105 Animal Testing Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
Looking for interesting animal testing topics to research and write about? This field is truly controversial and worth studying!
- 🌶️ Titles: Catchy & Creative
- 🐶 Essay: How to Write
- 🏆 Best Essay Examples
- 📌 Good Topics to Research
- 🎯 Most Interesting Topics to Write about
❓ Animal Testing Research Questions
- 💯 Free Essay Topic Generator
In your animal testing essay, you might want to explore the historical or legal perspective, focus on the issue of animal rights, or discuss the advantages or disadvantages of animal testing in medicine, pharmacology, or cosmetic industry. We’ve gathered the most creative and catchy animal testing titles and added top animal testing essay examples. There are also useful tips on making and outline, formulating a thesis, and creating a hook sentence for your animal testing essay.
🌶️ Animal Testing Titles: Catchy & Creative
- What would life be like without animal testing?
- Animal testing: the cruelest experiments.
- AWA: why does not it protect all animals?
- What if animals experimented on humans?
- In the skin of a guinea pig: a narrative essay.
- Opposing animal testing: success stories.
- Animal-tested products: should they be destroyed?
- What have we gained from experiments on animals?
- Animal testing and cancer research: past and present.
🐶 Animal Testing Essay: How to Write
Animal testing has been an acute problem for a long time. Scientists and pharmaceutical firms use this approach to test cosmetics, foods, and other products people use daily.
Essays on animal testing are important because they highlight the significance of the problem. Writing outstanding animal testing essays requires extensive research and dedication.
We have prepared some do’s and don’ts for your excellent essay. But first, you should select a topic for your paper. Here are the examples of animal testing essay topics you can choose from:
- The question of animal intelligence from the perspective of animal testing
- Animal testing should (not) be banned
- How animal testing affects endangered species
- The history and consequences of animal testing
- The controversy associated with animal testing
- Animal Bill of Rights: Pros and cons
- Is animal testing necessary?
Remember that these animal testing essay titles are just the ideas for your paper. You are free to select other relevant titles and topics for discussion, too. Once you have selected the problem for your essay, you can start working on the paper. Here are some do’s of writing about animal testing:
- Do extensive preliminary research on the issue you have selected. You should be aware of all the problems associated with your questions, its causes, and consequences. Ask your professor about the sources you can use. Avoid relying on Wikipedia and personal blogs as your primary sources of information.
- Develop a well-organized outline and think of how you will structure your paper. Think of the main animal testing essay points and decide how you can present them in the paper. Remember to include introductory and concluding sections along with several body paragraphs.
- Start your paper with a hooking sentence. An animal testing essay hook should grab the reader’s attention. You can present an interesting question or statistics in this sentence.
- Include a well-defined thesis statement at the end of the introductory section.
- Your reader should understand the issue you are discussing. Explain what animal testing is, provide arguments for your position, and support them with evidence from your research.
- Discuss alternative perspectives on the issue if you are working on a persuasive essay. At the same time, you need to show that your opinion is more reliable than the opposing ones.
- Remember that your paper should not be offensive. Even if you criticize animal testing, stick to the formal language and provide evidence of why this practice is harmful.
There are some important points you should avoid while working on your paper. Here are some important don’ts to remember:
- Avoid making claims if you cannot reference them. Support your arguments with evidence from the literature or credible online sources even if you are writing an opinion piece. References will help the reader to understand that your viewpoint is reliable.
- Do not go over or below the word limit. Stick to your professor’s instructions.
- Avoid copying the essays you will find online. Your paper should be plagiarism-free.
- Avoid making crucial grammatical mistakes. Pay attention to the word choice and sentence structures. Check the paper several times before sending it for approval. If you are not sure whether your grammar is correct, ask a friend to look through the paper for you.
Do not forget to look at some of our free samples that will help you with your paper!
Animal Testing Hook Sentence
Your animal testing essay should start with a hook – an opening statement aiming to grab your reader’s attention. A good idea might be to use an impressive fact or statistics connected to experiments on animals:
- More than 100 million animals are killed in US laboratories each year.
- Animal Welfare Act (AWA) does not cover 99% animals used in experiments: according to it, rats, birds, reptiles, and fish are not animals.
- More than 50% adults in the US are against animal testing.
