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Argumentative Essays on Police Brutality

Police brutality: exploring solutions to a complex issue, police brutality and its effect on society.

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The Link Between Police Brutality and Racism in The USA

Solutions to stop police brutality, police brutality as a human right issue in the united states, discrimination and racial profiling in police, let us write you an essay from scratch.

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The Issue of Ignoring The Problems of Prejudice, Police Brutality, and Racism

The issues of racial profiling, police brutality, and racism in the united states, police brutality: a negative effect on the black community , black lives matter - a movement to put an end on police brutality, get a personalized essay in under 3 hours.

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The Reasons Behind Police Brutality Against African Americans

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Police brutality refers to the unjustifiable and excessive application of force by police officers towards individuals or groups. This act represents a severe manifestation of misconduct within law enforcement and constitutes a violation of civil rights.

The origins of police brutality can be traced back to the early days of law enforcement. Throughout various eras and regions, instances of excessive force and misconduct by individuals in positions of power have been well-documented. In the United States, for instance, the problem can be linked to the era of slavery and the implementation of oppressive policies like the Jim Crow laws. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s brought considerable attention to incidents of police brutality specifically targeting African Americans, leading to a strong demand for reform. The advent of video recording technology in recent years has further exposed cases of police brutality, resulting in widespread protests and calls for accountability. Ongoing efforts to address this issue emphasize the significance of fair and just policing practices to safeguard the civil rights of all individuals.

Rodney King: The beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers in 1991 became a landmark incident in the history of police brutality. The brutal assault, caught on video and widely broadcasted, sparked outrage and protests, highlighting the issue of excessive force and racial bias within law enforcement. The acquittal of the officers involved in the subsequent trial further fueled public anger and led to widespread unrest in Los Angeles. Black Lives Matter Movement: The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement, founded in 2013, gained prominence following the acquittal of Trayvon Martin's killer and the subsequent killings of unarmed Black individuals such as Michael Brown and Eric Garner. BLM seeks to address systemic racism, including police brutality, and has organized numerous protests and campaigns to raise awareness about the issue and advocate for reforms in law enforcement practices. George Floyd: The tragic killing of George Floyd in May 2020 by a Minneapolis police officer, who kneeled on Floyd's neck for over nine minutes, sparked global outrage and ignited widespread protests against police brutality and racial injustice. The incident, captured on video by a bystander, brought renewed attention to the urgent need for police reform and accountability. Colin Kaepernick: In 2016, NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick initiated a peaceful protest against police brutality and racial inequality by kneeling during the national anthem before football games. His action sparked a nationwide debate and drew attention to the issue of police violence against Black communities, further amplifying the discourse surrounding police brutality.

1. Systemic racism 2. Lack of accountability 3. Inadequate training 4. Flawed recruitment and selection processes 5. Militarization of police

1. Loss of trust and confidence 2. Psychological and emotional impact 3. Social unrest and protests 4. Damage to community-police relations 5. Legal and financial consequences

Public opinion on the issue of police brutality is a complex and diverse landscape. While perspectives may vary, there are some prevailing sentiments and trends within public discourse. Increased awareness and accessibility to information have fueled a heightened concern about police brutality. High-profile incidents, viral videos, and social movements have shed light on the excessive use of force by law enforcement. This has led to a widespread demand for accountability and justice. Many people believe that officers should be held responsible for their actions and that there is a pressing need for systemic reforms. Racial disparities in incidents of police brutality have also garnered significant attention. Public opinion recognizes that marginalized communities, particularly Black and Brown communities, disproportionately experience police violence. This recognition has prompted calls for an end to racial profiling and biased policing. However, it is important to note that public opinion is not homogeneous. There are individuals who support law enforcement agencies and emphasize the challenging nature of police work. They argue for a balanced approach that considers the safety of officers while upholding civil liberties and protecting communities.

The topic of police brutality holds immense significance in our society as it raises critical concerns about the misuse of power, accountability, and the protection of human rights. It serves as a reminder that the very institutions entrusted with maintaining law and order can sometimes become agents of injustice and violence. By addressing police brutality, we shed light on the systemic issues that perpetuate such misconduct. This examination is vital for advocating justice, transparency, and fair treatment for all individuals, regardless of their background. It brings attention to the disproportionate impact of police violence on marginalized communities, particularly people of color, revealing the deep-rooted racial biases that persist within our criminal justice system.

The topic of police brutality is worthy of exploration and discussion in student essays for several compelling reasons. Firstly, it exposes students to pressing social issues, fostering critical thinking and engagement with topics beyond their immediate experience. It encourages them to reflect on power dynamics, social inequalities, and the responsibilities of law enforcement in a democratic society. Secondly, studying police brutality provides an opportunity to examine the complex relationship between the police and marginalized communities, particularly people of color. It prompts students to analyze historical contexts, systemic biases, and the impact of discriminatory practices. By delving into these issues, students develop empathy and gain insights into the lived experiences of others. Moreover, exploring police brutality encourages students to evaluate the role of accountability and justice within the legal system. It prompts discussions about the importance of transparent investigations, unbiased reporting, and the need for police reform.

1. According to a study by Mapping Police Violence, in 2020, there were 1,021 documented cases of police killings in the United States, with Black people being three times more likely to be victims of fatal police violence compared to white people. 2. A report by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) found that excessive use of force by law enforcement officers is a leading cause of injury and death among people experiencing a mental health crisis. Approximately 25% of fatal police encounters involve individuals with mental health issues. 3. The Police Integrity Research Group conducted a survey among police officers in the United States, revealing that approximately 61% of officers witnessed misconduct by their colleagues, and 52% admitted to turning a blind eye to the inappropriate conduct of fellow officers.

1. Miller, M. (1998). Police brutality. Yale L. & Pol'y Rev., 17, 149. (https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/yalpr17&div=8&id=&page=) 2. Reiss, A. J. (1972). Police Brutality?. In Readings in Criminology and Penology (pp. 456-476). Columbia University Press. (https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.7312/dres92534-051/html) 3. Crenshaw, K. W., Ritchie, A. J., Anspach, R., Gilmer, R., & Harris, L. (2015). Say her name: Resisting police brutality against black women. (https://scholarship.law.columbia.edu/faculty_scholarship/3226/) 4. Reynolds-Stenson, H. (2018). Protesting the police: Anti-police brutality claims as a predictor of police repression of protest. Social movement studies, 17(1), 48-63. (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14742837.2017.1381592) 5. Smith, B. W., & Holmes, M. D. (2003). Community accountability, minority threat, and police brutality: An examination of civil rights criminal complaints. Criminology, 41(4), 1035-1064. (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb01013.x) 6. Mitchell, M. J., & Wood, C. H. (1999). Ironies of citizenship: skin color, police brutality, and the challenge to democracy in Brazil. Social forces, 77(3), 1001-1020. (https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/77/3/1001/2233808) 7. Costa, A. T. M. (2011). Police brutality in Brazil: authoritarian legacy or institutional weakness?. Latin American Perspectives, 38(5), 19-32.v (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0094582X10391631) 8. Holmes IV, O. (2020). Police brutality and four other ways racism kills Black people. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 39(7), 803-809. (https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/EDI-06-2020-0151/full/html) 10. Magaloni, B., & Rodriguez, L. (2020). Institutionalized police brutality: Torture, the militarization of security, and the reform of inquisitorial criminal justice in Mexico. American Political Science Review, 114(4), 1013-1034. (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-political-science-review/article/abs/institutionalized-police-brutality-torture-the-militarization-of-security-and-the-reform-of-inquisitorial-criminal-justice-in-mexico/1FB267963EE824E40B4AC6C9644D19B2)

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police brutality essay outline

Police Brutality - List of Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

Police brutality refers to the excessive or unnecessary use of force by law enforcement officers. Essays on this topic could explore the incidences of police brutality, its causes, and its impact on communities, particularly marginalized groups. Further discussions might extend to the legal frameworks governing law enforcement conduct, the calls for police reform, and the movements advocating for accountability and justice. We have collected a large number of free essay examples about Police Brutality you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Police Brutality and Racism

The Declaration of Independence was created to protect the inalienable rights that all Americans receive at birth, yet police brutality continues to threaten the rights of African Americans everywhere. Police everywhere need to be given mandatory psychological tests in order to gain awareness of racial bias in law enforcement and allow citizens to slowly gain trust for the officers in law enforcement. No one wants a child to grow up in a world filled with hate. As Martin Luther King […]

Police Brutality – most Serious Violations to the Black Community

Police brutality started in the early 70s, due to the lack of equal rights for African Americans. Over the last past several years, it has left citizens wondering if policemen are doing their jobs or just looking for another murder case. Due to all the unnecessary shooting, rough treatment, and beating upon black people three radical black organizers created Black Lives Matter. In the result of this injustice, African American lady, Korryn Gaines, a 23-year old woman, was pulled over […]

Is Racism Still a Current Issue in America

Racism is defined as prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior. It is no secret that America has a racist past, with issues like hate crimes, police brutality, and slavery. However, the concern of racism is still apparent in American society today. Completely eliminating racism will be very hard. However, to start the process of eliminating this issue, we need to start by recognizing our own […]

The Effects Police Brutality has on Society

Introduction There are many issues that can cause dysfunction in a society. Police brutality has become debatable and a major issue America faces today. Police brutality can be traced back all the way to the early 1870s. Police brutality is the use of excessive force by a police officer. Which can arrange from anything as far as assaults, lethal force, harassment and much more. The use of force has been around for decades as a way of solving conflicts and […]

Defacement Reflecting on Police Brutality: a Jean Michel-Basquiat Story

Thesis statement: Art tends be a reflection of how an artist is feeling in a certain moment or time and at times it dives into the mind of the artist during the darkest periods of their lives. Artists tend to find inspiration in circumstances or instances that directly affect them on an emotional level. May that be as a result of a death or even a life altering incident that maybe they didn't experience in person but it still hit […]

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About Black Lives Matter Movement

The fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution are inherent for all. There is no question that all people (blacks, Latinos, Indians, or white) were created free and equal with certain inalienable rights. This is a universally accepted principle. Segregation and racism against minorities in this country have been widely discussed, and prominent figures have taken a stand asking people to join in the fight for equality. This stand addresses the significance of black lives. However, contrasting opinions on […]

Police Brutality against Women

Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct, which involves undue violence by police officers. It seems to happen in several countries, but very often in the United States against African-Americans. Studies show that the US police kill more in days than other countries do in years. (The Guardian, 2018). Generally, when individuals discuss police violence against African-Americans; recurring names such as Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and Eric Garner continuously appear in broadcast media. It is very rare […]

Police Brutality and its Contributors

In the past two years, the United States has seen an extreme increase in the police use of deadly force. This deadly increase is speculated to have many contributing factors, some contributing factors are, internalized racism, knowing that if they do something they will not be punished, and the blue wall of silence. These are just a few of the many contributors to police brutality. People may believe that this is the way that we must live, and that nothing […]

Does the Civil Rights Movement have an Effect on the Way Minorities are Treated by Authorities?

Abstract The civil rights movement was a mass popular movement to secure for African Americans equal access to and opportunities for the basic privileges and rights of U.S. citizenship. While the roots of this movement go back to the 19th century, its highlighted movements were in the 1950s and 1960s. African American men and women, along with white American’s and other minority citizens, organized and led the movement at national and local levels nationwide. The civil rights movement centered on […]

Police Brutality – Systemic Misuse of Authority and Abuse of Police Powers

Police brutality is the systematic misuse of authority and abuse of police powers through the unwarranted infliction of bodily or psychological pain to civilians by law enforcers during their official duties. The routine enforcement of law using excessive force against unarmed civilians and the correctional misuse of facilities to manipulate, inflict, injure or subject a civilian to torture amounts to police brutality. Militarily prisons and federal penal correctional facilities through the personnel operating the facilities can practice police brutality through […]

Police Brutality against Black Communities

Throughout the years, the issue of police brutality against black communities has been a major problem affecting many countries in the United States. Unjustified killings have taken place in the black community, which has clearly led to a national outcry for justice and equality. The issue has become particularly notable in recent years thanks to the numerous murders of young black people that have been committed by police officers. Research shows that young black men were nine times more likely […]

New York City History : Abner Louima Case

This agreement established a new standard of compensation for victims of police violence. The agreement resolved an issue that had strained relations between the NYPD and the general public. Civil rights groups continue to accuse the NYPD of racial profiling. Americans and people worldwide have been calling for police reform for years, citing problems such as racial profiling, excessive force, and the murders of several innocent people. Every year, thousands of unarmed people are murdered by police officers via gunfire, […]

Police Brutality in America

The rate has increased over the past years. They call America now a slaughter house; killings leading to uproars in the cities and mass shootings. Police brutality does not only happen to African American, but people of all ethnicities. Police officers were once called the peacekeepers of our community, but now we as people are scared to even leave our home. This is a problem beginning to grow more and more each day. The biggest issue right now is that […]

