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Preparation of the Investigator for a Proposal

The research proposal, insights into the reviewer's perspective, conclusions, writing successful research proposals for medical science  .

(Schwinn) Professor of Anesthesiology and Surgery; Associate Professor of Pharmacology/Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center; Senior Fellow, Duke Pepper Aging Center.

(DeLong) Associate Professor, Division of Biometry and Medical Informatics, Duke University Medical Center.

(Shafer) Staff Anesthesiologist, Palo Alto VA Health Care System; Associate Professor of Anesthesia, Stanford University.

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Debra A. Schwinn , Elizabeth R. DeLong , Steven L. Shafer; Writing Successful Research Proposals for Medical Science   . Anesthesiology 1998; 88:1660–1666 doi:

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HIGH-QUALITY research proposals are required to obtain funds for the basic and clinical sciences. In this era of diminishing revenues, the ability to compete successfully for peer-reviewed research money is essential to create and maintain scientific programs. Ideally, the essentials of “grantsmanship” are learned through observation and participation in grant preparation, but the training environment experienced by most physicians typically focuses on clinical skills. Most physicians are never exposed to a research environment and therefore do not learn how to write grants. The result is that many clinical studies, even when designed by skilled clinicians and those that address important clinical questions, often do not compete successfully with proposals written by basic scientists. This creates a perception that clinical studies are not favorably viewed by research review committees. The opposite is probably closer to the truth; research review committees are very keen to fund excellent clinical research. Although greater numbers of researchers with Ph.D. degrees have applied for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants compared with researchers with M.D. degrees over the last 10 yr, funding rates (percent applications funded) have remained approximately the same for these investigators ( Figure 1 ; 1995 success rates: all degrees, 6,759 [26.8%]; M.D. - Ph.D., 370 [23.1%]; M.D., 1,518 [28.1%]; Ph.D., 4,746 [26.8%]; other degree, 125 [23.1%]).[section]

Figure 1. Overall success rates for NIH funding of scientific applications, 1986 - 1995. No difference in funding rate is observed between applicants holding M.D. versus Ph.D. degrees. As the success rate for first-time applications was 11.3% in 1993, it is apparent that resubmission of a revised application significantly increases the overall chance of having research proposal ultimately funded.[section]

Figure 1. Overall success rates for NIH funding of scientific applications, 1986 - 1995. No difference in funding rate is observed between applicants holding M.D. versus Ph.D. degrees. As the success rate for first-time applications was 11.3% in 1993, it is apparent that resubmission of a revised application significantly increases the overall chance of having research proposal ultimately funded.[section]

Capable medical researchers ultimately write research proposals for funding by the NIH. Standards of excellence for NIH grants are high (only the top [almost equal to] 20% of grants are funded). Research questions posed must be hypothesis driven; the investigator must be qualified to perform the study; and preliminary evidence should be presented demonstrating that the research is feasible and will answer the questions posed. The goal of this article is to review important elements of successful research proposals, with emphasis on funding sources available to the anesthesiology community. Two important anesthesia-specific organizations exist to support anesthesia research - The Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER, an organization under the auspices of the American Society of Anesthesiologists) and the International Anesthesiology Research Society (IARS).

Successful applications for research support from FAER and IARS have many of the characteristics of grants funded by the NIH and other peer-reviewed funding sources. These characteristics include (1) a highly qualified investigator(s);(2) for junior investigators, a mentor with a successful track record in scientific investigation, peer-reviewed funding, and mentorship of fellows and faculty;(3) a supportive academic environment; and (4) a scientifically sound proposal. Each of these characteristics is discussed in the subsequent sections.

Training of the Investigator

One of the most important components of a successful research proposal is a well-trained investigator. Training in clinical anesthesia is not training in research methodology or scientific thinking; it does not prepare an individual for a career in investigation. Although obvious for basic science research, clinical research also requires commitment of a minimum of 1 yr of dedicated training with a good mentor, and more typically 2 - 3 yr in the field of the proposed research. The applicant also needs to demonstrate commitment to a career in investigation. Several years of scientific training is the first demonstration of such commitment. Research proposals must document institutional support for nonclinical time, and the investigator must provide evidence that this time has been used wisely and will continue to be dedicated to the proposed research.

The research proposal must document a track record of productivity by the investigator. This expectation increases as the training and career of the investigator progresses. Fellowship awards do not have an expectation of prior research training, so publications from prior research are not expected. At the fellowship level, outstanding letters of recommendation, undergraduate and medical school performance, and related accomplishments are most important. Because previous training is not required of the fellowship applicant, prior success of the mentor (publications and track record with previous trainees) weighs heavily in the fellowship review. For junior faculty, peer-reviewed publications are expected from the fellowship period. Young Investigator Annoucements (from FAER) and several new IARS awards require several years as a successful junior faculty member, so expectations of demonstrated research success are further increased. The investigator must demonstrate (1) rigorous training, (2) commitment to research, (3) an appropriate career path, and (4) a track record of productive work. None of these are trivial issues, and none can be easily accomplished without making a commitment to research early in the academic career.

The quality of the mentor is another important aspect of awards granted to fellows and junior faculty. Identification of a mentor is explicitly required for FAER and certain junior level NIH grant applications. First and foremost, the mentor must be a successful investigator. Criteria for this include a track record of publication in the area of the proposed research, continued peer-reviewed funding, and a history of successfully training young investigators. Although mentorship is not considered heavily in more senior grant applications, input from a more experienced investigator often remains beneficial throughout one's career (as we can personally attest to). In addition to the mentor, high-quality coinvestigators, collaborators, and consultants also play important roles in strengthening a research proposal.


Good research is best accomplished in a supportive, cooperative environment. Because of the changing climate of clinical medicine, researchers (both clinical and basic science) face increasing pressure to minimize research time. It is not possible to become a successful investigator in one's spare time. Documentation of adequate nonclinical time for research (not for committee meetings or other unrelated tasks) is essential. Receiving funding at a junior level often enables the department to match funds or to guarantee nonclinical time to the budding investigator. In general, the more non-clinical time available to an investigator, the more competitive the application.

Other important elements of the environment include people, space, and institutional resources. People include mentors, consultants who can help with specific methodologies, statistical support, helpful colleagues, experienced technicians, a clinical research team, and a dedicated chairperson. There must be adequate space for performing the proposed studies, office space for research personnel, and storage space for equipment and supplies. Institutional resources include related departmental and interdepartmental seminar series, a critical mass of investigators in a related area, instrument development and repair shops, and necessary laboratory space and common facilities.

Criteria for a sound research proposal are the same whether the proposal is submitted to NIH, FAER, IARS, or other funding sources. In crafting a proposal, it is essential to consider the perspective of the reviewer; therefore, items of interest to the reviewer are listed after general definition of the grant proposal.

Review committees receive dozens of grants. NIH study sections may review as many as 150 proposals during one session. Typically, only two or three reviewers are assigned to read each grant in detail, but everyone is expected to read each abstract. Hence, the abstract is often one of the most important parts of the research proposal. The abstract should address the significance of the question and the overall topic, state the hypothesis, and point out key preliminary data. Additionally, the abstract should provide a synopsis of methodologies planned. In the end, the reviewer must be convinced that the applicant is uniquely (or ideally) suited to undertake this important study by the end of this concise paragraph.

Body of the Grant

Specific Aims. The specific aims section is critically important in a scientific proposal. It is here that the investigator crystallizes the overall goal of the research and states specific hypotheses.

Beginning with the specific aims, the proposal must be well written and logically organized. A poorly organized grant application is difficult to review, even if the science is otherwise excellent. Typically, the specific aims begin with a short introduction (one paragraph), followed by a formally stated hypothesis. The hypothesis must be answerable by the research methods proposed. Generally, two or three specific aims are outlined with subheadings where appropriate. Organization of the specific aims is often temporal, starting with a proposed mechanism or the first set of studies in a clinical project. In general, the specific aims section should be no longer than one page.

Background and Significance. The background section provides an opportunity to bring reviewers up to date on current research in the area of the proposal. This section should summarize succinctly studies from the literature and related work published by the investigator. The most crucial aspect of the background is to build a case for significance of the proposed research regarding the ultimate clinical application or mechanistic understanding. Ideally, the background section should demonstrate that the current proposal is a logical extension of previous studies in the field and will provide new information and novel insights. In general, the background section should be about one fourth of the length of the grant proposal.

Preliminary Data. Preliminary data provide the opportunity for the investigator to demonstrate his or her ability to perform the proposed research. The goal in presenting preliminary data is to convince the reviewer that the investigator is capable of performing the proposed studies and that the mechanisms proposed are plausible. Good preliminary data support novel (or even unlikely) hypotheses. Each experimental method proposed should be accompanied by preliminary data demonstrating facility and expertise with related preparations. For example, if the investigator proposes using a specific electrophysiologic technique to study an ion channel, evidence demonstrating that this technique has been used by the investigator with other ion channels and a Figure showingresults from pilot experiments on the channel of interest would suffice. In clinical studies, demonstration of a working investigative team and the ability to enroll a given number of patients per week is helpful. Figures or tables help to convey the message in a succinct manner. They also conserve space in the proposal and create a more impressive effect. Although it is best if the applicant has generated his or her own preliminary data, for training awards, preliminary data from the mentor's laboratory is entirely appropriate. An effective way to organize preliminary data is to present it in the same order as the specific aims (e.g., C.1 preliminary data corresponds to A.1 specific aims, C.2 preliminary data corresponds to A.2 specific aims, etc.). Presentation of preliminary data usually takes about one fourth to one third of the length of the grant application.