🏆 Best Animal Testing Essay Examples
- Negative Impacts of Animal Testing In many instances it can be proofed that drugs have been banned from the market after extensive research on animal testing and consuming a lot of cash, because of the dire effects that they cause […]
- Should Animals Be Used in Medical Research? It is therefore possible to use animals while testing the dangers and the toxicity of new drugs and by so doing; it is possible to protect human beings from the dangers that can emanate from […]
- Psychoactive Drug Testing on Animals The alterations in behavioral traits of animals due to psychoactive drugs are primarily attributed to the changes in the brain functions or inhibition of certain brain components in animals which ultimately translates to changes in […]
- Experimentation on Animals However, critics of experimenting with animals argue that animals are subjected to a lot of pain and suffering in the course of coming up with scientific breakthroughs which in the long run may prove futile.
- Medical Research on Animals Should be Forbidden by Law Vaccines and treatment regimes for various diseases that previously led to the death of humans were all discovered through research on animals.
- Use of Animals in Biological Testing Thus, these veterinarians have realized that the results that are realized from the animal research are very crucial in the improvement of the health of human being as well as that of animals.
- Utilitarianism for Animals: Testing and Experimentation There are alternatives in testing drugs such as tissue culture of human cells and hence this is bound to be more accurate in the findings.
- Animal Testing: Should Animal Testing Be Allowed? — Argumentative Essay It is crucial to agree that animal testing might be unethical phenomenon as argued by some groups; nonetheless, it should continue following its merits and contributions to the humankind in the realms of drug investigations […]
- Ethical Problems in Animal Experimentation The banning of companies from testing on animals will force the manufacturers to use conventional methods to test their drugs and products.
- Use of Animals in Research Testing: Ethical Justifications Involved The present paper argues that it is ethically justified to use animals in research settings if the goals of the research process are noble and oriented towards the advancement of human life.
- Should animals be used for scientific research? Therefore, considering the benefits that have been accrued from research activities due to use of animals in scientific research, I support that animals should be used in scientific research.
- Animal Testing: Ethical Dilemmas in Business This means that both humans and animals have rights that need to be respected, and that is what brings about the many dilemmas that are experienced in this field.
- Ethics Problems in Animal Experimentation In spite of the fact that it is possible to find the arguments to support the idea of using animals in experiments, animal experimentation cannot be discussed as the ethical procedure because animals have the […]
- The Debate on Animal Testing The purpose of this paper is to define animal testing within a historical context, establish ethical and legal issues surrounding the acts, discuss animal liberation movements, arguments in support and against the act of animal […]
- Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives Another challenge to the proponents of animal testing is related to dosage and the time line for a study. Animal rights values rebuff the notion that animals should have an importance to human beings in […]
- Animal Testing: Why It Is Still Being Used The major reason for such “devotion” to animal testing can be explained by the fact that alternative sources of testing are insufficient and too inaccurate to replace conventional way of testing.
- Cosmetic Testing on Animals The surface of the skin or near the eyes of such animals is meant to simulate that of the average human and, as such, is one of easiest methods of determining whether are particular type […]
- Genetic Modification and Testing: Ethical Considerations It is done on a molecular level by synthesizing DNA, generating sequences and then inserting the received product into the organism which will be the carrier of the outcome. Another possibility is that the time […]
- Animal Testing Effects on Psychological Investigation In this context, ethical considerations remain a central theme in psychological research.”Ethics in research refers to the application of moral rules and professional codes of conduct to the collection, analysis, reporting, and publication of information […]
- Animal Testing: History and Ethics Moreover, in the twelfth century, another Arabic physician, Avenzoar dissected animals and established animal testing experiment in testing surgical processes prior to their application to man. Trevan in 1927 to evaluate the effectiveness of digitalis […]
- Animal Testing and Ethics I believe it is also difficult to develop efficient legislation on the matter as people have different views on animal research and the line between ethical and unethical is blurred in this area.
- Animal Testing for Scientific Research Despite the fact that the present-day science makes no secret of the use of animals for research purposes, not many people know what deprivation, pain, and misery those animals have to experience in laboratories.