Police Brutality – Prevalent Problem in American Society

America has on average one of the highest rates of police violence compared to other developed countries. While it is hard to determine the precise reason to why that is, many argue that it is directly related to racism that has, and still exists today. Until recent times, people of Caucasian decent have held much of the power in the United States government. Meaning that policies were made with white favoritism in mind. This is known as systemic racism. One […]

Police Brutality Towards African Americans

Dear Governor Brown, In this letter I wanted to discuss an epidemic that has occured in America these past few years, which would be police brutality towards African Americans. Police brutality dates as far back as the 1960's but recently there have been many cases towards black people where they do not pose a threat but are still beaten or even killed. Statistics show that police killed 1,147 people in 2017 and 25% of those killed were black people even […]

Institutional Racism and Police Brutality in Education System

In today society there are several police brutality against black people, and in some institutional systems black people still experience racism from people who thinks they are superior. Racism is an issue which emerged from history till now and it has become a major problem in our society. This has affected some families to live their dreams and influences other people mindset towards each other. Institutional Racism is expressed in social and political institution which is governed by the behavioral […]

The Black Lives Matter Movement

Black's fight to end institutionalized racism in the United States has been an ongoing challenge for many years. In response to consistent violence against the Blacks, the Black Lives Matter movement called to action Blacks all over the world to streets to campaign against the Black injustice. Despite its controversial criticism, the movement became a widespread recognized platform that has has challenged and changed U.S. politics. The Black Lives Matter movement, demanded six policies in the attempt to repair the […]

Police Brutality Culture

The use of excessive force on civilians whether innocent or suspected is deemed as Police brutality. And everyone can attest to the fact that police brutality is ever on the rise. We see it every other day in the news, on the internet and some of us have even witnessed it just around the corners in our neighborhoods. Even if it is plastered all over the media, those officers seem to still remain in the lines of duties. Why? Do […]

Police Brutality – Misconduct and Shootings

Abstract In the United States, Police brutality has been a source of concern for many years. Police officers have been known to use excessive and unnecessary force on innocent and unarmed civilians. There have been numerous instances of police officers killing civilians when such force was unwarranted. It is important to look at how police brutality affects the community as well as fellow police officers. There are a number of measures that should be taken to stop this menace. The […]

Police Brutality against Latinos in the U.S.

This research focused on the history of police brutality against Latinos in the U.S. and thedifferent types of police brutality. It starts off with an overview of what police brutality is and providing examples of police brutality in the different states. The examples intend to provide the reader with knowledge of how police brutality affects the Latino community and some other minority groups. Additionally, it talks about injunctions and the system of points (used in Boston), which allow police officers […]

Police Brutality – Aggressive Overuse of Power

Every 7 hours in the United States an individual life is taken by a police officer. Police brutality is defined as an aggressive overuse of power given to them as a status of a police officer. A 395 pound 6'2-foot man named Eric Garner was held in an illegal chokehold by officer Justin D'Amico. Eric Garner was selling illegal cigarettes on a street in Staten Island, New York. As police approach him four of the officers wrestled him to the […]

Racial Disparity Amongst Caucasian Americans, African Americans and other Minority Group

Federal government officials in the United States have noted there is a great racial disparity amongst Caucasian Americans, African Americans and other minority group entering or already in the juvenile justice system (karger stoesz 2018, p.365). Recovery from slavery is a massive task for most African Americans in America because they were considered non-citizens which further increased ethnic disparity (karger stoesz, 2018). The Native Americans and Latino Americans were not spared from segregation in addition the treaties serving the Native […]

Different Forms of Police Brutality

According to The Law Dictionary, police brutality is defined as the use of excessive and/ or unnecessary force by police when dealing with civilians. The brutality can come in several forms; ranging from nerve gas, guns, false arrests, racial profiling, and sexual abuse. Many black men and women fall victims to officers. Police killed 1,147 people in 2017. Black people were 25% of those killed despite being only 13% of the population (Daniliana 1). Since 1992, there has been an […]

Stop Police Brutality against Minority’s

Police abuse remains one of the most serious human rights violations in the United States. Over the past decades, police have acted out in ways that have made people wonder, are our officer really doing their jobs?. Unjustified shootings have contributed to the ever present problem of police brutality in America. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States mandated racial segregation in […]

Police Brutality: Hispanics, Asian, and African American

Almost everyone can be involved in police brutality including Hispanics, Asian, and African American. But, black people are most likely to be shot by police than their white peers. However, according to Vox news says, An analysis of the available FBI data by Dara Lind for Vox found that US police kill black people at disproportionate rates: Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012. In other words, that black people are accusing as a threat […]

Police Brutality and Racial Profiling

If you were stopped by police officers and all they saw was your race, imagine how that would have felt. Sadly, this happens in the real world to people of color daily. Racial profiling is a controversial and illegal form of discrimination, where people are targeted for suspicion based on their race or ethnicity rather than on evidence-based suspicious behavior. Racial profiling is a common practice used by law enforcement agencies in the United States. It is based on the […]

Police Abuse of Power

Police brutality refers to systematic misuse of authority and powers through the unwarranted infliction of bodily or psychological pain to civilians by law enforcers during their official duties. The routine enforcement of law using excessive force against unarmed civilians and the correctional misuse of facilities to manipulate, inflict, injure or subject a civilian to torture amounts to police brutality. Militarily prisons and federal penal correctional facilities, through the personnel operating the facilities, can practice police brutality through extreme subjection of […]

Police Brutality against Black People

The source of racial disparity that pervades the United States criminal justice system, and for African Americans in particular, lies within the bounds of racial discrimination. In order for this treatment to be stopped, members of society must make efforts to alter a mindset that draws it roots from a dark history of slavery and manipulation. Plan Addressing Diawara’s view that society views whiteness as the norm by objectifying races and creating economic and public policies, Barak Obama’s 2008 Father […]

History of Police Brutality

America’s history allows spectators to realize that police brutality is not a modern-day problem, however it is a rising issue. As a nation built up of diverse groups, it is not a surprise that this country has an interminable past of acts of brutality, especially when it comes to individuals who have been incarcerated which is a huge portion of America’s population. A rising amount of police officers are now unlawfully abusing their power, and many prisoners are not willing […]

US Police Brutality and African Americans

Police brutality is a major issue in the United States, with its target against African Americans being a longstanding problem. The history of police brutality closely relates to racism and discrimination in America. Many factors, such as institutional racism, poverty, education, and even the drug war, contribute to this issue. With these factors combined, there is an increased risk of violence from law enforcement officials toward African Americans. According to Schwartz and Jahn (2020), African Americans are three times more […]

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Over the past few decades, police brutality has been a hot debate topic in America. Moreover, high school and college students also get to write about this social issue and express their views. Yet, essay topics like these are complex, and compositing your police brutality essay will require prior research. Whether you’re accusing or defending the police, you must structure your work properly to support your opinion. In short, it must follow the outline of typical academic papers. Ensure the essay introduction gives a background for police violence and how important dealing with this issue is for contemporary society. In this part, you will also place your thesis statement that poses the underlying concern you’ll try to find solutions to. Similarly, your thesis for police brutality can focus on the reasons or consequences of the problem. The research paper outline can include several arguments and a counter argument to show you can handle both aspects of the matter. This segment can refer to case studies or press reports to reveal true stories and evidence that back up your position. Ideally, you should select events that happened in the United States for reliability and credibility. Finally, use the conclusion to suggest further research on how to stop brutality from happening or provide a summary of your findings with a call for action. The subject is controversial, so you’d better avoid phrases like “black lives matter.” Instead, take an objective and unbiased approach and base your work on facts. Your essay can answer questions focusing on the psychological, physical, and social impact of police brutality. The topic is quite disturbing, particularly for a speech example, because it often addresses the black community. It also touches upon gender inequality and its effects on the minds and bodies of the vulnerable. If you fear your research paper about police brutality won’t be up to the teacher’s standards, don’t despair. Students who haven’t had the chance to write academic work before or lack the skills will have to do some lengthy reading to get the main idea. That’s why we suggest checking our argumentative essay examples on police brutality. PapersOwl offers an extensive range of cause-and-effect and persuasive essays on police racism, misconduct, abuse of power, and the punitive system.

Essay on Police Misconduct One of the most controversial social debates today concerns police brutality. The term refers to an abuse of authority from the part of law enforcement personnel who, while performing their official duties, end up unnecessarily using excessive force to restore order. In recent years, this has become a prevalent problem with many incidents that led to public outrage. A research paper about police brutality must show how highly publicized incidents demonstrate that police misconduct has severe adverse effects on victims of abuse and diminishes public trust in law enforcement. An example of this phenomenon is a policeman causing physical or psychological harm to a person suspected of a crime by using tactics beyond the official procedure. Usually, this occurs even when the suspect doesn’t pose any danger to the policeman, so their forces are unequal in the policeman’s favor. This scenario has led to shocking statistics with over 1300 people killed in the United States per year from 2000 until today. However, similar incidents are common in other developed countries, yet with fewer fatal outcomes due to much rarer use of guns. Research suggests that police brutality in the United States is heavily linked with racial profiling and the most common victims of police violence are African Americans with many incidents leading to the death of innocent citizens. For an in-depth analysis, including solutions to police brutality, see our examples of a persuasive essay or a research paper on this issue. Also, a good argumentative essay on police brutality will outline important aspects such as statistic findings, racism among law enforcement officials or effective ways to combat violence. Explore our essay examples to learn more.

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Police brutality essay: topic ideas and tips.

July 2, 2020

Police Brutality Essay

A police brutality essay is a write-up about the excessive use of force against civilians by the law enforcers. Every year, many people report the use of excessive force by police officers in different parts of the world. When police offers use excessive force, they can do it physically, mentally, emotionally, or verbally. This write-up should highlight this problem and tell the audience something about it.

It can also be described as police use of force essay. When composing this write-up, you must start by conducting extensive research. This research should entail reviewing and reading more sources to gather the necessary information. That’s the only way you can formulate a strong argument and support it with facts.

Overview of a Police Brutality Essay

An essay on police officer brutality can describe situations where an officer abused people illegally or without a reason. But, before you start composing this write-up, it’s crucial to understand your objective or goal. Discuss your topic and if necessary, encourage the audience to protest against incidences of excessive use of force by police officers to stop their abusive behaviors. Also, remember to support your argument with statistics, reliable online sources, and news reports.

You can be persuasive, argumentative, or write a general essay on role of police in society. But, regardless of the perspective you take, make sure that your write-up has a good structure. Again, this should depend on the requirements specified by the professor or teacher. This is very important because it will enable you to complete the assignment according to the provided instructions.

A Simple Outline for Police Brutality Essay

A police brutality essay outline should comprise three major parts. These are:

  • Introduction – This is where you write briefly about the topic. Your introduction should help the audience understand why you’re writing the essay. It’s, however, important to note that you can write a police brutality introduction essay. This is where you just introduce the issue without delving deeper into details.
  • The main part – This is where you discuss the findings of your research with the readers. Whether you’re writing a police brutality argumentative essay or a persuasive essay on police brutality, you must have supporting evidence. This section of the write-up can be divided into several paragraphs. Each paragraph can have a single argument.
  • Conclusion – This is where you remind the readers of your main ideas and finish the write-up logically.

Regardless of the perspective that you take, it’s important to come up with an outline before you start writing. This will enable you to avoid leaving out important information when you start writing.

Interesting Police Essay Topics

There are many topics that you can consider when writing about the police force. Here are some of the most interesting topics to consider.

  • In which crimes and areas are police violence cases rampant?
  • How does society consider police cruelty?
  • Can special programs and training in police departments help in reducing police violence?
  • Why has racism in the police force increased lately?
  • Are more black people abused by police offers than whites?
  • Are more men abused by police officers than women?
  • Are racist police officers the major problem in the police force?
  • How can police violence be reduced in the United States of America?
  • How are civilians affected by police brutality?
  • How rampant is police racism in modern society?

Each of these topics requires extensive research before the writing process starts. It’s crucial to understand the topic or subject and gather sufficient evidence to come up with a masterpiece.

How to Write an Essay on Police Brutality

Whether you opt to write a police discretion essay or an essay on police brutality racial cases, you should follow an outline. This will enable you to ensure a logical organization and presentation of all the necessary information in your write-up. Here’s how you should write your essay and the information to include in the introduction, main body, and conclusion sections.

How to Start Your Essay

Regardless of the topic that you opt to write about, start by researching extensively. Your educator will be impressed by your work if it has sufficient facts or evidence to support your argument. Here are the steps to follow to come up with a successful introduction:

  • Select a topic carefully and think about the points or ideas that you will highlight in your essay.
  • Craft a thesis statement and include it towards the end of your introduction. This should be the main idea of the essay.
  • Think about the stance that you will take in your police brutality essay argumentative write-up. Ideally, you should choose one side of the argument. This is the side that you should support with strong evidence and convince readers to accept your opinion.
  • Start the essay with something that catches the attention of your readers. This can be a quote, a question, or statistics.
  • Make your introduction brief but ensure that it features all essential elements.

How to Write the Main Part of the Essay

The main part of the essay is where you discuss your main ideas. Here’s how you should write this part.