Methods. The methods are the guts of the research proposal. Unfortunately, many investigators run out of steam by the time they reach the methods, leaving reviewers unconvinced by the proposed methodology. Ideally, the model being investigated should be broken down into simple, logical components, each accompanied by a description of specific experiments/interventions to be performed. The investigator should assume that at least one reviewer is an expert in each method presented. Therefore, enough detail should be provided to convince an expert that the experiment or technique is being performed properly. Methods presented as a list of recipes, requiring the reviewer to guess which method applies to each study, are recipes for disaster. Individual experimental techniques should be state of the art. In addition, approaching a problem from several angles is often helpful. “Lingo” of the field should be avoided; it is very annoying to reviewers to have to look up unexplained abbreviations or to have models alluded to rather than described. For training grants, methods should involve techniques currently being performed in the laboratory of the mentor. An effective way to organize the methods section is to follow the same order as the preliminary data and specific aims sections (e.g., D.1 methods corresponds to C.1 preliminary data and A.1 specific aims, etc.).

The methods sections should include a description of the design, conduct, and analysis of each study being proposed. Common errors in design include lack of specification of primary outcome, lack of randomization or blinding in clinical trials, inadequate justification of sample size, failure to adjust the total study number for expected dropouts/failed experiments or patient refusal, and use of single drug doses or concentrations rather than development of dose - response or concentration - response relations. Common errors in conducting research include lack of confirmation of drug concentrations, inadequate reproducibility of final results, lack of standardization of procedures, inadequate follow-up, incomplete data recording, and overall lack of organization.

Inadequate or inappropriate statistical methods can be a major weakness of a grant proposal. Many investigators feel confident with all aspects of their methods except the statistical section. Because statistical issues underlie the design and analysis strategy for every study, the input of a biostatistician is essential in planning the research and writing the grant application. Statistical considerations include specification of the primary end points that drive power calculations. Common statistical errors in research proposals include lack of sample size/power calculations, treating continuous variables as dichotomous, repeated t tests when a more comprehensive modeling approach should be taken, application of statistical tests that assume normality without verifying assumptions, failure to consider covariate effects, and failure to distinguish between interindividual and intraindividual variability. The investigator should be familiar with the concept of statistical power and be prepared to estimate some of the quantities needed to formulate an alternative hypothesis appropriately. The statistical analysis should be clearly outlined with specific methodology directed toward the hypotheses of the study. A statistical reviewer is unlikely to be convinced by a statement that “appropriate statistical methodology will be used” or by a barrage of nonspecific statistical jargon. At least one full paragraph (and sometimes an entire page) of the research proposal should be devoted to statistical analysis. Often several smaller statistics sections are appropriately included after each method is presented.

Even the best methods have potential problems and weaknesses. It is critical that the methods section discuss potential problems that may be encountered during the study and state how the investigator proposes to deal with these problems creatively. Reviewers tend to be impressed when the investigator presents potential problems that never occurred to them, because it suggests that the investigator is an expert in this area of research. A time line and organizational plan (who will be responsible for what) should also be included in the methods section so the reviewers can determine whether the investigator is being realistic in his or her approach. The methods section is typically one third to one half of the length of the entire grant proposal.

Introduction to Revised Application. Because so few grant applications are funded on their first submission (11.5% in 1993), the new investigator should not be unduly alarmed if his or her application is not funded. When a grant application has been unsuccessful, an investigator should revise the application and reapply, even if the original score was “noncompetitive”(meaning the grant was in the lower 50% of applications). Often the reviewers suggest key changes that will improve the application significantly. When submitting a revised application, an introduction (placed before the specific aims section) is used to discuss how criticisms of the original grant have been addressed in the revised proposal. Because the reviewer's comments are intended to be helpful, it is important to address each concern carefully in the revised proposal (changed text should be highlighted in the revised application by italic, bold, or identifying lines in the margin), with changes outlined in the introduction section. Angry responses to reviewers do not facilitate funding of the revised application. Remember that reviewers usually have a copy of the prior review, and they expect corrections or, when appropriate, an explanation of why you have chosen not to incorporate some suggestions from a prior review. Time taken to revise an application is well spent; as Figure 1 demonstrates, investigators who persist in revising and resubmitting their applications have an increased chance ([almost equal to] 20% with no previous NIH support, [almost equal to] 35% if previously funded) of ultimately being funded.[section]

In writing a research grant, it is helpful to consider the reviewer's perspective. Key features considered by reviewers include significance, approach, and feasibility. It is wise for the investigator to reread his or her application before submission with these features in mind. The NIH recently has published two documents on-line that discuss review criteria; examination of these documents before submission of a research proposal may prove helpful. These include the Report of the Committee on Rating Grant Applications[double vertical bar] and Review Criteria for Rating Unsolicited Research Grants.#


First and foremost, is the investigator asking an important question? There are two general ways research studies can be significant. The first is to demonstrate clinical significance. The litmus test for clinical significance is whether the proposed research will improve patient care. The second is elucidation of fundamental mechanisms underlying disease or biologic processes. The ideal research question succeeds in being significant in both areas.

The reviewer assesses whether the research plan can support or refute the stated hypothesis. In addition, the reviewer assesses whether the methodologies used provide adequate or, better yet, elegant approaches to the problem. Recently, the NIH has mandated an increasing emphasis on innovation in research. [1] **

Review committees generally are composed of individuals with expertise in many scientific areas. Additionally, study sections often retain outside reviewers with expertise in the proposed research area. The investigator should assume that his or her methods will be critiqued by at least one expert. Therefore, the investigator should not propose a method that would strike the world's expert in the field as being simplistic, inappropriate, or nonsensical, because the world's expert just might be one of the reviewers. Conversely, some reviewers do not have expertise in the proposed area of research. To ensure that the nonexpert is convinced of the validity and importance of proposed methodologies, the overall proposal should be written with a logical flow of ideas that build from basic to sophisticated concepts. Beginning each portion of the methods section with a short introduction for the nonexpert, followed by a more detailed description of the proposed methods, is an effective strategy to address the needs of both expert and nonexpert reviewers.


The investigator must convince reviewers that the chosen approach is feasible. Preliminary data provide the best demonstration of feasibility. Feasibility is often demonstrated by a track record of publications or peer-reviewed grant support for the applicant or mentor using the proposed experimental approach. Feasibility also can be demonstrated by appropriate statistical analysis of the proposal. For example, a power analysis and corresponding data on the number of patients with the required characteristics at the investigator's institution helps convince reviewers that a clinical study is feasible.

Anesthesiology Funding Sources

Funding for research performed by anesthesiologists is available from many sources. Because the discipline of anesthesiology overlaps many other fields, anesthesiologists have the opportunity to apply for research funds from agencies as diverse as the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association (national and local), American Thoracic Society, American Society for Regional Anesthesiology, critical care societies, Department of Veterans Affairs, National Science Foundation, Shriners, Society for Cardiovascular Anesthesiology, Society for Obstetrics and Perinatology, National Aeronautics and Space Aviation, NIH, and many other private foundations. Grants from FAER and IARS are available specifically to the anesthesiology community.

It is important that anesthesiologists continue to apply for NIH grants. For fiscal year 1996, the NIH awarded 149 research grants (including career development grants, R29, R01, and program project grants) to departments of anesthesiology, totaling $21 million in direct costs ([almost equal to]$31 million in total costs). Because of the diversity of research projects in anesthesiology, these grants were awarded by 14 different institutes, centers, and divisions within the NIH. In analyzing data for three recent review sessions (June 1996, October 1996, and February 1997) from the surgery, anesthesiology, and trauma study section, 26% of anesthesiology applications scored in the top 20th percentile, and 31% scored in the top 25th percentile; clearly no bias exists against anesthesiology in this predominantly surgical study section, at least in this limited sample (Alison Cole, anesthesiology representative for the National Institute of General Medicine Science at the NIH, personal communication, December, 1997). Table 1  

Table 1. Number of Recipients of NIH Research Project Annoucements  

Table 1. Number of Recipients of NIH Research Project Annoucements 

A brief list of funding opportunities available to anesthesiologists early in their career is shown in Table 2 . Several sites are available on the World Wide Web ( Table 3 ) to facilitate access to grant/training resources for anesthesiologists. We have created an additional website ( ), which provides access to more comprehensive lists of funding agencies and direct links to funding sources. This website also contains example grants designed to illustrate the grant writing principles discussed in this article.

Table 2. Potential Funding Sources  

Table 2. Potential Funding Sources 

Table 3. Grant/Training Resources on the WWW  

Table 3. Grant/Training Resources on the WWW 

Successful grant applications require a well-trained investigator who carefully outlines a hypothesis-driven research proposal. Unique to FAER and IARS research committees is that the reviewers are mostly investigators and practicing anesthesiologists. These reviewers fully appreciate the importance of clinical research and enthusiastically support high-quality clinical studies. Although descriptive clinical studies are interesting to practicing clinicians, from a scientific perspective, clinical research must be driven by testable hypotheses. Without a testable hypothesis, clinical research cannot pass the test of adequate significance required for funding.

