aug 4, 2023 10:02 AM
- Web address for this page:: https://libguides.reynolds.edu/apa