  • Organize your argumentative essay police brutality write-up according to the format specified by the educator.
  • Support your discussion with evidence. And, don’t forget to include opposite perspectives while addressing your ideas and convincing the readers to take your viewpoint.
  • Include a separate paragraph for each argument. However, make sure that the paragraphs are connected to ensure a smooth transition.

How to Write the Conclusion

The conclusion of this essay should summarize the stated facts shortly while rephrasing the thesis statement. Here’s a simple guide for concluding this essay:

  • Keep your conclusion well-logical and concise
  • Don’t introduce new information in the conclusion
  • Restate the thesis while making recommendations on how the problem can be avoided.

Whether you write police brutality or racial profiling by police essay, follow these guidelines to enhance the organization and presentation of information in your write-up.

Why Write About Police Brutality?

Police brutality or police corruption essay highlights the evils within the police force. These evils are a major social problem that is reported by the media constantly. It involves mistreatments of civilians by the law enforcers that are supposed to protect them. Writing this essay enables community members to:

  • Reveal real facts of violations, injuries, and abuses by police officers
  • Check reasons for violations of human rights and cruelty by the policing forces
  • Depict the full picture of brutality cases
  • Distinguish the roles and responsibilities of police officers and civilians
  • Provide resolutions and recommendations

In most cases, police brutality affects minority members of society. These may lack the courage to talk about it publicly. Writing an essay on brutality and violence by the police can make you the voice of such people.

Your educator may ask you to write something like, should police carry guns essay. Nevertheless, your write-up should reveal the complete picture of violence and brutality that is meted on civilians by law enforcers. It should bring the criminal cases of illegal behaviors by law enforcers to light. Such an essay can be used to expose the activities of rogue police officers and in turn, have them prosecuted for their wrong-doing. This can prevent such misconduct by police officers in the future. Contact our professional writers if you want to complete a perfect essay.

police brutality essay outline

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  • Police Brutality

Essays on Police Brutality

As you write a police brutality essay, remember not just to review the current situation with police brutality, but also offer ways to prevent it. Police brutality covers a set of actions by members of the police force, which includes excessive use of force, misconduct, and abuse of power. After the death of George Floyd, criticism of the US police does not subside. Essay-writers point out many factors that feed police brutality in their essays, such as lack of monitoring and control of police force from authorities, poor prosecution in case of police misconduct, excessive funding, etc. You can find information on other factors that contribute to police brutality in the samples of police brutality essays, provided below. In most essays on police brutality, people express extreme disapproval over the aggressive actions of police officers and show sympathy to victims of police brutality. View our police brutality essay samples for more information on the subject.

American criminal justice system was intended to protect communities, to respect and restore crime victims, to rehabilitate the offenders leaving prison and ensure they are self-sufficient and law abiding. This system has become a great failure that our nation and states can never afford. Stories arise that serve in as...

Words: 1704

After a review of several options, the choice is made to look at and effectively analyze the police brutality against African American men. The issue has over the years generated some controversies within the American society.  A large section of the community are of the opinion that men from this...

Words: 1374

It is extremely important to be concerned about how law enforcement employees behave ethically. However, the police subculture still upholds the code of silence despite the academic program of study for prospective police officers placing a greater emphasis on excellent coaching. Some important problems that still exist in the majority...

Words: 2590

Security guards are permitted and required to use force in certain circumstances, including but not limited to when defending themselves or others. In this respect, some nations have created the use of force model to direct police actions in various circumstances. This essay examines the meaning of the use of...

In the recent past, numerous instances of officers using excessive force when dealing with inmates in prisons around the globe have been documented. Despite denials made by some authorities regarding this subject, the issue has been established. Former prisoners have spoken out about their negative encounters with the prisons. One...

Words: 4720

According to news accounts, police shot and killed 18-year-old Michael Brown on August 9, 2014. Officer Darren Wilson killed him by shooting him six times in total, four of which struck Brown's right hand and two of which struck his cranium. According to a witness, Michael Brown was unarmed and...

Words: 1168

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In specific situations, a police officer is authorized to use physical action in the service of legitimate goals. The use of power isn't always defined in the same way. It is defined as the level of force a cop must employ to subdue a suspect who resists. The Graham v....

Words: 1161

Various social scientists have various opinions on how the police force affects crime. Some people contend that the cops are powerless to stop and manage crime. Others believe that police assistance significantly lowers the crime rate. Over the past ten years, violent violence has decreased in the United States. The...

Words: 2771

The branch of criminal justice that probably has the most power is law enforcement. There is a huge ethical obligation placed on it as the only domestic state department with the authority to take life at its discretion. Police use of force is such a sensitive subject because the potential...

Words: 1872

As a type of contemporary activism, music is increasingly being used to express the concerns that various societal groups may have. The social issues that the oppressed segment of the society is facing can be brought to light through music by the artists. Due to its greater significance and dependence...

Words: 1415

Mill considers justice to be a component of morality. He claims that justice entails violating the rights of certain individuals in order to ensure that others who deserve other rights the most are awarded them. On the 17th of February 2016, early in the morning, a guy called the police...

Since the dawn of time, police pursuit fatalities have generated debate. They have been identified as one of the primary causes of fatalities for innocent bystanders, evading drivers, and car occupants on metropolitan streets and in towns with high vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Hill 2002, p. 27). Hoffman and Mazerolle...

Words: 2506

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Writing papers about police brutality in the US

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police brutality essay outline

We all love movies and TV series about police and other law enforcement agencies. The whole system of law and order protection is shown as a single body that operates in accordance with the pure and righteous aspirations. However, we also know perfectly well that there were various cases of brutality and crimes committed by the police. If it’s your turn to make your voice heard concerning this problem, you came to the right place. In this article, we will touch upon a sore topic of police brutality and will share some tips and ideas on writing essays and research papers on police brutality.

research papers on police brutality

College essay topics on police brutality

  • Solutions to police brutality essay
  • Police use of force essay
  • Police brutality and racial violence short essay
  • Punishments for police brutality essay
  • Combating police brutality essay
  • Abuse of power essay
  • Police brutality against minorities essay
  • Essay on police brutality injustice
  • Racism and police brutality essay
  • Essays on police officers’ perception of brutality in law enforcement
  • Police brutality and racial profiling essay
  • African American police brutality essay
  • Police brutality and racism in the US essay
  • Police brutality in modern society essay
  • Police brutality and racial violence essay
  • Police misconduct essay
  • What is police brutality essay
  • How to stop police brutality essay
  • Causes of police brutality essay
  • I stand against police brutality essay
  • Effects of police brutality on ethnic minority victims, family and community essay
  • Police brutality or reasonable force essay
  • Persuasive essay on police brutality: What can governments do to bring an end to a problem?
  • Police brutality against African American citizens essay: Historical analysis

Law enforcement essay topics

If you want to shift the focus away from police brutality and focus on something else, here are some of the law enforcement essay ideas that we recommend taking a look at:

  • Role of women in law enforcement
  • Law enforcement after 9/11
  • Law enforcement corruption in the country of choice
  • Law enforcement policies and procedures
  • Diversity in law enforcement
  • Stress that law enforcement personnel experiences
  • Morality and ethics in law enforcement
  • Ethnics in law enforcement
  • The issues of racism in law enforcement

Ideas for speeches on police brutality

  • A day in the life of the police officer
  • Police brutality should be stopped immediately
  • Police brutality and racism in the USA: is the link obvious?
  • Who should be call when the police commit crimes?
  • The story of George Floyd
  • Systemic police brutality and its costs in the United States
  • Black lives matter
  • Time to end police brutality

police brutality problem solving essay

Useful tips for writing a quality police brutality essay

Of course, it’s always easier to buy police brutality essay. But if you decided to write it on your own, our instructions will help you. Here are some tips on writing a perfect essay:

  • Research your topic. There are a lot of scholarly articles on police brutality on the Web in which you can find a lot of useful background information. Having read a lot of facts about police brutality, you will be able to pick a few persuasive ones to use in your paper and support your statements.
  • Create an outline. Write down the name of each section you are going to include, the points you are going to cover in each, as well as the sources you are planning to support them with. Using your outline as a writing plan, you will be able to create a comprehensive text in the end.
  • Work on your thesis statement. This is the central point or argument that you want to make. You will need to stick to it thought the essay and restate it in conclusion.
  • Do not be afraid to speak your mind. An essay is a perfect type of paper for those who want to express their ideas. Don’t miss this chance, especially if your professor allows or encourages sharing personal opinions.

What type of essay on police brutality should you choose?

As you definitely know, there a lot of types of essay you can work on. But taking into consideration the topic we are discussing in this article, we recommend you to concentrate on the following kinds:

  • Argumentative essay on police brutality.

Argumentative essays require that you choose a stance you want to argue, 2-3 supporting points, and 1 opposing one to discuss.  

  • Satire essay on police brutality.

Although this is not a popular choice, if you are confident in your writing skills and know how to properly use satire for such a sensitive topic, you may showcase the absurdity of certain actions made by law enforcement in a very creative manner.

  • Informative essay on police brutality.

If you would simply like to explore the issue and share your findings, an informative paper is something to consider.

  • Police brutality problem solution essay.

As it might be evident from the name, you will have to discuss the problem in detail and present one or a few viable solutions to it.

  • Police brutality persuasive essay.

Such type of paper would require you to present your opinion on the topic and use factual information to persuade the readers that you are right.

Police brutality essay outline

Starting to work on your paper, first of all, you should create a police brutality essay outline. It will allow you to smoothly transition from point to point when writing. The proper essay outline on police brutality will likely include:

  • Introduction with the hook for police brutality essay and police brutality thesis.

Starting the paper, provide the reader with the background on the issue and invite them to consider it in more detail.

  • Main body with information supporting the points presented in a thesis statement.

The police brutality essay arguments you use should be based on the factual information that you have found when researching the topic.

  • Conclusion with a restated thesis and final sentence that calls for further reflection.

In the conclusion to essay on police brutality, summarize the information from the body of the paper and restate the thesis that you have previously indicated in the intro.

Please note that these are only the main sections to include in the outline for a police brutality essay. You will have to add more details to it while doing your research, and it is best if you list the arguments that you have settled on under the body section of your outline. You may also create a list of references beforehand and cite the arguments right away not to forget what piece of literature or article you have taken them from.

What about titles?

In the end, as soon as you finish writing your paper, pay attention to the title of your essay. There are no clear limitations in this case. Just remember that police brutality essay titles should be short, intriguing, and show what exactly your paper is going to be about.

Shocking facts for police brutality essays

We have collected the most violent cases of police brutality, which you can use as arguments in your paper to prove that this issue is real.

  • In September 2011, during the Occupy Wall Street protest in New York, assistant inspector Anthony Bologna used pepper spray against a group of unarmed young girls who clearly posed no threat to others. He was deprived of 10 days of vacation and transferred to Staten Island, the most remote area from the center of New York.
  • In October 2011, police brutally dispersed hundreds of demonstrators in Oakland, California. The officers used tear gas, non-lethal firearms (bean bag guns), and flash grenades. There were many children, elderly, and disabled people.
  • Police in the state of North Dakota has arrested more than 120 people, including filmmakers, journalists, and minors, for participating in protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline in October 2016. Law enforcement officials were accused of violating freedom of speech and using excessive force against peaceful demonstrators. According to the latter, the police behaved aggressively, using batons and gas cartridges.
  • In October 2012, Chicago police have beaten Angel Perez to get information about crimes in their territory. During the interrogation, Angel’s eyes were squeezed out, and he was raped with a pistol.
  • In July 2011, in California, police beat a mentally ill homeless person to death on the street. The investigation revealed that the main accused policeman, officer Manuel Ramos, was familiar with the victim and knew about his illness.
  • Police officers in the US state of Michigan shot a homeless man for refusing to hand over a penknife. The US Justice Department refused to bring charges against the guards of the order motivating it by the fact that they performed their duty and acted in the face of threats.
  • In July 2014, policemen shot and killed a mentally ill pregnant woman who was suffering from drug addiction. Her husband brought her to the doors of a psychiatric hospital, but she snatched the knife and did not hand it over at the request of the police.
  • August 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri, policeman Darren Wilson shot an unarmed 18-year-old black boy Michael Brown dead. Some witnesses claim that there was a dispute between the officer and the young man as a result of which Wilson started shooting at Brown and did not stop though he raised his hands. The police and other witnesses claim that Brown attacked Wilson.

The murder caused widespread riots in Ferguson, which lasted a long time. On November 25, 2014, a panel of 12 jurors decided not to bring charges against Wilson on this occasion. This decision caused a new powerful wave of unrest during which at least 100 people were detained and at least 12 buildings were burned. Demonstrations were supported in more than 170 American cities.