It is our hope that by demystifying the grant writing and review process that more anesthesiologists will be encouraged to submit proposals for research funding. As part of this effort, we strongly encourage residents and fellows interested in research careers to obtain adequate research training and to apply for appropriate fellowship/junior faculty awards early in their careers.

[section] NIH Extramural Data and Trends, Fiscal Years 1986 - 1995. Bethesda, Office of Reports and Analysis (component of the Office of Extramural Research), National Institutes of Health. (Published on-line and periodically updated. ).

[double vertical bar] Report of the Committee on Rating Grant Applications. Revised 5/17/96. Bethesda, National Institutes of Health. (Published on-line. ).

# Review Criteria for Rating Unsolicited Research Grants. NIH Guide, Vol. 26, No. 22, 6/27/97. Bethesda, National Institutes of Health. (Published on-line. ).

** Brown KS: A winning strategy for grant application: Focus on impact. The Scientist 1997; April 8:13–4

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How to write a research proposal?

Department of Anaesthesiology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Devika Rani Duggappa

Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or ‘blueprint’ for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal.


A clean, well-thought-out proposal forms the backbone for the research itself and hence becomes the most important step in the process of conduct of research.[ 1 ] The objective of preparing a research proposal would be to obtain approvals from various committees including ethics committee [details under ‘Research methodology II’ section [ Table 1 ] in this issue of IJA) and to request for grants. However, there are very few universally accepted guidelines for preparation of a good quality research proposal. A search was performed with keywords such as research proposal, funding, qualitative and writing proposals using search engines, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus.

Five ‘C’s while writing a literature review

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A proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new paradigm will it add to the literature, while specifying the question that the research will answer, establishing its significance, and the implications of the answer.[ 2 ] The proposal must be capable of convincing the evaluation committee about the credibility, achievability, practicality and reproducibility (repeatability) of the research design.[ 3 ] Four categories of audience with different expectations may be present in the evaluation committees, namely academic colleagues, policy-makers, practitioners and lay audiences who evaluate the research proposal. Tips for preparation of a good research proposal include; ‘be practical, be persuasive, make broader links, aim for crystal clarity and plan before you write’. A researcher must be balanced, with a realistic understanding of what can be achieved. Being persuasive implies that researcher must be able to convince other researchers, research funding agencies, educational institutions and supervisors that the research is worth getting approval. The aim of the researcher should be clearly stated in simple language that describes the research in a way that non-specialists can comprehend, without use of jargons. The proposal must not only demonstrate that it is based on an intelligent understanding of the existing literature but also show that the writer has thought about the time needed to conduct each stage of the research.[ 4 , 5 ]


The contents or formats of a research proposal vary depending on the requirements of evaluation committee and are generally provided by the evaluation committee or the institution.

In general, a cover page should contain the (i) title of the proposal, (ii) name and affiliation of the researcher (principal investigator) and co-investigators, (iii) institutional affiliation (degree of the investigator and the name of institution where the study will be performed), details of contact such as phone numbers, E-mail id's and lines for signatures of investigators.

The main contents of the proposal may be presented under the following headings: (i) introduction, (ii) review of literature, (iii) aims and objectives, (iv) research design and methods, (v) ethical considerations, (vi) budget, (vii) appendices and (viii) citations.[ 4 ]


It is also sometimes termed as ‘need for study’ or ‘abstract’. Introduction is an initial pitch of an idea; it sets the scene and puts the research in context.[ 6 ] The introduction should be designed to create interest in the reader about the topic and proposal. It should convey to the reader, what you want to do, what necessitates the study and your passion for the topic.[ 7 ] Some questions that can be used to assess the significance of the study are: (i) Who has an interest in the domain of inquiry? (ii) What do we already know about the topic? (iii) What has not been answered adequately in previous research and practice? (iv) How will this research add to knowledge, practice and policy in this area? Some of the evaluation committees, expect the last two questions, elaborated under a separate heading of ‘background and significance’.[ 8 ] Introduction should also contain the hypothesis behind the research design. If hypothesis cannot be constructed, the line of inquiry to be used in the research must be indicated.

Review of literature

It refers to all sources of scientific evidence pertaining to the topic in interest. In the present era of digitalisation and easy accessibility, there is an enormous amount of relevant data available, making it a challenge for the researcher to include all of it in his/her review.[ 9 ] It is crucial to structure this section intelligently so that the reader can grasp the argument related to your study in relation to that of other researchers, while still demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. It is preferable to summarise each article in a paragraph, highlighting the details pertinent to the topic of interest. The progression of review can move from the more general to the more focused studies, or a historical progression can be used to develop the story, without making it exhaustive.[ 1 ] Literature should include supporting data, disagreements and controversies. Five ‘C's may be kept in mind while writing a literature review[ 10 ] [ Table 1 ].

Aims and objectives

The research purpose (or goal or aim) gives a broad indication of what the researcher wishes to achieve in the research. The hypothesis to be tested can be the aim of the study. The objectives related to parameters or tools used to achieve the aim are generally categorised as primary and secondary objectives.

Research design and method

The objective here is to convince the reader that the overall research design and methods of analysis will correctly address the research problem and to impress upon the reader that the methodology/sources chosen are appropriate for the specific topic. It should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.

In this section, the methods and sources used to conduct the research must be discussed, including specific references to sites, databases, key texts or authors that will be indispensable to the project. There should be specific mention about the methodological approaches to be undertaken to gather information, about the techniques to be used to analyse it and about the tests of external validity to which researcher is committed.[ 10 , 11 ]

The components of this section include the following:[ 4 ]

Population and sample

Population refers to all the elements (individuals, objects or substances) that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a given universe,[ 12 ] and sample refers to subset of population which meets the inclusion criteria for enrolment into the study. The inclusion and exclusion criteria should be clearly defined. The details pertaining to sample size are discussed in the article “Sample size calculation: Basic priniciples” published in this issue of IJA.

Data collection

The researcher is expected to give a detailed account of the methodology adopted for collection of data, which include the time frame required for the research. The methodology should be tested for its validity and ensure that, in pursuit of achieving the results, the participant's life is not jeopardised. The author should anticipate and acknowledge any potential barrier and pitfall in carrying out the research design and explain plans to address them, thereby avoiding lacunae due to incomplete data collection. If the researcher is planning to acquire data through interviews or questionnaires, copy of the questions used for the same should be attached as an annexure with the proposal.

Rigor (soundness of the research)

This addresses the strength of the research with respect to its neutrality, consistency and applicability. Rigor must be reflected throughout the proposal.

It refers to the robustness of a research method against bias. The author should convey the measures taken to avoid bias, viz. blinding and randomisation, in an elaborate way, thus ensuring that the result obtained from the adopted method is purely as chance and not influenced by other confounding variables.


Consistency considers whether the findings will be consistent if the inquiry was replicated with the same participants and in a similar context. This can be achieved by adopting standard and universally accepted methods and scales.


Applicability refers to the degree to which the findings can be applied to different contexts and groups.[ 13 ]

Data analysis

This section deals with the reduction and reconstruction of data and its analysis including sample size calculation. The researcher is expected to explain the steps adopted for coding and sorting the data obtained. Various tests to be used to analyse the data for its robustness, significance should be clearly stated. Author should also mention the names of statistician and suitable software which will be used in due course of data analysis and their contribution to data analysis and sample calculation.[ 9 ]

Ethical considerations

Medical research introduces special moral and ethical problems that are not usually encountered by other researchers during data collection, and hence, the researcher should take special care in ensuring that ethical standards are met. Ethical considerations refer to the protection of the participants' rights (right to self-determination, right to privacy, right to autonomy and confidentiality, right to fair treatment and right to protection from discomfort and harm), obtaining informed consent and the institutional review process (ethical approval). The researcher needs to provide adequate information on each of these aspects.

Informed consent needs to be obtained from the participants (details discussed in further chapters), as well as the research site and the relevant authorities.

When the researcher prepares a research budget, he/she should predict and cost all aspects of the research and then add an additional allowance for unpredictable disasters, delays and rising costs. All items in the budget should be justified.

Appendices are documents that support the proposal and application. The appendices will be specific for each proposal but documents that are usually required include informed consent form, supporting documents, questionnaires, measurement tools and patient information of the study in layman's language.

As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. Although the words ‘references and bibliography’ are different, they are used interchangeably. It refers to all references cited in the research proposal.

Successful, qualitative research proposals should communicate the researcher's knowledge of the field and method and convey the emergent nature of the qualitative design. The proposal should follow a discernible logic from the introduction to presentation of the appendices.

Financial support and sponsorship

Conflicts of interest.

There are no conflicts of interest.

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how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  • Manuscript Preparation

Medical Research Abstract: How to Write

  • 4 minute read

Table of Contents

The abstract for your medical research is arguably the most important piece of your manuscript. Although brief, typically between 300-500 words, the abstract is a summary of the key aspects of your research. Some researchers find it almost impossible to sum up sometimes years of hard work in just a few paragraphs, but that’s exactly what the abstract is designed to do. You want to pique the interest of your reader so that they’ll want to delve further. A well-written abstract can increase citations, conference presentation invitations and publication opportunities.

In this article, we’ll cover the core ingredients of a solid medical research abstract, how to write a medical research abstract as well as how to write a clinical abstract. We’ll also cover a checklist to make sure you have everything to submit your abstract for a presentation.