  • In May 2015, in Texas, police got into the house of the 82-year-old veteran, broke his thigh-bone and then, realizing that there was a mistake, disappeared without even taking care about calling the doctors. The next day, a man who laid on the floor was found by his family. He survived but had to be rushed to the hospital to undergo two surgeries.
  • November 17, 2015, two law enforcement officers brought down to the ground and were brutally beating a suspect in car theft during more than 13 minutes.
  • In December 2015, in Florida, a 57-year-old black woman died after the police threw her out of the hospital. She was discharged by doctors but felt difficulty in breathing and refused to leave the medical facility.
  • In January 2013, a policeman in Pennsylvania came to confiscate the property of a defaulter. When the owner of the house targeted an automatic rifle at the policeman, the officer opened fire and accidentally shot the 12-year-old daughter of a defaulter.
  • In April 2017, the American public was outraged by the video of the arrest of a 10-year-old boy suffering from autism. Police officers handcuffed him and dragged from the classroom, after which he spent the night in the center for juvenile offenders. The child was accused of kicking a school employee.
  • On March 13, 2020, Breonna Taylor, a 26-year-old black woman was shot during a forced police entry in her home at Louisville, Kentucky. While Breonna’s boyfriend tried to protect them using the firearm, thinking that police were actually intruders, the officers have fired more than 30 shots, some of which hit Breonna Taylor. It was later determined that the police was on the scene due to the investigation related to Taylor’s ex-boyfriend suspected of dealing drugs.
  • On May 25, 2020, George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man, was killed in Minneapolis, Minnesota, while being arrested for allegedly using a counterfeit bill. During the arrest, Derek Chauvin, a police officer, knelt on Floyd’s neck for several minutes after he was already handcuffed and lying face down. Two police officers, J. Alexander Kueng and Thomas Lane assisted Chauvin in restraining Floyd, while another officer, Tou Thao, prevented bystanders from interfering with the arrest and intervening as events unfolded. Floyd’s death triggered worldwide protests against police brutality.

Research topics on police brutality

Police brutality research paper topics are among the most frequently assigned ones in schools and universities. This is a good topic for research as there is a lot of statistics, which can be provided to prove that police brutality is a real issue that requires taking urgent actions. If you haven’t yet decided what to focus on specifically, here are some police topics for a research paper that you might want to consider:

  • Use of force research paper
  • Is Stanford prison experiment real?
  • Why are there so many cases of police brutality in the US?
  • Reasons for police brutality
  • Can sexism be seen as one of the main factors of police brutality?
  • How has the Black Lives Matter movement brought attention to police brutality?
  • Is racism a factor in police brutality?
  • Can police self-defense be mistaken for brutality?
  • Does job stress contribute to police brutality?

Useful tips for writing a research paper on law enforcement and police brutality

We understand that writing a research paper is quite a challenging task and decided to collect the best writing secrets for you in one place. Follow these tips to create an A+ research paper:

Stick to the outline

Having a well-detailed plan is important as it helps you hit all of the necessary points when writing. Here are the basic sections you need to include:


  • Introductory phrase
  • Statement of hypothesis/thesis

Body sections

  • Methodology
  • Literature review and background information
  • Findings and Discussion
  • Restated hypothesis
  • Main points of research

Develop a strong thesis statement

Thesis statement is the most important part of the whole paper, as it establishes the purpose of your paper. So you have to make sure that it is concise and coherent. Every paragraph of your paper then should support this main sentence and the points you have made in it.

Avoid plagiarism

Having found interesting ideas in the sources you have used when doing a research, you should always make sure that you have completely rephrased their words and cited all the information according to the rules of the assigned formatting style. Otherwise, your paper will be considered plagiarized, which will certainly harm your academic reputation.

Choose the sources carefully

When it comes to sources, quality will always be more important than quantity. Look for information in reputable websites with domains like org., gov., or edu. If you are mentioning some statistics in your paper, make sure that it is taken from a recent and peer-reviewed article or book.

Research questions on police brutality

Of course, in order to write a good research paper, you will need to formulate questions to know in what direction you should move with your research. We have created some questions which may inspire you to choose a topic and research direction for your paper:

  • What are the costs of police brutality for the US government?
  • What are the historical reasons for police brutality?
  • Who are the main victims of police brutality?
  • Were there any cases when police brutality was justified?

police brutality essay outline

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  • How to Write Police Brutality Essay
  • Police Brutality Essay: From a Brainstorming to the Final Draft

Brainstorming the ideas

How to structure the police brutality essay, the introductory part of the text., a main body of the text., conclusive part of the text., still not sure what is police brutality essay.

The police brutality essay is a quite popular writing assignment in the schools and colleges today. Increased incidents involving the brutal behavior of the police officers against regular persons make this theme on the front burner so no wonder that students want to learn how to write such essays .

We will share you the possible areas for research, how to structure your paper, and what functions each part of the text has.

First and foremost, it is necessary to identify what your teacher expects from you. Read the task carefully as The police brutality argumentative essay and compare and contrast paper are two totally different things. The format of the text dictates terms of the narration so pay attention to it.

As the topic is one of the most common (read: clichéd) themes for writing assignments the best way to achieve the great result is to find a new approach to the issue. Here are some ideas to start your search from:

  • Los Angeles riots in 1992. The first ever case of police brutality that set the whole country in the turmoil.
  • Pallid statistics. Almost all cases of police violence against young black and ethnic men go unpunished.
  • Lack of training of police officers. Incapacity is one of the major reasons why the officers use excessive force and are unable to interact with mentally challenged and unstable persons. How such a situation can be changed?
  • Distrust towards police among the society because of the insufficient reforms and lack of information about highly professional and courageous deeds of the policemen.
  • The increased chances of gun violence from a suspect due to the firearm permit leading to the growing danger of the job.
  • A voluntary system of reporting on victims of crimes in the departments. There is no possibility to monitor the number of victims of the police abuse as well as to define if whether the number has increased or decreased. How to control it?
  • The reasons for the racial-biased profiling of the misconduct that cause the poor relationship between the police and minority groups.

All academic papers call for a clear and logical layout aimed to cover the topics in the most detailed and precise way. The Police Brutality essay is not an exception as here it is essential to follow such structure:

  • An introduction
  • A body of the text
  • A conclusion.

The main purpose of the intro section is to put the reader into the picture and encourage him to read further. It is possible to apply several methods to achieve this aim. You can use an anecdote, a rhetorical question or an unexpected fact to grab the attention of the reader.

In addition, the intro part should contain a thesis statement, the sentence providing a snapshot of the whole work. An outline for the section will look like this:

Americans complain about the rudeness of police officers and in increasing frequency over recent years. But what are the reasons which have turned the police in America from law enforcement to punitive force? Experts define several reasons for it naming the usage of the terrorist threats as a cause for a cutback of civil liberties in the United States.

The essay on police brutality deals with the historical insight of the problem and what issues the abuse of power by police bring to our community.

The middle part of the paper contains all the gathered material and its analysis. The author should not include the milk-and-water info as it distracts the reader from the main theme of the paper. The core principals of the section are:

  • One paragraph should be dedicated to one sub-idea;
  • There should be at least two paragraphs;
  • Smooth transitions between paragraphs are essential;
  • Each argument you provide in the text should be supported by the solid piece of evidence.

The outline for the body part may look like this:

Paragraph 1. The American researchers have studied the problems caused by the brutal behavior of the police officers and its roots for many a year. The most serious fact of the police involvement in the criminal activities can be found in the 90s of the 20th century.

The illegal actions with a racist coloring focused the attention of the communities to the police. The scene of beating black Rodney D. King by white policemen in Los Angeles in March 1991 was a milestone that led to mass riots during which 54 people were killed. Only in 1993 those policemen were brought to justice and found guilty of violating the human rights of R. King.

At the initiative of Washington and New York, the police had proclaimed a policy of “zero tolerance” to the violation of the law in 1997 to change the situation with the police brutality. Yet, it didn’t work as good as expected because the number of citizens’ complaints about policemen increased by 56%.

In the early 1990s, the special commission that investigated one of the biggest corruption scandals in New York established that the internal control system was corrupt and the management in every possible way covered guilty policemen.

Despite the fact of police reforms over the past twenty years, the issue remains unsolved. In 2010 thousands of policemen were involved in incidents involving physical force, weapon and in offenses of a sexual nature.

Paragraph 2. The unreasonable use of the weapon by a cop often causes tragedies like the one in the city of Ferguson where a policeman shot African American Michael Brown and was fully acquitted. On top of that, such behavior is completely justified by the legislation so the cases of the misuse of weapon will appear again and again. The right to use the weapon against a suspect applies to all unarmed suspects and as the practice shows, cops use weapon absolutely unreasonably.

Reforms have improved the situation slightly, however, did not solve the main issue that the officers are accountable to their superiors only.

The final section deals with summarizing the key points of the text without adding new facts. But, it is inappropriate to copy-paste them together with the thesis statement as you have to restate them in other words. It is your last chance to argue the audience into your point of view, so get the most out of it.

Thus, the sample conclusion should be written like this:

There are many causes why the reports of the police brutality will appear again and again in the local and mass media news. The very doctrine of the US Supreme Court opposes bringing policing officials to justice and it plays the main role in the negative course of the police. The police take the full advantage of the right to detain criminals at any cost. The harsh reality shows that the policemen feel free to exceed their authority and situations like Ferguson will continue to appear. The cities will act against the unjustified cruelty of the officers towards individuals time and again. However, the legal procedures aimed to limit the powers of the police will endanger the public safety. Still, in order to stop the acts of violence, it is necessary to change all systems of the state. Police brutality takes many shapes and forms and it is essential to find a solution to the issue. Until then the parents should teach their children how to stay alive around police officers.

Then you may take an advantage of the professional online writing assistance. There are times when you have no possibility to complete papers on your own and Samedaypaper service is always ready to help you. Just click here and find out how we can assist you!

Essay on Police Brutality in the United States

Police brutality essay introduction, what is police brutality, causes of police brutality, factors contributing or leading to police brutality, curbing police brutality, citizens complains and brutality, consequences of police brutality, police brutality conclusion.

Police officers are allowed to use “non-negotiable coercive force” to maintain public order and control the behavior of citizens. This provides a loophole for use of brutal force according to Bittner (1970; cited in Cao, 1999). The central problem or area of concern appears to be the proper application of use of this force according to Kerstetter (1985; cited in Cao, 1999).

Research on police abuse of force and brutality on the organizational level are rare or few. Most studies on abuse appear to focus on the individual level of abuse. These studies have also faced several limitations, including the fact that they involve limited number of jurisdiction and inconsistent measures across the studies.

Police brutality refers to the excessive use of force by the police, and which leads to harassment of citizens, annoyance and restriction of their freedom (as posited by Reiss, 1971; cited in Cao, 1999). Other interpretations touch the judgment of citizens that they have not been treated with respect and dignity as would be democratically expected.

The likelihood of the law enforcement agencies including and excluding the police to commit crime is high, one because of the nature of the job. Police are exposed to various situations where they are likely to act in a brutal manner and to react vigorously to situations. However, law enforcement agencies have been required to act in a responsible manner so as to reduce the rates and cases of brutality.

Cases of police brutality in the United States have been reported in history, with increase in the concern of these cases. There are reports that police in the United States have exceeded all other groups in the violation of human rights of minorities. This has led to growing of distrust between the police and the populations. This paper will look at police brutality in the United States and how it can be checked out.

The paper analyzes this situation and how it can be dealt with, including comparison of the cases with human rights concerns. In addition, the paper will try to look at other things such as the causes of police brutality and how it can be achieved.

Proposals of dealing with police brutality have been discussed by groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, ranging from punishment of the officers once they are reported with brutality (Bennett, 2008). Police reforms have been put forward as a means of ending police brutality, such as those proposed in 1970s (Lucent Overview Series, n.d.).

It has been revealed that several complaints of police abuse go unpunished. For instance, a study has indicated of the over 10, 000 complaints recorded between 2002 and 2004 in Chicago; only nineteen received reasonable punishment.

The study has proposed that police department should not be allowed to police itself, but that accountability for every officer’s conduct an investigation of police abuse reports should be in the hands of an independent oversight board (Ryan, 2007). However, there is evidence, according to the aforementioned author that the greatest number of riots related to the use of force among the police, relate to public perception concerning misuse of force by the police.

This report focuses on use of brutal force by the police as well as the complaints raised by the public, the conflict generated by the problem, the intense and the consequences of police brutality.

Police brutality appears to be a thing existing in the history of the United States. The New York City Police Department used to encounter many incidences of this form of crime in 1990s. Citizens were being injured by breaking their hands, arms and body parts so as to make arrests, and magistrates raised concerns on this trend on the use of force by the police officers.

There was little concern about police brutality in those years than today. The issue of police brutality has come to be widely known and surfaced because of two major incidences that occurred in the history of the United States. One is the criminal law revolution. This was through the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren and was started by the star.

Originally known as the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, the Kerner Commission findings were second. These steps allowed the nation to focus largely on police brutality and the use of force by the police. In addition to the national debate, there are studies which have been carried on the subject matter since that time which serve to give detailed illustration.

Police brutality has been a national debate since the time of Rodney King, and which has involved many issues. This historical event by the Los Angeles Police Department occurred in 1991 and played an important role in changing the situation. Police are engaged in a wide range of activities including keeping law and order. In their duty, they are exposed to a variety of issues that may make them react vigorously or wildly.

Cases of brutality have been linked to behaviors such as racism and battering of citizens, whether they are engaged in crime or not. Research evidence has shown that the police who commit brutality cannot be categorized by race, since there was no differentiation between those who have committed the crime. It was revealed by this study that the black officers’ crime rate stood at 9.8 percent whereas that for white officers was 8.7 percent.

Police practice is considered brutality when there is excessive use of force. This use of force may itself be controversial, but it is considered the use of force beyond what would be necessary to cope with a situation. The most considered form of police abuse is the physically instituted abuse. However, police misconduct may manifest as psychological intimidation, verbal use, among others.

The latter forms of abuse become difficult to deal with. Although police brutality has been touted as bad and undesirable, it has been applied in historical times to achieve some desired results. For example, police force and brutality was used during the Nazi Germany times and the Industrial Revolution times of the United States. It was common for striking workers and labor activists to be intimidated by police officers in these times.

Policing has become more aggressive following the September 11 attacks in the United States. Use of excessive force in the police is more evident in areas where there are no laws against police brutality. In addition, police brutality has been evidenced in meetings and gatherings such as those by NATO, WTO, and the World Bank/IMF and the group of 8 (G8) (Smith, 2010).

The causes of police brutality vary from stress to poor or unfavorable working conditions. In addition, police have faced situations that demand them use extreme force, for example where the members of the public are resistant to peaceful efforts of keeping peace.

Shootings under situations of fear or minor circumstances have been reported, such as where one police man shot dead an unarmed African American man in 1997 arguing that the policeman mistook the key he was carrying for a gun. The said policeman had committed similar crimes eight times prior to the incident.

Several cases may as well have been unreported and therefore raising the possibility that cases of brutality are more than have been reported. Some of the incidences of brutality among police officers have been caused by lack of adherence to the regulations on the use of deadly force and insufficient understanding as well.

In addition, lack of strict following or punishment of the cases known by the Internal Affairs Investigations may have contributed to the lack of adherence to the guidelines against brutality, or the rise of cases of brutality among the police forces. This includes leniency among the police officers concerned with disciplining of the police who have cases of brutality.

The lack of guidelines and indeed the logic describing what is required and what is excessive has also contributed to lack of proper guidelines or measures to deal with brutality cases. There must be allowed some sense or emotional influence as police officers continue with their duty, especially where there requires use of force, since police officers are human beings.

In addition, we must blame the lack of channels to report, or lack of enough of these channels to report police brutality cases. Even in the event of reporting of these cases, the courts have been blamed for lack of seriousness in dealing with the culprits. Citizens don’t seem to be aware of their rights and this is to blame. (Pagewise, 2002).

We must put blame on the government, or advice that the authorities must be responsible for letting the citizens to know, and indeed laying out necessary strategies necessary for the education of the public on their rights involving these matters. Concern has been raised over the results of stress and pressure on police officers.

Thus, while the blame of brutality may be placed on the police officers, administrators of the departments as well as the governmental authorities involved in the administration of police officers must be partly held accountable.

Administrators are directly linked with the scheduling and planning for officers’ duties, remuneration, as well as other issues such as health and sanitations. These directly influence the working of the police officers and may increase the incidences of brutality because they relate to job motivation, morale and attitude.

Police officers may find themselves being engaged with alcoholism and suicide once they have difficulties in managing their families, something that may as well result from poor pay and working conditions. The “toughening process” is one of the stages that bring a more relaxed attitude hence confidence. However, it has been revealed that stress can occur at any of the stages theorized.

The act of police exposure to stress may be reduced through efforts to have an incorporation of daily plus philosophies in regular activities of the police.

Police officers may therefore feel more confident applying these strategies, which in turn (the strategies) fosters the mentality of “us vs. them” and citizens come to disrespect the police officers. Therefore, the study of how police officers respond or behave in situations encouraging stress is very important to understand the problem.

There has been an increasing tension between the police officers and such groups as drug abusers and other organized criminals, and this has resulted in the devising of strategies by one group to fight against the police officers. Therefore, in itself, the community is charged with the life of the police officer being more prone to danger as the aforementioned groups grow.

The excessive use of force among the police officers has been also partly as a result of mistakes and errors committed by the forces themselves or their bosses. These mistakes could include decisions on operational strategies as well as planning. Police officers under certain circumstances may find it necessary to use force in order to put things in order after such errors and mistakes.

Therefore, the importance of efficient planning and strategizing among the police staff and departments must be put into debate because it influences the likelihood of the police officers to act in a brutal manner by either creating such situations and incidents or reducing the likelihood of their occurrence. Suggestions have been made that the failure to deal with police brutality has a relation to the police forces’ insular culture.

In addition, dealing with police officers who are accused of using excessive force is difficult because police officers are allowed to use excessive force in their work. In addition, it is even difficult to determine the situations which were at the scene while the chaos was occurring. The changing nature of the crime to organized one in the 20 th Century made it necessary for changes of policing styles in order to respond to these changes.

Suspects which had information were smacked and punched at times as some of the unlawful ways of responding to rising criminal cases. Police officers and the departments also came to be accused of corruption. A report produced during 1929 known as the Wickersham report focused on the findings of Attorney General George Wickersham viewed that brutal force was being used in policing to gain involuntary confessions.

Apart from this, the report featured inefficiency law enforcement within communities (Canaday, 2008). Historical evidence exist that white law enforcement officers in the United States held scorn against people of ethnic groups which included Asians, Hispanic Blacks. In the United States, brutal force was also utilized to punish demonstrators and this included gassing the rioters with CS riot in order they would be incapacitated, arrested and charged.

Police brutality came to be advanced through the creation, at one time, of a force known as S.T.R.E.S.S. that would be used to police the black in Detroit in 1970s. The force was disbanded by the first black mayor of Detroit.

Abuse of power and privileges by police officers is linked to corruption. All these instances raise issues of distrust among the police officers (Loree, 2006).

Citizens must also be held accountable for causing police to act in a brutal manner. One, open defiance of police orders and authority was, according to Westlty (1949), a cause of the majority of assaults by the police officers. Other cases of assaults occurred when police officers encountered with drug dealers, homosexuals and drunkards.

Occurrence of brutality by police in numerous large metropolitan cities like New York, Los Angeles and San Antonio has caused a concern in the United States (Inciardi, 1990). Recent observation or trend suggests that the cases of police brutality could be occurring as a result of shared norms throughout the police departments as opposed to latter ideologies that brutality was limited to a few “bad apples” in the police force.

The right to use force within police departments is unrestricted and based on the judgment of the police officers themselves. Therefore, brutality is considered a circumstance of the police officer’s role. There is lacking definition of this responsibility, or even its limitation especially in terms of its overall application.

The importance of police training in ensuring that cases of brutality are curbed must need focus. This is because proper police force training is important in ensuring that police officers are made aware of the causes and consequences as well as dangers of brutality.

Training comes with concerns for issues such as the available resources and facilities for training. It has been expressed that police departments (many) lack the minimum standards required to train police officers for duty (). These minimum standards cut across issues of research, community relations and planning.

There is need to ensure that the training meets the standards and avails the police officers with the proper skills and competence to deal with brutality. The police authority and how it is challenged by the individuals is an important aspect of understanding police brutality. Challenging the authority of the police officer may cause him or her to react in opposition.

Failure of the citizen to adhere to directions of other sort such as verbal may activate the police officer to act in a brutal manner. Some part of usage of force by the police officers has come as a result of the officers themselves viewing some members of the society as having no value in the community. These groups include the homosexuals and other sexual offenders, gangs and drug dealer, for example.

The police officers may view these groups as needing or requiring no protection. Police are supposed to make very quick decisions at the job place. The quick decisions are a necessity considering the way in which criminal activities may be launched and advanced. Unfortunately, mane loopholes exist that relate to this decision making specifically because fragmented information forms the basis of most of the decisions.

The integrity of the police officers to make sound judgment under these circumstances need attention since one incident may be very different from others. In addition, could an officer’s long term learning lead to the use of unwarranted force?

Such studies could require knowledge of the learning process conducive for the development of police brutality. The aforementioned learning process begins from conception, through childhood, to adolescence, young adult and until the choosing of law enforcement professional.

There was no evidence from a research study by Earl (n.d.) on whether brutality was a lifelong learning process, but there was evidence that certain things learned could cause certain reactions in individuals including a police officer. Pressurizing officers could therefore cause some learning that influences certain forms of reactions to these individuals.

This research poised a number of recommendations that could reduce the potential of police brutality. Television producers needed to have excitement and conflict presented in peaceful form, yet interesting. This recommendation was poised in observation that there was a major concern on television violence. There was justification of the acts of aggression especially when one’s cause was justified.

There a necessity to exercise control measures in children targeted television programs. This could be achieved through certain measures such as putting a limitation to the time that a child could watch television, and watching family-oriented programs together with children as opposed to leaving them to watch them alone.

Other appropriate solutions can include approaches like engagement in sports and personal hobbies instead of joining parents to watch television programs.

The research recommends that there was need to involve the community in the generation of proper and effective law enforcement that is supported by the community. This would reduce the alarming rate of public concern over brutality issues. There are ways through which police departments can help in involving the community to participate in the formulation of the regulation.

One, there can be developed civilian police academies. The public should be made to learn and experience what the officers are taught. Another strategy is the development of the public relations unit. These units establish a contact the police with the community. Establishment of the School Resource Officer Program allows the people to regard police officers as human beings.

Through community policing, the police needed to participate in the activities of the community besides engaging in constant talk. There was need to encourage programs that would increase public awareness on what is taking place within community and department.

The research recommended that there was need of participation of community members (a few) in the reviewing of complains and pass recommendations on what is required or needed to be done. This could be achieved through establishment of Civilian Complaint Review Board

Proper training of officers would play a great role in ensuring that the “war” and the “battle” concepts propagated are eliminated. A number of recommendations by Earl (n.d.) would help eliminate these feelings. The instructors of the officers must not instill to the police officers that they are going to the battle and to fight a war-the concept of “we against them”.

The techniques taught during training should strictly be defensive and not offensive. Through improvement of the process of recruiting, there can equally be remarkable improvement in training.

It was recommended by the covered research that there should be comprehensive investigations covering the background involving polygraph and psychological examination by centres of training regionally.

The departments and the training centers could receive interested applicants, who could pay fees for background investigations. Applicants could choose their department of interest but they must be recruited in the common pool first.

Since there was evidence that stress and fear were partly to blame for brutality. Some of the recommendations poised in the research by Earl (n.d.) include open discussions of fear and stress to have the police officers affected to know that the peers are concerned during the stage of recruitment.

There is also a need to consider fear to find out ways it can be addressed. In addition, it is possible to identify the trainee’s ability handle fear and stress. Trainees who are unable to deal with stress and fear should be disqualifies from training.

The study posed some recommendations about the news media as relates to law enforcement. Law enforcement was affected by News media and there was lack of well defined ways of checking its impact. The research therefore posed the following recommendations.

Police officers must be cautious while handling media in that they should not be intimidated by the reporters or forced to say what could be offline, since reporters could make news out of what they understand rather than what is true and issued. There was need to sensor the media since it was impossible to change information once it was printed.

Police officers have faced constant pressure, or felt always under pressure to perform their duty. This has led or contributed to them becoming brutal. Another factor is the consideration of police officers as “The Watchman” while ignoring such minor problems as domestic disputes.

Much amount of money has been spent on police chief and reform agenda where education of police chiefs has become an increasingly important agenda. Law enforcement education has particularly spent large sums of money, with the government seeking to raise the educational level of the recruits.

Sensitivity to citizens, better communication, and effectiveness increases when college-educated police officers are employed. The rate of citizen complaint was related negatively to the average service years. The rate of arrest and the population size were also found to be associated with the rate of citizen complaint. Citizen’s complaint against the police is significantly related to the average age of a police department with older average age tending to have a lower citizen complaint rate.

The rate of complain was higher with the population being served by the police. A case for the gender relationship with the rate of complaint is supported by the fact that a larger percentage of females in police departments reduce the rate of complaints.

In addition, the average rate of service in a police department has an impact on the rate of complaint, with the latter increasing with the length of service of an officer in a police department. The effect of police officers’ race on the rate of complaint has been found to contradict the theory prediction. This is because the larger the percentage of African-American officers in the service, the higher the rate of complain.

In addition, complaint rate increases with the increase with the number of arrests a police officer will make. The rate of complaint was negatively associated with the in-service training programs and formalized field training officer programs, which gives an insight into the whole area of police brutality.

There has been an argument that compared to terrorists; police officers pose more danger to Americans. A number of ways have been put across to deal with police brutality, including use of laws and guidelines against police brutality, and people coming together as a group.

For example, Twin-Cities based organization known as Communities United against Police Brutality has been formed to deal with police brutality. Several years of research came up with the conclusion on a number of things that could be implemented at the federal, state, local and universities law enforcement agencies.

The supervisors and line officers need intervene when officers use excessive force. Officers seen utilizing brutal force and beating a restrained person should be arrested and stopped from the incident. Prosecution of an officer who has executed unjustifiable homicide should be considered (Atlansk, 2009). These have been proposed by the Oregon State Police Independent Citizens Review Board.