How to Write an Abstract for a Medical Research Paper

When writing an abstract, think of it as an advertisement, along with your title, for your article. You want to make it interesting, avoiding jargon, references and excessive abbreviations. Your abstract should be easy to understand, and summarize your research. Even though your abstract needs to be brief, it also needs to be accurate, providing results but minimal details about methods. You’ll also include a brief description of your conclusions.

Before setting down to write your abstract, know the rules of where you’ll be submitting it. Some institutions limit the abstract by length, request particular formatting, and other submission details.

The fundamentals of how to write a medical research abstract and how to write a clinical abstract are fundamentally the same. Let’s take a look at the common elements of both.

What does a medical abstract include?

First, you have to include the “whats” of your research. Namely, what’s been done and what are the findings. More specifically, you want to organize your abstract as follows:

  • Title and Author: Write a winning title by making a list of 5-10 keywords, and writing a few sentences including those words. From there, work out a sentence that captures the core meaning of your work, condensing it to focus on the essentials of your research. Take your time when coming up with a title. This is the first aspect of your “advertisement” to pique interest and further reading.

If you’re writing the abstract for a presentation, the first author listed will be the one who is making the oral presentation. Make sure that author meets and presentation requirements, for instance, someone who is a member of the organization sponsoring the event or research.

  • Introduction: The introduction includes several sentences that are designed to outline the question or problem addressed in the research. The first sentence should be particularly interesting and attention gathering. For example, “700,000 people die each year from…” versus, “A growing cause of death is…” The rest of the introduction includes a few sentences on how your research fills any gaps of knowledge, and finally any hypotheses you had going into the research.
  • Methodology: This may be the most difficult part of the abstract to compose. You have to simplify the description of your methodology to keep to the strict word-count of the abstract, but also include enough detail so that your work can be seen as valid and important. For a clinical or medical research abstract, this will include the research design, setting, number of patients, and how they were selected. Of course, you’ll also include the intervention, if applicable, as well as different outcomes. Finally, you’ll outline briefly statistical methods that were used to analyze your data.
  • Results: In this section, you’ll first describe who was included and excluded (and why) from your study. Next, you’ll outline key outcome variables and their frequency, as well as variables among subgroups (like age groups, untreated vs. treated, female vs. female, etc.). Consider a table to present this information, if permitted. Any numerical results need to include 95% confidence limits or standard deviations, as well as the significance level.
  • Conclusion: As concisely as you can, state your conclusion and implications. Both need to be supported by data. If space permits, consider including the generalizability of your results to other populations, and possible weaknesses of the study.

Bottom Line

Although brief, count on your abstract taking several days to compose. Budget your time accordingly, and seek input from other researchers and colleagues. Share your abstract with a mentor to get honest feedback, and fine-tune accordingly. Double and triple-check for any grammatical, spelling or other errors. Use the following checklist to make sure everything is in order before submitting your abstract for review.

Medical Research Abstract Checklist

  • Check due date for the abstract
  • Verify number of copies needed for submission
  • Presenting author is listed first, and fulfills all eligibility requirements
  • All author affiliations are included
  • Abstract meets word-limit
  • If applicable, abstract is printed using the correct style, font size, etc.
  • Abstract has been proofread and reviewed by others for grammar, spelling, style and content
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion (supported by data presented within the abstract)

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Need an extra hand with your manuscript, presentation or medical research abstract? Our Language Editing Plus services include unlimited rounds of language review for up to one year, a focus on logic and flow, manuscript formatting for the journal of your choice, reference checks and a customized cover letter. Find out more here , and get started today!

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How to write a research proposal?


  • 1 Department of Anaesthesiology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • PMID: 27729688
  • PMCID: PMC5037942
  • DOI: 10.4103/0019-5049.190617

Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or 'blueprint' for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal.

Keywords: Guidelines; proposal; qualitative; research.

Publication types


  • Peterborough

A student studying on the floor

How to Write a Research Proposals

Introduction to research proposals, your research topic, writing a research proposal, common issues with proposals.

  • Worksheet for Proposal Writing – Guiding Questions

Research is a careful and systematic investigation of an area of knowledge and is a structured approach to collect, analyze, and interpret information to create new knowledge.

A research proposal clarifies the researcher’s thoughts into a coherent statement of research intent and answers three questions about the research topic:

  • What are you investigating?
  • Why are you conducting this research?
  • How are you investigating this topic?

An upper-year undergraduate project is usually shorter and less complex than a graduate student’s project, so the length and sophistication of your proposal will vary by level of study. Different disciplines have varying expectations for your proposal. Consult with your supervisor, or an Academic Skills Instructor, to help guide you through the process of writing a research proposal.

The starting point of a research project begins with finding a topic of interest to you, followed by preliminary exploration of the topic through reading the relevant literature. As you become more familiar with the subject area you will gain a sense of the scope and complexity of the topic. At this point, you may want to narrow down the subject area and consider If this project can be achieved in the amount of time that you have available. Like a research paper, or an essay, there are steps to take to narrow your topic. Explore Choosing and Narrowing a Topic

A title is concise, but should be descriptive enough so that your reader can understand what your research is about from the title alone. Consider writing a list of key words to help you develop a strong title.

Introduction, Background Research, and Rationale

The introduction provides context for your research topic, identifies the research problem, and demonstrates how your topic fits in with past research.

Background research is required in the introduction of a proposal and involves searching for, describing, and analyzing scholarly sources that are related to your topic.  Your arguments and choices in your proposal must be supported by relevant literature. You should demonstrate how your proposed study is unique and builds on previous research.

The background research in the introduction:

  • brings clarity and focus to your research topic,
  • provides an overview of key sources,
  • provides theoretical background for the research,
  • explains what research has been done and what has not,
  • demonstrates how your research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge (fill the gap),
  • and outlines the anticipated outcomes and significance of the research.

You may find a situation where no research has been conducted on a topic and you need to expand your research parameters by considering a different theoretical stance or a unique methodology. You can contact a Trent Librarian to help you expand your search. Book a Librarian

Once you have done a thorough search of the literature, you will discover what other researchers have found and what aspects of your topic have not been researched thoroughly, known as the research gap. The research gap forms part of your rationale, or justification, for doing the research. As well as the research gap, you should justify how your research will strengthen theoretical knowledge about your topic or provide possible practical applications for stakeholders.

Research Aims/Objectives and Research Questions

A research aim is a statement that succinctly defines the path and destination of the research and is often restates the research topic.

Objectives translate the aim of the research into operational statements and tell the reader how the research will be conducted. Objectives should be specific, unambiguous, and realistic. Some disciplines favour having the objectives reframed as research questions.

In some social science and science research it may be appropriate to include hypotheses and predictions. A hypothesis is an answer to a causal research question, and a prediction is the outcome you would observe if the hypothesis was correct.   Further discussion of hypotheses and predictions.

Literature Review

When reviewing the literature for your research, the focus should be on the major published works in your area of interest. You will be identifying and presenting what is already known about the problem and providing a balanced view of the literature. Elements of a literature review may appear in any section of the proposal from the introduction to the methods and conclusion. More information about literature reviews.

Steps in creating a literature review:

  • Identify disciplinary conventions in literature reviews by reading other literature reviews in your area of study.  
  • Creating a research plan
  • Searching for sources
  • Evaluate the sources that you find for relevance, accuracy, trustworthiness, and how they will contribute to your study. 
  • Templates for reading in social sciences and sciences
  • Template for taking notes and evaluating sources
  • Create an outline based on your research questions and what you have found in your reading of the literature.
  • Synthesize, or combine, your sources into clear paragraphs. Integrating evidence into paragraphs
  • Format your references using a consistent documentation style. Documentation style by discipline

Research Methodology

The methodology should indicate how the study will be conducted, how data will be collected, the analytical methods to be used in the study, and the process of developing findings and conclusions. The choices that you make need to address your research question(s) and be supported by the literature. 

Items to consider in the research methodology section in the social sciences:

  • Strategies of inquiry – quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods
  • Sampling strategies and data collection
  • Construction of research instruments (e.g., design of questionnaires or interviews, data collection methods in the field, ethics, pilot studies)
  • Data presentation and analysis

Items to consider in the research methodology section in the humanities:

  • Theoretical framework for analysis
  • Primary source selection and evidence collection
  • Contextualize evidence with secondary sources
  • Argumentation strategy (e.g., case study, cause and effect, categorization, compare/contrast., chronological narrative)

Items to consider in the research methodology section in the sciences:

  • Study design
  • Data collection strategies and tools (e.g., field work, laboratory analysis, modelling)
  • Data analysis, statistical assumptions, and approaches
  • Quality assurance and control

Research Significance and Importance

As a part of your proposal, you may need to state the significance or importance of your research. One common theme is the research gap that you have identified in your literature review phase. You should also explain how the proposed research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and how the outcome of the research will benefit stakeholders, such as academia, individuals and communities, industry and commerce, or policy makers.

Research Program

An outline of necessary resources and a timeline of activities may be required for your project. A timeline is useful to monitor your progress through the research project.

Throughout your writing, references need to be cited and included in a reference list. The focus should be on academic sources, as well as grey literature where relevant. Documentation styles used by your discipline.