Studies have pointed out to the reality of discrimination of African Americans arrested over drug dealing. Although white youths still sell drugs in the country, there is evidence that African-American youths are being arrested more than the whites. For example, of the youths transferred to adult court for drug crimes in Illinois, African Americans form 85.5% despite the fact that white youths are participating in drug business.

In fact, a study notes that white youths could be selling drugs at the same rate or more than youths of color (Muwakkil, 2001). A number of commissions have been formed for purposes of investigating police brutality. Unfortunately, these commissions have come up with disturbing or unsatisfactory conclusions. For example, they have concluded that police brutality, or perceived brutality was a trigger (Atlansk, 2009).

These commissions have posed a number of recommendations including the need to eliminate racial disparities and proposed reformation of police practices. Unfortunately, their recommendations have been ignored. There is need to refocus on these There is a need to refocus on these strategies so as to make sure that solutions are sought to end police brutality.

A number of models have been theorized in helping to control the damaging behavior of the police. The professional model put forward by Wilson (1968) focuses on the idea that the officers to be employed are the best-trained and most honest. The issuance and enforcement of rules and regulations during close supervision has been featured in the bureaucratic model brought forward by the aforementioned author.

There has been an argument that the professionalism model of controlling the police misconduct ignores the social and organizational correlates of misconduct and focuses more on the individual aspects.

The aforementioned argument has been posited by Lundman (1980), who continues to argue that what need to be controlled are not individual but organizational climates, and therefore the author is against professionalism as a model of controlling police misconduct.

Departmental characteristics differ across various police departments and this causes the difference in the rates of complaints by the citizens. The negative rule enforcement has been championed by the bureaucratic model.

A number of proposals have been passed by Goldstein (1977) to help curb police brutality, including rewarding proper behavior and providing appropriate role models. In addition, there should be proper avenues for citizen redress and specific training of the police forces so as to reduce the cases for police brutality.

It has been perceived and proposed that in an effort to stop police offensive practices against the citizens, it is appropriate to study the citizen complains at the macro rather than the micro level. In addition, there has been support for the macro level of explanation as the most powerful level and therefore the proposal that more research is needed at the organizational level.

Lack of data has hampered the study of use of excessive physical force at the organizational level. Lack of enough data has partly been caused by the citizens since they do not all report the cases of brutality. In addition, failure of police to collect information at these particular times has resulted in the lack of data.

Although police have defended their practices on the use of excessive force by noting that the subjects have been arrested for legitimate offense, or that they lacked the potential of winning a big law suit, study has shown that revenge motive do not drive the citizen to complain against police brutality.

Citizens themselves have been hampered to report cases of police abuse by a number of limitations, including personal fear of reprisal, possibility of prosecution for making a false claim, cumbersome filling procedures that are also complex, among other limitations. What happens to people and the expected gains are the driving force behind the willingness of the citizens to file a complaint to the police (Bailey and Mendelsohn, 1969; cited in Cao, 2002).

There are a variety of strategies that can reduce citizen complaint rate against the police force. The aforementioned author found that the length of probationary period, field training officer programs, as well as psychological exams taken before admission to police academy have a tendency to reduce citizen complaint rate against the police use of physical force and abuse of power.

However, a negative relation was found between citizen complaint rate and the following; reporting requirements for use of force by the police, written policy regarding use of force, and increment of the number of use of in-service training programs on the use of force.

Another problem regarding the use of excessive force by the police is that the court and many police departments have not defined what brutality is, and what it is not. Some of police departments in the United States have an outlined policy on the use of less lethal force, as well as mandatory reporting systems on the use of force.

The composition of the police force may also influence the behavior of the police force to being more or less brutal. There is evidence that female officers acted to reduce the likelihood of police-citizen encounters as fewer detentions, felony and misdemeanor arrests were found where the female officers were found. Women officers were likely to have fewer citizen complaints.

There was evidenced that white officers had lesser ties and were more antagonistic to the public than the police officers from the minority groups. Police officers from the minority groups were less likely to use force to deal with citizens, although they were more likely to use force on a general perspective.

Complains by citizens have focused on brutality by the police officers, including verbal abuse, physical and non-physical nature. The officers’ behavior may be influenced by the police administration because of its impact on in-service training among other things.

Recording of the cases related to brutality as well as keeping a record of the citizen’s complains about brutality may help in the study of the issue of brutality and the determination of possible solutions. In addition, such records, if kept well may help in the determination of the trend of the police brutality quite deep into the past such that it becomes easier and convenient to conduct comprehensive analysis.

Police brutality is a very costly practice. There are many things that come up with it. It has already been evidenced that police brutality is a practice that is normal. It is wrong to say that only a few policemen behave that way, or that it is a rare occurrence. Police brutality is a norm that has been advanced even by notion across the police departments and carries a lot of consequences.

Police exist, from a lay man’s understanding, to help the citizen. Therefore, when they practice brutality victimizing the very person they are supposed to help, they betray this ideology. In essence, over the past, citizens have continued to distrust the police because of their behavior. Lack of trust among the police is costly because it leads to reduction of the efficiency: i.e. the police can no longer perform their duty effectively to help the citizens.

The connection, as well as the collaboration, between the police and the people they are serving is very vital in eliminating such trends as drug abuse and general crime. The connection is important because it helps the citizens to lead, direct and report cases of crime to the police with the trust that the problem will be solved.

But is the police portray corruption and unfriendly behavior, citizens tend to view them as enemies and can no longer collaborate with them. Community policing is a model of policing that has been touted as a very good model for fighting crime.

Therefore, the efficiency to eliminate and reduce crime rate is decreased as the gap is increased with loss of trust. It is therefore easier, with this understanding, to partly blame the police for the rising incidences of drug abuse among other crimes.

Another consequence of police brutality is the rising of public protests and riots. Police brutality has been so popularized, and the debate has focused on the populations (such as the minority) that appear to be victimized. These populations include the black Americans, Hispanics and other minority groups.

Anger and bitterness has ranged with the consideration that these minority groups are being discriminated against and viewed as not worth to receive the rights. Therefore, they are forced to react against this trend to prove they are worth of the rights. Police brutality has also sparked chaos and riots among various groups, and in this case, excluding the police themselves.

Police spark hatred amongst groups when they show favoritism. These hate debates and practices in the United States have pitied the whites against blacks and Hispanics as well as the other minority groups. Therefore, police could partly be blamed for the racism in the United States especially in the past.

Police brutality of minority groups has sparked interest for these groups to look outside the country for assistance on this issue. For instance, a case against police brutality was set to be presented by several advocacy groups in the UN World Conference against Racism in 2007 (Muwakkil, 2001). In addition, criminals also have been forced at times to adopt violent means of resistance because of the brutal nature of policing in the United States.

It must be understood that the policing may lead to such problems if brutal means are adopted to counter crime. Once criminals are brutalized and punished, they may be forced to adapt to violent means next time they carry out their practices so as to defend themselves. On the contrary, these criminals would not have thought of adopting violent practices in execution of minor crimes if the police do not portray brutality while arresting them.

However, we must consider the nature of some criminal activities such as drug dealing. At Mexico State, this practice is so violent because on the one side, criminals must survive in selling the drugs, and at the same time, police must counter the vice. Police brutality has led to violation, and is itself a violation of human rights and it has sparked debate over the violation of human rights in the United States.

Police brutality had the impact of reducing public confidence in the police, in addition to tainting the image of the police forces. The organizational stability within the police department is jeopardized by scandals associated with the abuse of authority by the police. In addition, they disrupt the continuity of leadership.

This is because police organizations become more prone to outside interference under such circumstances. In addition, police chiefs may become prone to losing their job, thus disrupting leadership. Violation of the spirit or the letter of the law leads to reduction of the gap between totalitarian and democratic governance.

A case has been presented against police brutality in the United States. There is evidence that police brutality has existed over a number of years in history. It has been used in the country to achieve some ends by governmental leaders but has increasingly been hated as a vice. There has been increasing concern over brutality of citizens by the police.

Increasing concern about brutality may have been the cause of rising concern about individual rights among the population. Brutality has a number of consequences including decreased trust for the police officers by the citizens, pressure on the police themselves, as well as other negative impacts discussed above. There are many factors that have been linked to police brutality, including professionalism of the officers, training, and leadership among others.

The larger the population served by the police officers, the higher the rate of the complaint by the citizens, and this may point to the fact that increasing the number of police officers on duty may reduce the rate of brutality. Police officers who encounter psychological problems such as stress may portray brutality trends much as the problem may be caused by factors in the course of duty.

Brutality, being the use of excessive force, or the judgment by the citizens that they were not treated well according to their rights and according to the expectations, has been discouraged through a number of initiatives. It is possible to end or reduce police brutality through a number of initiatives, namely increasing the entry requirements for the recruits, among others.

The theoretical perspective that the larger the number of officers from the minority group (African American) the lower the rate of complaint by citizens about brutality; has been contradicted by research evidence. There is need to put in place a number of initiatives aimed at reducing brutality among the citizens. They should all be aimed at reducing incidences of police brutality.

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Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Activism

Published by Boni on January 4, 2021 January 4, 2021

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Analyzing How Police Brutality got to the Point of Black Lives Matter ?

A countrywide mayhem rose after Trayvon Martin’s homicide, which led to the Black Lives Matter movement, championed by Opal Tometi, Garza, and Patrisse.The upheaval begun as result of pressure from social media hash tag, turning up to be one of the American social media protest against police brutality, particularly towards the black Americans. The recent George Floyd’s execution showing that in spite of all the hard work done by the activists and police radicals, police brutality continues to worsen the pressure of Black Lives Matter. The movement is turning to be a cry in light of evidence that the injustice system is avoiding to support this truth. The paper’s thesis states that injustices system and unmindful towards racism are the proof why police brutality emerged into the movement.

The truth of the matter is before any injustice reaches the courts, there are few parties who may end up involved in corrupt practices. For instance in our case the policeman, lawyers, and prosecutors play a vital role in determining the weight of the case. In fact after the final verdict jail system is anticipated to come up with better ways to implement the decision (Egharevba, 2017). Outrageously corruption and injustice might arise even in the last stage. Investigation has shown that the interconnection between these institutions represents corruption within the justice system in the manner that one or several elements that comprise the system get involved in unlawful actions.

Perhaps you may be interested with a sample of national honor service essay .

Researcher shows that even though the early movements addressed most of the social and political issues affecting the black people, they failed to directly address the racial menace that African Americans endured, and continue to suffer under police brutality. Remarkably, when Tef Poe a renowned rapper, was questioned on why the movement was important to the black Americans, he said that “One of the negligent areas of the civil rights movement is that we did not move the moral compass of racism to the right direction” (Bill Campbell; Jason Rodriguez, 2015). Conversely studies account that racism causes police to use excessive force when dealing with a black individual.

 After the Ferguson police shot Brown, the father went into the streets with a video showing his unarmed child facing harassment from the officer. Despite Brown showing no reasonable harm to the police, he ended upshot. After the incident, the likes of Poe, McKesson, and other individuals knew that they had to come up with a solution. Hence, they went into the streets, transformed into activists, who were not only concerned with civil rights but also black humanity.

Additionally, assault and victimization of black women by police, particularly the transgender, transpired feminists like Garza and Opal to raise the Black Lives Matter issue. For a long time, the movement focused on the black man’s experience when addressing police brutality. However, women of color like Tanisha Anderson, Rekia Boyd, Shelly Frey, and others were sexually assaulted and killed by police. Like men, the police targeted the women using racial profiling, mandatory stops, and killings (Ruth, 2016). Hence, the movement’s activists have not only focused on highlighting the effects that such victimization has on black women, but articulated why the change is inclusive to the society.

Most states invest in implicit bias training, policing, installing more colored police officers, to reduce police violence. However, study observes that such provisions rarely enhance the worth of black lives. At one time, citizens believed that such consensus would uphold black humanity, but the number of black deaths proves otherwise. Racism is so grounded in the American culture, that even when an officer takes up the implicit bias program, his inbuilt mentality that, black men are inferior, makes him treat the individual without any sensitivity.

Every black recognize Opal for raising alarm that led to the movement’s campaign on Safety beyond Policing (Egharevba, 2017). This happened after the New York State announced to invest is assets on providing more police officers. Opal emphasized, “How are these people going to unleash even more officers in our communities when we see that enough?”.Since the policing would be executed in black society, then it meant more brutalities. This explains how the movement arose as a strategy to reduce police power by eliminating police-union contracts that protected unfair officers.

Small salaries, inadequate guidance, lack of positive reception and rewards are the major catalyst of corruption. In police force and justice system, bribery is the most common form of corruption. On the other hand false prosecution and presentation of false testimonials in front of judges are termed as the leading cause of police brutality (Egharevba, 2017). In case of police brutality the court in the courts, lack of transparency contributes immensely to the violation of human rights .