Missing Rationale

A proposal should justify the selection of your topic and provide a link between the research problem, aims, and objectives of the study. You should disclose any gaps in the literature, contradictions from previous studies, or concepts that need further exploration. Consider the importance of the study for stakeholders.

Lack of Logical Continuity

All sections of the proposal need to link together and have coherence between the units. Some examples of lack of continuity include: the introduction does not lead to the research objectives, no link between the objectives and the methodology, and information in different sections is repetitive.


Omissions in a proposal may be related to research proposal statements that are unsupported by the literature or that the literature review may be too narrow or inadequate in scope. The design and methods section may not be outlined in enough detail.

Lack of Justification of Choices

The proposal needs to outline your choices regarding how the research will be conducted. These choices need to be supported by literature. For example, the justification of the method design choices (e.g., sampling strategies, choice of instruments, and data analysis tools) need to be supported by academic sources.  

Confusion about the Elements of a Research Proposal

Students are often confused about what to include in the different sections of the proposal. Confusion may arise because different disciplines have slightly different terminology for sections of a proposal. Use the above categories as a guide and consult your supervisor for specific disciplinary conventions.

Scope of the Project

The scope (size) of the project should not be so large that you are unable to complete the project in the available time and the design of the study should be achievable. As well, the project should not be too small, or narrow, with insufficient sources/data to support your arguments or be able have your results generalizable. 

How to Write a Proposal for a Research Paper

How to write a proposal for a research paper ? Now that you know what makes a good research paper topic, you also know the main points to include in a proposal. It should briefly explain why it is interesting and how you are going to manage it.

Different departments have different rules for research paper proposals, saying when they are due (usually near the end of junior year or the beginning of senior year) and how long they should be (usually a page or two). You can find out the specifics from a departmental administrator or perhaps from the department’s Web site. It’s essential to know these administrative details, and you should find them out now. But they are separate from the intellectual issues we cover here.

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Whatever the department regulations, all research paper proposals need to contain a few key points about what you intend to do. In clear, concise language, your proposal should explain:

  • What your main question or topic is
  • Why it matters
  • How you plan to approach the analysis

The proposal should briefly state your topic, its importance to your field, and the way you intend to analyze it. The trick is to be brief without being vague.

What you need not do is answer the hard questions you pose. That’s not the job of the proposal. That’s the job of the thesis itself. If you can already answer the main questions you pose, then they are probably the wrong ones. You should pose other, more challenging questions. Your research paper proposal should outline your topic, its importance, and your approach to studying it. It should pose one or two major questions, but it does not need to answer them. The thesis itself will do that.

One way to explain your topic’s importance is to describe current debates surrounding it and how leading scholars treat it. Are there major disputes among theorists or practitioners? What is at stake in these debates? If your topic is not particularly prominent, then you should say why it deserves more attention. What’s wrong with just ignoring it? In some fields, such as medical ethics, environmental regulation, or educational policy, you should also underscore the topic’s practical significance. Does it affect many people or perhaps affect a few with great intensity?

Once you have identified an important question and stated it clearly, you need to say how you will examine it. Again, you are not trying to answer the question. You are saying how you intend to find the answer. You need to show that the investigation is a manageable task and is likely to yield answers. You may wish to illustrate your approach with a little preliminary analysis, probably only a paragraph or two.

In the social sciences, you should also mention what data you will use. Do you plan to use case studies, interviews, large databases, original documents, or some combination of these? Will this be more a quantitative study or a qualitative one?

In the humanities and less quantitative social sciences, you should say which primary texts you will study, such as Wordsworth’s early poems or Abigail Adams’s letters. Will you be studying particular drawings by Leonardo or particular movies by Tarantino? If you plan to rely on (or contend with) some major secondary works, such as several major books about Wordsworth, mention that and explain how they fit into your research paper.

Normally, a research paper proposal does not mention your academic background or special skills unless they directly affect your planned research. For instance, you would not mention that you have taken advanced statistics courses, but you might mention the techniques you plan to use for data analysis. For a research paper on World War II in the Pacific, you might say that you will rely on important documents in the original Japanese. If these documents have never been translated, be sure to mention it. It shows the excitement and originality of your paper. In discussing these skills, your goal is never to show off. It is to show what you will study and how you will study it.

How to Revise a Research Paper Proposal

Getting your professor or instructor to approve your research paper proposal is often seen as just a bureaucratic hurdle, yet another dull requirement among so many you have to meet in college. In fact, it can be much more useful to you. A good proposal would be worth doing even if it were not required, because it will start your research on the right path.

That’s also why it is valuable to revise your proposal, to make sure it lays out the research questions intelligently and explains how you intend to study them. Few departments require these revisions, but they are still worth doing to make certain the research paper is well conceived at the outset.

You can learn a great deal from drafting a proposal, discussing it, and revising it in response to faculty comments. Trying to explain your project will help you understand it better. Discussing it with faculty will help, too, because your instructor’s suggestions and clarifications come at a critical moment, while you are still framing your focal questions and your basic approach.

That is why, if you have time, you should do more than ask for your instructor’s approval and signature. You should meet to discuss a first draft of your research paper proposal and incorporate the comments in a revised version. Then return to discuss it before moving on to more focused research. The draft proposal and its revisions will point you in the right direction.

This is a perfect time to think about the research paper as a whole and how you will approach it. Your revised proposal should reflect your reappraisal, putting you in a much stronger position to launch your research. That is why revisions are standard operating procedures for much larger papers such as dissertation proposals. They can aid your research paper for exactly the same reasons. By treating your proposal thoughtfully, you are doing more than simply clearing another bureaucratic hurdle. You are molding and improving your paper at its most pliable moment.

Back to How To Write A Research Paper .


how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

How to Write a Research Proposal: Steps, Outline, Example, and More!

how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

What Is a Research Proposal: Definition and Purpose

A research proposal is a strategic tool for a world of uncharted discoveries. It is the entrance to the world of scientific inquiry, where the bounds of human knowledge are pushed, and new perspectives are unveiled. When wondering what is a research proposal and what is its main purpose, remember that it accomplishes two things at once: it persuades the academics that the proposed study deserves funding and leads the researcher on an exciting intellectual quest. The proposal combines a call to action, a request for financial support, and a mission statement. It's a creative work that unites the brilliance of creation with the powerful ability to persuade, opening up a whole new range of alternatives.

A research proposal sets forth a planned research study's objectives, approach, schedule, and financial details. Its main goal is to persuade a funding organization or other interested parties that the suggested project is worth the investment and that the scholar has the competence and assets necessary to complete it adequately. The proposal has to be crystal clear, direct to the point, and persuasive, making a strong argument for the significance of the study, its future contribution, and the original strategy the scholar would employ. Each ambitious researcher should have a strong study proposal, which may lead to funding possibilities, team projects, and even brand-new insights.

We bet you'd fancy a guide on how to write a proposal for a research paper with detailed information and explaining steps required to successfully complete your work. Then, let's delve into the following sections right away!

How to Write a Research Proposal Step-by-Step

There is no research proposal template that is universally applicable to all types of papers. However, no matter how extensive and in-depth your study is, you will discover that the majority of research paper proposal example templates contain the following information:

research proposal

Research Paper Title

So, how to start a research proposal? The logical answer is to first come up with a proper title. A well-written title can greatly increase the likelihood of a research article being read and referenced. For instance, a study titled 'The Effect of Media Platforms on Social Development: A Systematic Review' effectively communicates the study's focus while clarifying how it was conducted. The reader will find it simpler to comprehend the study's goal and any potential ramifications owing to the title's precision and informational nature.

An abstract provides a 150-300 word summary of a research paper and its primary objectives, methods, results, and conclusions. As it is frequently the first thing readers see and can influence whether they continue reading the complete article, the abstract is an important part of a research study. An effective abstract should summarize the paper's ideas, be simple to read, and emphasize the importance and possible influence of the work. It should give readers a thorough understanding of the paper's scope and purpose while piquing their interest in learning more.

If you're wondering how to write a research proposal context, remember that here you should provide the structure and background information of your paper. Typically, you should discuss related literature reviews and any gaps in research that you'll be exploring throughout the study. It's also suggested that you stress the importance of undertaking the research and mentioning related theoretical and conceptual frameworks employed. Considering these, providing the context in your proposal is crucial since it helps your audience comprehend the study's relevance and how it fits into a broader perspective.

Research Question

The research question is the foundation of your proposal that shapes your study design and defines its main goal. It demonstrates your desire to learn more while furthering your academic career. If you're writing a proposal about comparing the US and UK healthcare systems, then you can come up with the following research question: 'How do low-income citizens with severe diseases do in terms of their physical well-being in the US and the UK?'.

Research Method

In the research proposal, you should go into depth about how you conducted your study. Explain your key research tools and the techniques you employed to get your results. If you conducted interviews, tell the reader about the subjects of your questions. Lastly, provide your analysis of the results.

Research Significance

Afterward, you should describe the significance of your work. Every research proposal sample will briefly explain how your research is unique and contributes to the topic of study. You might wish to provide reasoning for the necessity of your study at this given moment. For example: 'The study's findings connect Psycho with other contemporary movies that share the same shock-factor traits. The startling aspect is more difficult to create today, as seen by the rise of low-budget, badly made horror movies that rely on shock rather than suspense to keep viewers' interest.'