In conclusion, police brutality, enhanced by racial disparities, because considerable amounts of black deaths. As a result, movements like the Black Lives Matter activism exist to highlight its effects and enhance campaigns that promote black humanity. All this said and done every life count, despite its race, gender, sexual orientation, or social class.

Bill Campbell; Jason Rodriguez. (2015). APB : artists against police brutality. Greenbelt, MD: Rosarium Publishing.

Egharevba, S. (2017). Police brutality, racial profiling, and discrimination in the criminal justice system . Hershey, PA : IGI Global.

Ruth, M. (2016). Police brutality . Farmington Hills, Mich: Greenhaven Press.

Police Brutality Essay Example 2, with Outline

Police brutality essay outline, introduction.

Thesis:  Police brutality violates human rights and should be curbed through effective measures.

Paragraph 1:

Police brutality in America majorly emanates from racial profiling whereby police officers develop negative feelings and hate towards certain religions and races.

  • Police officers believe that if one person from a given race or religion disrespects them, it represents the entire race or religion.
  • Minorities have been exposed to discriminatory treatment and physical abuse by law enforcement.
  • Minorities have also been subjected to humiliations and non-violent harassments.
  • Whether based on race or otherwise, the effects of police brutality on a citizen would be far-reaching.

Paragraph 2: 

A case at hand to highlight the effects of police brutality occurred in May, 2020 and involved an African-American.

  • The victim, known as George Floyd, was murdered under the custody of police.
  • In a video that went viral and spurred “Black Lives Matter” protests across the United States and elsewhere across the world, a white police officer, Derek Chauvin, was seen suffocating life out of a helpless Floyd.

Paragraph 3:

Given the harrowing experience it puts citizens through, police brutality should be stopped.

  • The internal affairs department should revamp and improve every police unit in the country.
  • The department should reevaluate leadership roles in police units by way of ensuring that all the units uphold and respect human integrity and rights.
  • It should put in place systems through which “problem police officers” may be exposed before they go on the rampage tramping on citizens’ rights.

Paragraph 4:  

Police departments should reevaluate, revise, and modify their training systems.

  • The departments should adopt new training methods on areas that usually send police officers into being brutal, such as racism.
  • Police departments should thoroughly investigate the effects of such weapons as pepper spray before releasing them for use on citizens.
  • Officers should be trained on how they may handle the effects of the use of police weapons.
  • A more effective training policy should be developed.

Paragraph 5:

Background checks should be conducted to ensure that people who are potentially violent are not recruited into the police force.

  • Background checks should be conducted in combination with a tracking system for preventing possible reassignment of terminated “problem officers” to new positions in new stations.
  • If found guilty of misconduct or brutality, an officer should have their certificates revoked so they may have nothing to identify them as police officers anymore.
  • Until they are possibly re-certified, such officers should not be employed again.


Police brutality is a serious problem that violates human rights and abuses police authority. It goes against the spirit of protecting citizens and maintaining law and order which is the major role of the police. It should be addressed through measures that would ensure professionalism and civility in how the police handle citizens.

Police Brutality Essay

Police brutality involves members of law enforcement engaging in acts of misconduct by using excessive force to cause emotional, mental, or physical harm to members of society. Causing ferocious assaults to and manipulating citizens go against the role which law enforcement officers were sworn to serve, which is to maintain law and order and protect citizens. Police brutality thus amounts to abuse of police authority and violation of the rights of citizens. The situation is especially appalling if a citizen is innocent of any wrongdoing. Often, the brutality leaves victims with serious emotional and physical scars and even leads to death in extreme cases. Police brutality violates human rights and should be curbed through effective measures.

Police brutality in America majorly emanates from racial profiling whereby police officers develop negative feelings and hate towards certain religions, sexes, or races. Apparently, police officers believe that if one person from a given race or religion disrespects them, it would imply that all members of that race or religion are disrespectful towards the police. Race has particularly contributed significantly towards police brutality in the American society. Minorities have been exposed to discriminatory treatment and physical abuse by law enforcement. Apart from physical abuse, minorities have also been subjected to humiliations and non-violent harassments (Ruth, 2015). For instance, there is a tendency whereby African American drivers are pulled over by police and put through thorough questioning with the intent of finding them at fault or probably creating one against them (Ruth, 2015). Whether based on race or otherwise, the effects of police brutality on a citizen would be far-reaching.

A case at hand to highlight the effects of police brutality occurred in May, 2020 and involved an African-American. The victim, known as George Floyd, was murdered under the custody of police (Hill et al., 2020). In a  video  that went viral and spurred “Black Lives Matter” protests across the United States and elsewhere across the world, a white police officer, Derek Chauvin, was seen suffocating life out of a helpless Floyd. There were other three police officers accompanying Chauvin and they did absolutely nothing to stop the now former police officer from killing the African-American. By July 2020, the protests were still ongoing, with sports associations in various countries directing sportspeople to take a knee during matches in solidarity with the “Black Lives Matter” protests. It is not in doubt that this level of police brutality is toxic for the entire human society, not just the Unites States alone.

Given the harrowing experience it puts citizens through, police brutality should be stopped. The first step in this respect would be for the internal affairs department to revamp and improve every police unit in the country. Since it is this department that is charged with handling the conduct of police, it should reevaluate leadership roles in police units by way of ensuring that all the units uphold and respect human integrity and rights. It should put in place systems through which “problem police officers” may be exposed before they go on the rampage trampling on citizens’ rights. There should also be firm disciplinary actions against officers who engage in the use of excessive force and brutality. Every time the department conducts a review, it should be focused on the review activities and clearly document all of them (Schenwar, Makare & Price, 2016). Implementing this solution would not cost much because it is just about better management of an already active system.

Another solution would be for police departments to reevaluate, revise, and modify their training systems. As suggested by Williams (2015), the departments should consider adopting new training methods on areas that usually send police officers into being brutal, such as racism. For example, they should educate officers on how to handle mentally ill or non-violent citizens, how to go about a post chase arrest, and how to operate pepper spray in the correct manner. On that note, police departments should thoroughly investigate the effects of such weapons as pepper spray before releasing them for use on citizens. Additionally, officers should be trained on how they may handle the effects of the use of police weapons and this should include how to offer or access proper medical assistance for victims. Moreover, a more effective training policy should be developed by choosing qualified and suitable trainers. Trainers chosen should have no history of any kind of misconduct.

A third solution would be to conduct background checks so as to ensure that people who are potentially violent are not recruited into the police force. Such checks should be conducted in combination with a tracking system for preventing possible reassignment of terminated “problem officers” to new positions in new stations. Robertiello (2017) advises that when an officer quits or is fired from the department for human rights violation, relevant information should be submitted to a tracking office by the department. It should then be a requirement that a thorough check is conducted by recruiters with the tracking office before considering any applicant for hiring. Upon being found guilty of misconduct or brutality, an officer should have their certificates revoked so they may have nothing to identify them as police officers anymore. Until they are possibly re-certified, such officers should not be employed again. This way, no “problem officer” would ever get reabsorbed into the police department.

Police brutality is a serious problem that violates human rights and abuses police authority. It goes against the spirit of protecting citizens and maintaining law and order, which is the major role of the police. As a matter of fact, police brutality is among the factors that severely infringe into civil rights in the United States. This is why there should be an end to such police misconduct as verbal assault, unlawful shootings, and physical abuse. The situation should be salvaged through measures that would ensure professionalism and civility in how the police handle citizens. Such measures may include reevaluation and modification of police training programs, reevaluation of leadership roles in police units, and conducting background checks during police recruitment.

Hill, E.,  Tiefenthäler , A, Triebert, C., Jordan, D., Willis, H., Stein, R. (2020). “How George Floyd was killed in police custody”.  The New York Times . Retrieved July 7, 2020 from  https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/31/us/george-floyd-investigation.html

Robertiello, G. (2017).  The use and abuse of police power in America: historical milestones and current controversies . Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Ruth. M. (2015).  Police brutality . Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Schenwar, M., Makare, J., & Price, A. Y. (2016).  Who do you serve, who do you protect?: Police violence and resistance in the United States . Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.

Williams, K. (2015).  Our enemies in blue: police and power in America . Oakland, CA: AK Press.

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Rhetorical analysis speech and essay outline.


  • Attention getter

This logo and movement are recognized by most people around the world, most likely invoking memories of quarantine during the pandemic. However, this movement has been around since 2013 and has been making significant efforts and strides in the fight against racial inequality in our country. But what are the inner workings of this movement and how have they been so successful? b. Context (exigence and audience and constraints of artifact)  

Exigence: Created by three women of color in 2013 after George Zimmerman was acquitted for the shooting of Trayvon Martin   

  • Audience: young teenagers to adults, usually liberals but also conservatives who are strongly against the cause  
  • Constraints: people not knowing this logo/having preconceived notions about it, not believing that there is an issue of equality in our country  
  • Mode of analysis/criticism (from Keywords)

Analyzing the social movement, including the origin and impact using the social movement lens. As well as what this logo and social movement represent and how they are combatting the misrepresentation of progress in terms of racial inequality.  

  • Thesis (main claim regarding your artifact that body builds upon)

The Black Lives Matter logo uses various methods of demonstration and the commonplace of equal and “lives matter” to promote the movement’s fight against racial inequality in America.  

  • Main Point #1 i. The commonplace of equality is the main message of this social movement which sparked their creation following the shooting of Trayvon Martin and the acquittal of his killer 1. They also advocate for other minority groups such as the LGBTQIA+ community  
  • Main Point #2
  • i. The method in which this movement uses to broadcast their message is focused on going against the status quo.
  • The creation of this movement was sparked by police brutality towards people of color, while also tying in the issue of racial profiling, excessive force used by police, and discrimination. 2. This phrase also evokes emotion in the audience because it is very alarming to see that it must be outwardly announced that the lives of Black people do matter. As a result, those who do not experience racism themselves or did not think it was a big issue in our country are then intrigued and concerned by the movement.

III. Conclusion a. The Black Lives Matter movement, which is represented by their logo, uses the commonplaces of equality and “lives matter” and public demonstrations to bring awareness to the presence of racial inequality in America. b. The use of commonplaces allows for those who are unaware of this pressing issue or do not experience racism themselves to become educated on the issue and movement. The movement’s method of protest also highlights their main goal of bringing awareness to this issue due to the misrepresentation of progress.  

  • I have delivered this speech to further stress the point that racial inequality is still a huge issue in our country, and even though we have made great strides as a society and country to solve racism, it is still very prevalent.

Essay Outline:  

  • Comparing the Black Lives Matter logo with the following quote from Frederick Douglas, “Where justice is denied, where poverty is enforced, where ignorance prevails, and where any one class is made to feel that society is in an organized conspiracy to oppress, rob, and degrade them, neither persons nor property will be safe.”   
  • When comparing this quote to the Black Lives Matter logo and what the movement represents, the evolution of the fight against oppression and racial inequality is highlighted.  
  • Thesis: These two artifacts, although two different genres and created 127 years apart, discuss the presence of racial inequality, demonstrating that it is still an ongoing issue.  
  • Historical Context of Original Artifact: The Black Lives Matter movement was c reated by three women of color in 2013 after George Zimmerman was acquitted for the shooting of Trayvon Martin, and for the past decade have been working towards spreading awareness and striving for change  
  • First describe the artifact then write about the rhetorical situation in which it is found:  
  • Analyze the original artifact using one of the lenses (here you are discussing the messages the artifact communicates and how these messages persuade an audience to think/act/choose/decide/believe)  
  • Exigence: c reated by three women of color in 2013 after George Zimmerman was acquitted for the shooting of Trayvon Martin  
  • Analytical Framework for Original Artifact: using a representative and social movement lens  
  • Historical Context of Comparative Artifact: The following quote is from Frederick Douglas’ speech that he delievered at the 24 th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation in Washington D.C. in 1886.  
  • Introduce Comparative Artifact by first describing the artifact then write about the rhetorical situation in which it is found:  
  • Exigence: Douglas delivered the speech that this quote is from for the 24 th anniversary of the emancipation proclamation to emphasize that, although Lincoln declared all slaves to be free in this speech, there is still discrimination and racism present two and a half decades later.  
  • Audience: Most likely, young adult to older adult African Americans who look up to Douglas and value what he has to say  
  • Constraints: Lack of awareness or backlash from white men in power who may want to mask the presence of racism in our country  
  • Analytical Framework for Original Artifact: presence of ethos, pathos, and logos and how that contributes to the effectiveness of Douglas’s speech and mission  
  • Analyze the comparative artifact using one or more of the lenses (here you are discussing the messages the artifact communicates and how these messages persuade an audience to think/act/choose/decide/believe). Make references to the original artifact as you build your case (i.e., your thesis). Use the same lenses to analyze the comparative as you did the original: The comparison of this quote and logo persuades the audience to think about how much progress our country has made to eliminate racial equality, and how after over a century later it is still a pressing issue in America. (Cause audience to reflect on their contribution to this issue and whether they are directly affected by it or not)  

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Guide to Write a Good Police brutality essay – Outline, Topics, Examples included

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4 stories of real Russian mob bosses that put Hollywood to shame

A scene from 'Eastern Promises' by David Cronenberg, a gangster film portraying Russian mafia. It was quite accurate in terms of prison tattoos.

A scene from 'Eastern Promises' by David Cronenberg, a gangster film portraying Russian mafia. It was quite accurate in terms of prison tattoos.

Russia’s criminal culture is something special. Traditionally, it goes by the name "thieves-in-law", and high-ranking kingpins who live according to a strict code (no links or cooperation with the powers-that-be), command the most respect and authority. Though few really follow that code ( ponyatiya   – the understandings), it’s almost impossible to rise up the ranks of the criminal elite without at least pretending to follow them.

Back in the 1990s, the criminal world of post-Soviet Russia was in turmoil. Young and ruthless gangsters challenged the old thieves-in-law, gangs and clans fought turf battles known as   razborki , leaving numerous bodies behind.  Here are stories of the four most infamous Russian gangsters: three now dead, the other behind bars.

1. Sergey Timofeev (Silvester)


Timofeev, nicknamed Silvester for his love of   Rambo   and   Rocky , led Moscow's most influential gang, based in Orekhovo district. In the early 1990s, at the peak of his career, Silvester   controlled   more than 30 banks and all the city's markets and his fortune was counted in billions of rubles. Pretty cool for a man who used to be a tractor driver.

Often referred to as the “CEO of Moscow crime”, Timofeev belonged to the new generation of 90s criminals, who despised   ponyatiya   and the old thieves-in-law. “He didn’t accept this code, he didn’t need it,” senior cop Alexander Gurov,   says. Silvester’s “soldiers” were extremely violent and didn’t mind torturing or killing children.

Timofeev had so many enemies that it is still unclear who blew him to bits in his Mercedes-Benz on September 13, 1994. Rumors persist that Silvester faked his death and disappeared with his money, leaving other criminals to fight for his throne.

2. Vyacheslav Ivankov (Little Japanese)


Unlike Silvester, Ivankov, or   Yaponchik   (literally Little Japanese), was an old-school thief-in-law, among the first who used racketeering and blackmailing to rip off entrepreneurs in the 1970s. His authority was great: Little Japanese held the so-called   obshchak  (thieves’ common fund) – a privilege only the crème de la crème of the criminal world enjoyed.

The law wasn’t happy with Ivankov’s success: he spent the 1980s in prison, released only in 1991 to take part in the war between Slav and Caucasian gangs. A year later he decided to start anew and left Russia for the U.S. The Americans hardly laid out the welcome mat - and jailed him for nine years in 1995.  

Ivankov, center, flanked by FBI agents.

Ivankov, center, flanked by FBI agents.

“They blamed me for all crimes. I didn’t try to rape the Statue of Liberty! I didn’t bomb Pearl Harbor!” Ivankov   grumbled. (In fact, he was convicted for racketeering and entering into a sham marriage.) In 2004, after his release, he returned to Russia, reaffirming his status as a senior thief-in-law, and entered an alliance with the other kingpin, Grandpa Hassan. His career ended suddenly in 2009 when a sniper shot him in the center of Moscow.

3. Aslan Usoyan (Grandpa Hassan)

Grandpa Hassan.

Grandpa Hassan.

Many crime experts believe that it was Usoyan who ruled Russia's criminal world in the late 2000s – early 2010s, not Yaponchik. “He turned Ivankov into a nonexecutive figurehead,” PrimeCrime website   noted.

For decades, Hassan was a real game-changer among criminals. An ethnic Kurd with a dubious reputation among thieves-in-law – many considered him too liberal, not living in accordance with   ponyatiya   – Usoyan outplayed his rivals in cruel wars. “For instance, in his war to gain control of businesses controlled by the Oganov brothers, more than 150 people were killed,” PrimeCrime   writes.

“Grandpa” ruled the criminal world with an iron hand, successfully playing “divide and rule” with his enemies and showed himself unwilling to retire. He never did: it was a sniper’s bullet that ended his life in 2013, which was a real bolt from the blue. Yes, criminal kings are really bad at dying peacefully.

4. Tariel Oniani (Taro)


While it’s still unclear who ordered the hits on Yaponchik and Grandpa Hassan, the chief suspect is their former business partner Tariel Oniani (Taro), an influential thief-in-law from Georgia. Back in the 1990s, he and Hassan cooperated on building a money laundering business in Spain, SovSekretno   writes: “This 'laundry' was so successful that other criminal groups from Russia used it as well.”

Nevertheless, in 2005 the Spanish police closed down the 'laundry' and Taro went back to Russia where his interests clashed with those of Hassan and Yaponchik. Grandpa Hassan won, and in addition to that Oniani was imprisoned for 10 years in 2009 for racketeering and kidnapping. “By the time of his arrest Taro was almost as authoritative as Hassan,” Rosbalt   notes   – but Grandpa did everything he could to destroy Taro.

In 2009, Hassan, Yaponchik and their allies sent a letter to all “thieves-in-law” in prison, demanding they consider Taro “a whore” and “act in accordance with that”, which usually means killing. Nevertheless, Taro survived now and his time in jail is coming to an end and both his enemies are dead. He’s facing other problems though – after his release, he faces extradition to Spain and could be put back behind bars.

We have a separate article on the concept of thieves-in-law, their code and behavior - feel free to read it. 

If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.

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police brutality essay outline

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I've always been interested in language and languages. I was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and grew up on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, which is really a linguistic extension of New Orleans. (We speak a similar dialect of English and eat the same food; I grew up on gumbo, red beans and rice, and jambalaya.) As a kid, I knew that we talked different. Beaucoup (boocoo), the neutral ground (the median in a road), and passing by someone's house (meaning: to stop and visit someone) were all a normal part of my dialect. I grew up primed to notice language nuances.

I love teaching, and I am thankful to the many dedicated teachers I've had over the years. I am especially grateful to my high school French teacher, Mrs. Emily de Montluzin, who was my first foreign language teacher many years ago. There was something inspiring about how she taught, which made what she taught so interesting and impactful on my life -- and isn't that what all of us teachers hope to accomplish?

Learning languages comes naturally to me and have studied six. Some were in a classroom setting with a teacher, a book, and other students. Other languages were learned by hanging out with native speakers and practicing a lot. A WHOLE LOT! More recently, I have started learning another language online. In the process of all this studying and learning, I have come to know a lot more about good teaching and good learning.

My first foreign language was French. I was naturally good at languages, which led me to continue studying them. I learned Spanish, eventually doing my master's thesis in dialects of Spanish in Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. My next language was Arabic. While living in Malaysia, I studied Malay, often by watching subtitles of the TV show "Dynasty" because it was one of only two shows on TV in English with Malay subtitles. (The other was "Sesame Street.") I studied Japanese and had to use it in my daily life there. Most recently, I have been learning German through my university course, which is 100% online due to COVID. This course has no Zoom and therefore no human interaction of any kind. I've come to realize and appreciate how hard it is to learn a language by yourself. Language is perhaps one of the most human interactions we have, yet I completed German 1 with a computer, an online textbook, and youtube videos.

For more than 40 years -- a number I cannot truly believe -- in the US and abroad. I've taught English as Second/Foreign Language in the US, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Kuwait, and Japan. I've also taught French and Spanish. In fact, I once taught Spanish in Japan IN JAPANESE. Now think about that combination for a moment!

In addition, I've conducted teacher training workshops all over the globe, from Argentina to Uzbekistan. I'm certified secondary (English & French), and one of my favorite events is working with hundreds of K12 teachers every summer in Arkansas through an amazing program with the Arkansas Department of State. I am a frequent conference presenter at international and regional TESOL events.

At a very early age, I loved teacher worksheets. Teachers back then passed out mimeographed handouts that they had run off on a spirit master machine. The handouts were a bluish-purple color, and they smelled GREAT! Teachers often arrived in class with last-minute handouts where the paper was still wet and the chemical smells were very strong. When a teacher passed out a worksheet, everyone was smelling the sheets.... but while my classmates continued with their handout-induced highs, I -- being a nerd -- was noticing the design of the worksheet. How did the teacher set up the matching activity? Terms on the left and definitions on the right? (Very American, I know now.) Or vice-versa? And where did the blanks go? And which words did she ask? It is no exaggeration to say that I really LOVED school. I LOVED those worksheets. I LOVED our workbooks. And so it's no wonder that at the age of 25, I published my first book. So far, I have published 75 books with the University of Michigan Press, National Geographic Learning, Wayzgoose Press, Oxford University Press, and Longman.

I have a BA in English with a minor in Secondary Education and French and an MA in TESOL. I also have a PhD in Second Language Acquisition and Instructional Technology. My main research areas are vocabulary and best teaching practices. I'm especially interested in experimental, quasi-experimental, and case study research on the teaching of grammar, the teaching of vocabulary, and error correction in second language writing.

Who knew that smelling the chemicals on worksheets in the 60s and 70s would lead me to be a textbook and workbook writer today? Well, they say that everything happens for a reason...

I hope you enjoy my English language materials. I am always open to hearing your suggestions for improving my work. Please feel free to contact me -- whether it is to comment on one of my books, ask about a research question, or invite me to participate at a conference in your area.

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great writing 2 5th edition

Great Writing Fifth Edition 2 Student’s Book


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Great Writing Fifth Edition 2 Student’s Book: описание

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Great Writing 2: Great Paragraphs (Great Writing, Fifth Edition)

By (author) Keith S. Folse April Muchmore-Vokoun Elena Vestri Solomon

  • Publisher ‏ : ‎  National Geographic/(ELT); 5th edition (March 20, 2019)
  • Language ‏ : ‎  English
  • Paperback ‏ : ‎  228 pages
  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎  0357020839
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎  978-0357020838
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎  1.6 pounds
  • Dimensions ‏ : ‎  8.25 x 0.5 x 10.5 inches
  • #179 in  Reading Skills Reference (Books)
  • #277 in  English as a Second Language Instruction
  • #348 in  Foreign Language Instruction (Books)

ISBN: 9780357020838 is student textbook only. Online access code is selling separately at other ISBN The new edition of the Great Writing series provides clear explanations, extensive models of academic writing and practice to help learners write great sentences, paragraphs, and essays. With expanded vocabulary instruction, sentence-level practice, and National Geographic content to spark ideas, students have the tools they need to become confident writers. Updated in this Edition: Clearly organized units offer the practice students need to become effective independent writers. Each unit includes: Part 1: Elements of Great Writing teaches the fundamentals of organized writing, accurate grammar, and precise mechanics. Part 2: Building Better Vocabulary provides practice with carefully-selected, level-appropriate academic words. Part 3: Building Better Sentences helps writers develop longer and more complex sentences. Part 4: Writing activities allow students to apply what they have learned by guiding them through writing, editing, and revising. Part 5: New Test Prep section gives a test-taking tip and timed task to prepare for high-stakes standardized tests, including IELTs and TOEFL. The new guided online writing activity takes students through the entire writing process with clear models for reference each step of the way.

Title : Great Writing 2: Great Paragraphs (Great Writing, Fifth Edition)

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Great Writing 2: Great Paragraphs | 5th Edition

Available study tools, great writing 2, 5e: online workbook, instant access (myelt), about this product.

The new edition of the Great Writing series provides clear explanations, extensive models of academic writing and practice to help learners write great sentences, paragraphs, and essays. With expanded vocabulary instruction, sentence-level practice, and National Geographic content to spark ideas, students have the tools they need to become confident writers. Updated in this Edition: Clearly organized units offer the practice students need to become effective independent writers. Each unit includes: Part 1: Elements of Great Writing teaches the fundamentals of organized writing, accurate grammar, and precise mechanics. Part 2: Building Better Vocabulary provides practice with carefully-selected, level-appropriate academic words. Part 3: Building Better Sentences helps writers develop longer and more complex sentences. Part 4: Writing activities allow students to apply what they have learned by guiding them through writing, editing, and revising. Part 5: New Test Prep section gives a test-taking tip and timed task to prepare for high-stakes standardized tests, including IELTs and TOEFL. The new guided online writing activity takes students through the entire writing process with clear models for reference each step of the way.

great writing 2 5th edition

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Level(s): Low-intermediate (US). Authors : Keith S. Folse; April Muchmore-Vokoun; Elena Vestri Solomon. 9780357020838. Paperback. 5th Edition | Previous

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ISBN: 9780357020838 is student textbook only. Online access code is selling separately at other ISBN The new edition of the Great Writing series provides

В интернет-магазине Deltabook.ru вы можете купить онлайн Great Writing (Fifth Edition) 2 Student's Book / Учебник Keith S. Folse

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National Geographic/(ELT); 5th edition (March 20, 2019); Language

Now with engaging National Geographic images, the new edition of the Great Writing series helps students write better sentences, paragraphs, and essays. The new

Keith S. Folse/April Muchmore-Vokoun/Elena Vestri Solomon. Product cover for Great Writing 2: Great Paragraphs 5th Edition by Keith S. Folse.

Great Writing Fifth Edition 2 Great Paragraphs Students Book - ISBN: 9780357020838; Great Writing Fifth Edition 2 Classroom Presentation Tool - ISBN

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