Finally, you should compile a list of the articles and books most helpful to your research. You may need to do so according to the guidelines set forth by your instructor for research papers (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.). You could also develop an annotated bibliography in which you explain how each resource aided your inquiry.

How to Create a Research Proposal Outline with a Research Proposal Template

Your outline format should look like the research proposal example provided above. Ensure you have a well-defined research topic and a clear plan for organizing your approach before starting the proposal writing process. Our history essay writer suggests that the following be included in your research proposal outline:

research template

I. Introduction

  • Background information and context
  • Research problem statement
  • Research question(s) or hypothesis

II. Literature Review

  • Review of relevant literature
  • Identification of gaps in existing research
  • Explanation of how the proposed research will address those gaps

III. Methodology

  • Research design
  • Participants or population
  • Sampling method
  • Data collection methods
  • Data analysis methods

IV. Expected Results

  • Discussion of expected outcomes
  • Significance of expected outcomes

V. Timeline

  • Project timeline with major milestones
  • Itemized budget with justification for expenses

VII. Conclusion

  • Recap of the research problem and proposed solution
  • Potential contributions to the field of study

VIII. References

  • List of references cited in the proposal

research outline

This research paper outline should give you a clear idea of how to write a research proposal example effortlessly. Now, let's find out more about the formatting details.

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How to Format a Research Proposal Properly: APA Research Proposal

A research proposal format might be as short as a few paragraphs or as extensive as up to ten pages for dissertations. When unsure how to format a research proposal, first discuss details with your teacher, such as length, content, style, etc. However, one of the most demanded formats is the APA style, which follows a specific format as given in the American Psychological Association guidelines. As it guides the project and helps guarantee that the study is thorough, ethical, and evidence-based, a research proposal example APA is usually generated before the study is conducted. Here is the general APA format:

  • 12-point font Times New Roman
  • Double-spaced
  • 1-inch margins
  • An APA running head (limited to 50 characters)
  • A title page with the paper's title (no more than 12 words in length), your name, and the name of your institution
  • An abstract (150-200 words)
  • In-text citations
  • References page

Effective Research Proposal Topics

Research proposals are the foundation of scholarly investigation. Therefore, thinking of fresh and distinctive research proposal ideas might be difficult. Due to this, our paper writers have supplied some excellent research proposal topics that will add excitement and enthusiasm to your academic endeavor:

  • Investigating whether virtual reality affects how medical students acquire empathy.
  • Examining the efficiency of a mindfulness-based treatment in decreasing college students' social media addiction.
  • The link between preschoolers' cultivation of creativity and outdoor recreation.
  • Evaluating the application of chatbots to provide mental health therapy to underprivileged groups.
  • Fostering food security and social cohesiveness in urban areas using green spaces.
  • An investigation of how music affects the development of memory in older people.
  • Examining how light pollution affects nocturnal animals' circadian clocks.
  • Investigating how mindfulness techniques affect people with anxiety disorders' ability to control their emotions.
  • The link between teenage self-esteem and use of social media.
  • An investigation on the effects of daily exercise on mental function in people with moderate memory loss.

Research Proposal Example

Here is a research proposal example APA. Notice the structure of a short research paper (around 15 pages) and the APA formatting.

If you enjoyed our sample, feel free to drop us your ' write an essay for me ' request for any kind of assignment.

To wrap up, we hope our article assisted you in writing a research proposal. In addition to providing a thorough analysis of all the crucial elements of a research project, we provided guidance on how to write a research paper proposal that stands out.

And if you're already prepared to start producing a scholarly research paper, you can always rely on us! Contact us with your ' write my research paper ' request to place an order for a quality custom term paper that will easily impress your professor!

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How to Write a Medical Research Paper

Last Updated: May 29, 2020 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Chris M. Matsko, MD . Dr. Chris M. Matsko is a retired physician based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. With over 25 years of medical research experience, Dr. Matsko was awarded the Pittsburgh Cornell University Leadership Award for Excellence. He holds a BS in Nutritional Science from Cornell University and an MD from the Temple University School of Medicine in 2007. Dr. Matsko earned a Research Writing Certification from the American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) in 2016 and a Medical Writing & Editing Certification from the University of Chicago in 2017. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 89% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 195,922 times.

Writing a medical research paper is similar to writing other research papers in that you want to use reliable sources, write in a clear and organized style, and offer a strong argument for all conclusions you present. In some cases the research you discuss will be data you have actually collected to answer your research questions. Understanding proper formatting, citations, and style will help you write and informative and respected paper.

Researching Your Paper

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 1

  • Pick something that really interests you to make the research more fun.
  • Choose a topic that has unanswered questions and propose solutions.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 2

  • Quantitative studies consist of original research performed by the writer. These research papers will need to include sections like Hypothesis (or Research Question), Previous Findings, Method, Limitations, Results, Discussion, and Application.
  • Synthesis papers review the research already published and analyze it. They find weaknesses and strengths in the research, apply it to a specific situation, and then indicate a direction for future research.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 3

  • Keep track of your sources. Write down all publication information necessary for citation: author, title of article, title of book or journal, publisher, edition, date published, volume number, issue number, page number, and anything else pertaining to your source. A program like Endnote can help you keep track of your sources.
  • Take detailed notes as you read. Paraphrase information in your own words or if you copy directly from the article or book, indicate that these are direct quotes by using quotation marks to prevent plagiarism.
  • Be sure to keep all of your notes with the correct source.
  • Your professor and librarians can also help you find good resources.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 4

  • Keep all of your notes in a physical folder or in a digitized form on the computer.
  • Start to form the basic outline of your paper using the notes you have collected.

Writing Your Paper

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 5

  • Start with bullet points and then add in notes you've taken from references that support your ideas. [1] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
  • A common way to format research papers is to follow the IMRAD format. This dictates the structure of your paper in the following order: I ntroduction, M ethods, R esults, a nd D iscussion. [2] X Research source
  • The outline is just the basic structure of your paper. Don't worry if you have to rearrange a few times to get it right.
  • Ask others to look over your outline and get feedback on the organization.
  • Know the audience you are writing for and adjust your style accordingly. [3] X Research source

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 6

  • Use a standard font type and size, such as Times New Roman 12 point font.
  • Double-space your paper.
  • If necessary, create a cover page. Most schools require a cover page of some sort. Include your main title, running title (often a shortened version of your main title), author's name, course name, and semester.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 7

  • Break up information into sections and subsections and address one main point per section.
  • Include any figures or data tables that support your main ideas.
  • For a quantitative study, state the methods used to obtain results.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 8

  • Clearly state and summarize the main points of your research paper.
  • Discuss how this research contributes to the field and why it is important. [4] X Research source
  • Highlight potential applications of the theory if appropriate.
  • Propose future directions that build upon the research you have presented. [5] X Research source
  • Keep the introduction and discussion short, and spend more time explaining the methods and results. [6] X Research source

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 9

  • State why the problem is important to address.
  • Discuss what is currently known and what is lacking in the field.
  • State the objective of your paper.
  • Keep the introduction short.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 10

  • Highlight the purpose of the paper and the main conclusions.
  • State why your conclusions are important.
  • Be concise in your summary of the paper.
  • Show that you have a solid study design and a high-quality data set.
  • Abstracts are usually one paragraph and between 250 – 500 words.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 11

  • Unless otherwise directed, use the American Medical Association (AMA) style guide to properly format citations.
  • Add citations at end of a sentence to indicate that you are using someone else's idea. Use these throughout your research paper as needed. They include the author's last name, year of publication, and page number.
  • Compile your reference list and add it to the end of your paper.
  • Use a citation program if you have access to one to simplify the process.

Image titled Write a Medical Research Paper Step 12

  • Continually revise your paper to make sure it is structured in a logical way.
  • Proofread your paper for spelling and grammatical errors.
  • Make sure you are following the proper formatting guidelines provided for the paper.
  • Have others read your paper to proofread and check for clarity. Revise as needed.

Expert Q&A Did you know you can get expert answers for this article? Unlock expert answers by supporting wikiHow

Chris M. Matsko, MD

Support wikiHow by unlocking this expert answer.

  • Ask your professor for help if you are stuck or confused about any part of your research paper. They are familiar with the style and structure of papers and can provide you with more resources. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • Refer to your professor's specific guidelines. Some instructors modify parts of a research paper to better fit their assignment. Others may request supplementary details, such as a synopsis for your research project . Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • Set aside blocks of time specifically for writing each day. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  • Do not plagiarize. Plagiarism is using someone else's work, words, or ideas and presenting them as your own. It is important to cite all sources in your research paper, both through internal citations and on your reference page. Thanks Helpful 4 Not Helpful 2

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About This Article

Chris M. Matsko, MD

To write a medical research paper, research your topic thoroughly and compile your data. Next, organize your notes and create a strong outline that breaks up the information into sections and subsections, addressing one main point per section. Write the results and discussion sections first to go over your findings, then write the introduction to state your objective and provide background information. Finally, write the abstract, which concisely summarizes the article by highlighting the main points. For tips on formatting and using citations, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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17+ Medical Research Proposal Templates in PDF | DOC

To create a medical research proposal, you need to find valuable information and create a complicated document. The proposal is mainly devised for investors, academic heads, or other people who would value the legitimacy of your project proposal and assess the merit. For successful research proposals, you need to follow certain guidelines for efficiency. We have all sorts of medical research proposal templates for users with specific needs. Whether it’s for a clinical Ph.D. research on public health issues or an undergraduate letter over pharmacology, we got them all right here. Or if you are wondering, you can use proposal templates that bring ready-made documents for your benefit!

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Table of Content

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FREE 10+ Clinical Research Proposal Samples in MS Word | PDF


“Physicians must keep current with the clinical information to practice evidence-based medicine…to answer many of their clinical questions, physicians need access to reports of original research. This requires the reader to critically appraise the design, conduct, and analysis of each study and subsequently interpret the results.” These words emphasized from the study of Donna Windish and others. In this article, we will discuss beneficial steps of creating a proposal for your clinical research , plus we have various examples of a research proposal template  for you to use. Keep on reading!

Clinical Research Proposal

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A proposal for a clinical research is a valuable document that demonstrates primary targets, objectives, and methods or strategies established by the clinical researchers, medicine professionals, healthcare practitioners or scientists in encouraging potential sponsors or medical associations for the implementation of a particular clinical study or trial.

Working as a diligent clinical researcher, you need to fully learn and apply the integral process and skills, enhance your grade, and significantly design a useful end product. In this matter, we suggest that you follow the steps below while freely using one of our sample research proposals in this article:

The first step that you need to accomplish is determining the research problem so that you can set up realistic goals, and objectives in creating a proposal for your clinical research.  The book “ Essentials of Clinical Research ” stated that “research questions are generated in a variety of settings such as during journal reading, hospital rounds, discussions with colleagues, seminars, and lectures. Those questions can be refined into a research idea and, after further review of the literature, ultimately developed into a hypothesis.”

Additionally, the book “ Designing Clinical Research ” described good research questions that came from medical articles and conferences, from critical thinking about clinical practices and problems, from applying new methods to old issues.

The second step that you need to do is collecting and analyzing important resources and necessary data for your clinical study. These systems have been utilized widely in clinical trials to support randomization of research subjects and to collect essential data for the research study. “ The Data Book: Collection and Management of Research Data ” explained that the accuracy and validity of data have a direct effect on the conclusions drawn from them. That’s why data management and research are inevitably connected. 

Thoroughly explain the various kinds of methods and strategies that you are planning to use for your research study . According to the book “ Clinical Trial Methodology ”, clinical trial methodology includes all methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and all methods that are fundamental to provide a valid inference about the objective of the trial. So, you must show a logical chronological order of the methods in all aspects of your clinical trial.

Based on the book ‘Evaluating Clinical Research”, obtaining a special knowledge of biostatistics may help a research evaluator to properly analyze the design of a clinical research trial. Medical and healthcare practitioners should be able to focus on patient issues rather than the statistical and methodological issues. So, you need to be able to critically review what you read. 

Clinical research is important to create top-quality data so that healthcare and medical institutions are able to set up reasonable decisions. By doing a thorough clinical research, many scientific questions can be answered, and solve crucial health issues in our society.

Some different types of clinical research are prevention trials, treatment trials, case control studies, cohort studies, pilot and feasibility studies, cross sectional studies, and many more.

To create an effective clinical study, you need to maintain simplicity and order in your work. Recruit patients and professionals who are integral for the study. Plan accurately the four stages with the aim of your clinical trial. Set up a sufficient budget and resources plan. 

An article published by National Institute of Aging (NIA) explained that “clinical trials are research studies performed in people that are targeted at analyzing a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention.” Thus, it is an essential method by researchers to know if a new treatment is safe and effective in people.

Ike Skelton once said: “Modern medical advances have helped millions of people live longer, healthier lives. We owe these improvements to decades of investment in medical research.” Therefore, writing a proposal for your clinical research is a significant stepping stone for you to make things happen especially in the near future of healthcare and medical science. So, we recommend that you get a clinical research  proposal template today to begin your clinical research study proposal or trial proposal! 

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6+ SAMPLE Medical Research Proposal in PDF | MS Word

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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on March 27, 2023.

Writing a Research Paper Introduction

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

  • Present your topic and get the reader interested
  • Provide background or summarize existing research
  • Position your own approach
  • Detail your specific research problem and problem statement
  • Give an overview of the paper’s structure

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

What can proofreading do for your paper?

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how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

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This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

  • What research gap is your work intended to fill?
  • What limitations in previous work does it address?
  • What contribution to knowledge does it make?

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

  • This study set out to answer the following question: What effects does daily use of Instagram have on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls?
  • We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

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how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

  • This paper will first discuss several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then will go on to …
  • This paper first discusses several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then goes on to …

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

  • Argumentative paper
  • Empirical paper

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

  • A hook to catch the reader’s interest
  • Relevant background on the topic
  • Details of your research problem

and your problem statement

  • A thesis statement or research question
  • Sometimes an overview of the paper

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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Articles / How to Write a Healthcare or Medical Business Proposal /

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How to Write a Healthcare or Medical Business Proposal

Did you know? Proposal Packs are designed for writing medical and healthcare related proposals with pre-written templates, samples, graphic design options and automation software.

How to Write a Healthcare or Medical Business Proposal

Are you in the healthcare field? That category covers many different types of businesses. You might be a physician or the manager of a medical group; you might provide rehabilitation services for the injured or care for persons with disabilities; you might sell medical insurance, provide pharmaceutical supplies, or specialize in hospital records management. The list of medicine-related businesses is endless.

The healthcare business is growing exponentially, and your competition is, too. You're no doubt seeking to grow your business and attract new clients, or perhaps you're looking for funding to start up or expand your business. How are you going to attract the clients you need, or secure your funding so your business can succeed? You could send out form letters. You could pay for an ad in a paper or magazine. That might get results. But to improve your chances of landing new contracts or getting that funding, sooner or later you will need to write a business proposal.

Don't panic! Writing a proposal is not as hard as it may sound. No matter what sort of business you're representing, there is a basic four-part structure to every proposal. You start by 1) introducing yourself, and then 2) demonstrate that you understand your prospective client's needs. Next, you 3) describe your goods and services and list your costs, and finally, you 4) convince the client or grant committee that you are the best pick to provide the solutions you've proposed. There's no need to begin by staring at a blank computer screen, either. Using products with pre-designed templates, samples, and automation software can give you a big head start.

Let's break it down a bit further. As described above, all service proposals follow the basic four-part structure. The length of your proposal will depend on three things: the needs of the client, the complexity of the project, and your type of business. Five to ten pages is an average proposal length, but a complex proposal might include dozens (or even hundreds) of pages. A very short proposal might contain only a Cover Letter, a list of Products or Services Provided, and a Price List.

The secret to creating a successful proposal is to tailor it for the party who will make the decision on whether or not to accept your proposal. This means that you need to put yourself in that party's shoes. What do they need and want? What are their concerns? The effort you put into researching your potential clients will pay off in creating a customized proposal that is much more likely to beat the competition.

Customizing a proposal won't prevent you from using a lot of the same pages in multiple proposals. Of course you'll do that, because much of the information you provide about your products and services will be of interest to all your potential clients. Creating a customized proposal simply means that you target each proposal to a specific client's needs. Always keep this in mind: a proposal is a sales document intended to convince clients to give you their business or persuade grant committees to award the funding you seek.

The introduction section in a proposal usually consists of a Cover Letter and a Title Page. Print your Cover Letter on your company letterhead, and keep it concise; just explain who you are and provide your contact information. A Title Page is precisely that: a page that introduces your proposal and names the specific project you are discussing. Some examples might be "Proposal to Manufacture N95 Masks and Protective Wear," "Proposed Health Insurance Policies for GTS Corporation," "Traveling Medical Screening Services for Rural Areas," or "Proposal to Set Up an Emergency Medical Clinic in Maxus County."

If you are writing a complex proposal, you may need to preface the rest of the proposal with a detailed summary (often called an Executive Summary or a Client Summary) - that's basically a summary list of your most important points. Next, you'll write a section focused on the client. Here you will show your understanding of your client's needs and concerns. In this section, your goal is to describe your prospective client's requirements, needs, and concerns. You will include pages that discuss issues of interest to that particular client, such as Privacy, Insurance, Cost Management, Protocols, Conditions, Special Needs, and so forth. This section is all about your client.

After this client-centered section comes the section that's focused on what you can do for the client. In this section, you will show that you have the solutions to the needs described in the previous section. You'll add pages with titles like Diagnosis, Treatment, Therapies, Screening, Intervention, Products, Services Provided, Safety Plan, Price List, Services Cost Summary, and so forth - include all the topics you need to describe exactly what you propose to provide and what the cost will be. You may need specialized topics that address your employees' education or experience in specific medical conditions or practices. Add pages with details the client will want to know, such as descriptions of your Personnel, your Training Plan, Certifications, Insurance, Facilities, Safety Plan, Policies, Security, and so on.

Your individual proposal pages will vary according to your business.

A product manufacturer may need to propose production of healthcare safety equipment or retooling of facilities to create a new line of healthcare supplies.

A research firm may need to write a report on an infectious disease study.

A records management company may have to deal with selling both services and hardware and software products.

A medical transcription and billing service would include topics such as Services Provided, Rates, Transcription, References, Qualifications, Billing Options, and so on.

A CPR and first aid training provider may use topics such as Standards Compliance, Certifications, Staffing, Training, Qualifications, Services Provided, Rates, Scheduling, and so on.

A rehabilitation center would need to talk about Coordination with other medical organizations, interacting with Insurance companies, and developing an individual care program for each patient.

A proposal to open a new clinic will deal with a number of topics from other speciality situations such as business plan and real estate proposals. Topics will cover the financials of a new clinic as well as building and construction issues.

A biotech company may be dealing with issues such as Discoveries, Research and Development, Future Developments, Growth Areas, Diagnostics, Screening, Patents, Trademarks, and so on.

A pharmaceutical manufacturing proposal may encompass many types of proposals such as research and development, case studies, manufacturing, automation, logistics, distribution, and so on drawing from thousands of topics in the Proposal Pack.

A medical supply company would need to describe specific products and address how to train employees in the proper usage of those products.

A charity delivering hospice services to homebound patients would need to discuss Privacy and Legal Considerations, Personnel, Religion, Teamwork with family and other care providers, End of Life issues, and so forth.

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Next, after the section describing how you can provide solutions to the client's needs comes the final section, where you provide data about your organization and your experience. Your goal is to conclude your proposal by persuading the readers that you have credibility and will deliver the goods and services you have promised. Here, you'll add pages like Our Clients, Benefits, Testimonials, Awards, About Us / Company History, References, Qualifications, Case Studies, and so forth - all the topics you need to persuade your potential clients that you are worthy of their trust and deserve their business.

After you have included all the pages you need, spend some time to make your proposal visually appealing. Your goal is to stand out from your competition. Consider selecting fonts and custom bullet points that match your business style, using pages with colored borders, and incorporating your organization's logo to add interest. Learn how to effectively select colors for a winning business proposal.

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Be sure to proofread and spell-check every page. Overlooking mistakes in your own work is easy to do, so it's best to recruit someone who is unfamiliar with the project to do the final proof.

Finally, save your proposal as a PDF file or print and bind it, then deliver the proposal to the potential client. It's common to email PDF files to clients these days, but keep in mind that a printed, hand-delivered proposal could be more impressive. If the new contract or funding that you seeking is especially valuable, you might want to put more effort into the final proposal and delivery to beat out the competition.

You can now see that each proposal written for a healthcare/medical business will be a bit different. The specific proposal pages will vary by project and type of business and, as discussed above, each proposal should be customized for the party receiving it.

But you also see that all business proposals have a similar structure. And, as mentioned earlier, you don't need to start from scratch - you can find templates for all the pages mentioned in this article in a package called Proposal Kit . The templates include instructions and examples of information to include on each page. Proposal Kit also includes a wide variety of sample proposals, including samples for medical records management, for insurance policies, and for occupational therapy services. By starting with Proposal Kit's templates and samples, you will be able to quickly and efficiently create your own winning business proposal.

Proposal Pack Help Video: How to Write a Healthcare or Medical Proposal

This video shows how to write a healthcare or medical related proposal such as for medical services, healthcare product sales, starting a clinic, funding a healthcare mission or any other healthcare type of situation. Not only proposals can be created but also business plans, RFP submissions, grants, reports, studies, plans, etc. Proposal Kit includes healthcare and medical design themes, samples, templates and layouts.

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  1. Research Proposal On Health Services

    how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  2. 17+ Medical Research Proposal Templates in PDF

    how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  3. FREE 14+ Sample Research Proposals in PDF

    how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  4. 10+ Medical Proposal Templates

    how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  5. Medical Research Proposal Letter

    how to write a proposal for a medical research paper

  6. Example Of Concept Paper Pdf ~ Research Proposal Sample Medical Paper

    how to write a proposal for a medical research paper


  1. How to write a research proposal #Research #researchproposal #skills #students

  2. How to write a Research Proposal? || lecture #1 || 1st step to research writing

  3. How to Write Research Proposal

  4. How to Write a Research Proposal

  5. Writing a research proposal

  6. Start Working On Your PhD EARLY


  1. Download .nbib

    Broadly the research proposal must address the following questions regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose: What you plan to accomplish, why do you want to do it and how are you going to do it. 1 The aim of this article is to highlight the essential concepts and not to provide extensive details about this topic.

  2. Writing Successful Research Proposals for Medical Science

    Criteria for a sound research proposal are the same whether the proposal is submitted to NIH, FAER, IARS, or other funding sources. In crafting a proposal, it is essential to consider the perspective of the reviewer; therefore, items of interest to the reviewer are listed after general definition of the grant proposal.

  3. How to write a research proposal?

    Go to: BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new paradigm will it add to the literature, while specifying the question that the research will answer, establishing its significance, and the implications of the answer. [ 2]

  4. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Introduction Literature review Research design Reference list While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take. Table of contents Research proposal purpose

  5. Writing a Scientific Research Project Proposal

    These include: Title: Make sure the title of your proposal is descriptive and concise. Make it catch and informative at the same time, avoiding dry phrases like, "An investigation…" Your title should pique the interest of the reader.

  6. Sample Proposals

    Sample Proposals - ISP Handbook, School of Medicine, UCSD ISP Proposal Samples You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader to view or print these PDF files. Click the button below to download a free copy:

  7. How to prepare a research proposal in the health sciences?

    This article aims not only to list theoretical recommendations but also to share some personal and eminently practical suggestions on the following elements of a research proposal: the title, the abstract, the introduction, the objectives, the methodology, the work plan or schedule, the proposal's consistency and coherence, its viability, its ...

  8. (PDF) How to write a research proposal? A guide for medical

    Generally, a research proposal contains the following elements: Title, abstract, introduction, objectives, methodology, timeline and milestones, ethical considerations, budget, appendices, and...

  9. Medical Research Abstract: How to Write

    More specifically, you want to organize your abstract as follows: Title and Author: Write a winning title by making a list of 5-10 keywords, and writing a few sentences including those words. From there, work out a sentence that captures the core meaning of your work, condensing it to focus on the essentials of your research.

  10. How to write a research proposal?

    Abstract. Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or 'blueprint' for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research ...

  11. How to Write a Successful Grant Application and Research Paper

    Writing a grant application is a demanding process, especially in the current environment of historically low funding levels. 1 The current funding rate of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is 10%, compared with ≈30% funding rate in 2001. When preparing a grant application, the 5 criteria that reviewers will use to score the grant ...

  12. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Your writing, at its best Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly What is the goal of a research proposal? In a research proposal, the goal is to present the author's plan for the research they intend to conduct. In some cases, part of this goal is to secure funding for said research.

  13. How to Write a Research Proposals

    Create an outline based on your research questions and what you have found in your reading of the literature. Synthesize, or combine, your sources into clear paragraphs. Integrating evidence into paragraphs. Format your references using a consistent documentation style. Documentation style by discipline.

  14. How to Write a Proposal for a Research Paper

    In clear, concise language, your proposal should explain: What your main question or topic is. Why it matters. How you plan to approach the analysis. The proposal should briefly state your topic, its importance to your field, and the way you intend to analyze it. The trick is to be brief without being vague. What you need not do is answer the ...

  15. How to Write a Research Proposal. Full Writing Guide

    Research Method. In the research proposal, you should go into depth about how you conducted your study. Explain your key research tools and the techniques you employed to get your results. If you conducted interviews, tell the reader about the subjects of your questions. Lastly, provide your analysis of the results.

  16. How to Write a Medical Research Paper: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

    They include the author's last name, year of publication, and page number. Compile your reference list and add it to the end of your paper. Use a citation program if you have access to one to simplify the process. 8. Edit your research paper. You want to make sure that your paper is logically organized and flows well.

  17. 7 tips for writing a winning med ed research proposal

    As you write your funding proposal, some tips the authors recommend include: Speak to someone who's received the grant Speak to someone who's received the grant You can gain useful information by checking with someone who's already received the grant you're applying for or who works at the funding agency you're interested in.

  18. 17+ Medical Research Proposal Templates in PDF

    PDF. Size: 84 KB. Download. If you need a proposal submission form for your research, then you are in luck. As our Medical Research Proposal Format has been designed in DOC format to give you the unique experience of writing your proposals with factual information and numeric data to make your project more appealing.

  19. How to Write a Research Proposal: Structure, Examples & Common Mistakes

    A basic requirement when seeking approval for any type of research project and for applying for study grants or ethics committee approval (Kivunja, 2016) is providing an example of a well-written research proposal, which generally has two purposes.

  20. FREE 10+ Clinical Research Proposal Samples in MS Word

    1. Clinical Research Proposal Template Details File Format PDF Size: 43 KB Download 2. Clinical Research Proposal Form Details File Format PDF Size: 92 KB Download 3. Clinical Program Research Proposal Details

  21. How to Write a Medical Research Paper

    What structure do I plan for my research paper? (comparison of existing treatments, review of clinical research on the subject, a systematic review clarifying the existing body of evidence on the subject, proposal for a new approach/drug/technology)

  22. 6+ SAMPLE Medical Research Proposal in PDF

    download now What is a Medical Research Proposal? According to Dr. Al-Riyami, a research proposal is used to persuade people that you have a strong research subject and that you have the necessary skills and time to execute it.

  23. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Table of contents. Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

  24. How to Write a Healthcare or Medical Business Proposal

    You start by 1) introducing yourself, and then 2) demonstrate that you understand your prospective client's needs. Next, you 3) describe your goods and services and list your costs, and finally, you 4) convince the client or grant committee that you are the best pick to provide the solutions you've proposed.