- Animal Experiments and Inhuman Treatment Although the results of such a laboratory may bring answers to many questions in medicine, genetics, and other vital spheres, it is frequently a case that the treatment of such animals is inhumane and cruel. […]
- Animal Testing and Environmental Protection While the proponents of animal use in research argued that the sacrifice of animals’ lives is crucial for advancing the sphere of medicine, the argument this essay will defend relates to the availability of modern […]
- Animal Testing as an Unnecessary and Atrocious Practice Such acts of violence could be partially excused by the necessity to test medications that are developed to save human lives however, this kind of testing is even more inhumane as it is ineffective in […]
- Animal Testing: Long and Unpretty History Nevertheless, that law was more focused on the welfare of animals in laboratories rather than on the prohibition of animal testing.
- Negative Impacts of Animal Testing To alter these inhumane laws, we should organize a social movement aiming at the reconsideration of the role of animals in research and improvement of their positions.
- Animal Testing from Medical and Ethical Viewpoints Striving to discover and explain the peculiarities of body functioning, already ancient Greeks and Romans resorted to vivisecting pigs; the scientific revolution of the Enlightenment era witnessed animal testing becoming the leading trend and a […]
- Laboratory Experiments on Animals: Argument Against In some cases, the animals are not given any painkillers because their application may alter the effect of the medication which is investigated.
- Animal Testing: History and Arguments Nevertheless, that law was more focused on the welfare of animals in laboratories rather than on the prohibition of animal testing.
- Using Animals in Medical Research and Experiments While discussing the use of animals in medical research according to the consequentialist perspective, it is important to state that humans’ preferences cannot be counted higher to cause animals’ suffering; humans and animals’ preferences need […]
- Preclinical Testing on Animals The authors argue that despite the recent decline in the level of quality and transparency of preclinical trials, the scientific communities should always rely on animal testing before moving to human subjects and the subsequent […]
- Animal Testing in Medicine and Industry Animal testing is the inescapable reality of medicine and industry. However, between human suffering and animal suffering, the former is more important.
📌 Good Animal Testing Topics to Research
- Monkeys Don’t Like Wearing Makeup: Animal Testing In The Cosmetics Industry
- Animal Testing – Should Animal Experimentation Be Permitted
- Essay Animal Testing and In Vitro Testing as a Replacement
- Animal Testing : A Better Knowledge Of Human Body
- The Importance Of Animal Testing For Evaluating Consumer Safety
- The Issues on Animal Testing and the Alternative Procedures to Avoid the Use of the Inhuman Experimentation
- An Alternative to the Harsh and Unnecessary Practices of Animal Testing for Products, Drugs, Chemicals and Other Research
- The Unethical Use of Animals and the Need to Ban Animal Testing for Medical Research Purposes in the United States
- An Argument in Favor of Animal Testing for the Purpose of Clinical Research
- An Argument Against Animal Testing and the Banning of the Practice in the United States
- The Debate About the Ethics of Animal Testing and Its Effects on Us
- An Argument in Favor of Animal Testing as Beneficial to Human Health Research
- Animal Testing and the Reasons Why It Should Be Illegal
- The Principles of the Animal Testing From the Human Perspective
- The Ethical Issues on the Practice of Animal Testing to Test Cosmetics and Drugs
- Stopping Animal Testing and Vivisection by Passing a Bill against Animal Cruelty
🎯 Most Interesting Animal Testing Topics to Write about
- An Argument Against Animal Testing of Consumer Products and Drugs
- The Consequences and Unethical Practice of Animal Testing for Medical Training and Experiments
- How Do The Contributions Of Animal Testing To Global Medical
- Ways To Improve Animal Welfare After Premising The Animal Testing
- Animal Testing – Necessary or Barbaric and Wrong?
- Animal Testing And Its Impact On The Environment
- Animal Testing and Its Contribution to the Advancement of Medicine
- Cosmetics and Animal Testing: The Cause of Death and Mistreatment
- Animal Testing And People For The Ethical Treatment Of Animals
- Animal Rights Activists and the Controversial Issue of Animal Testing
- A History and the Types of Animal Testing in the Medical Area
- Argumentation on Medical Benefits of Animal Testing
- An Analysis of the Concept of Animal Testing Which Lowers the Standard of Human Life
- Is The Humane Society International Gave For Animal Testing
- A Discussion of Whether Animal Testing Is Good for Mankind or Violation of Rights
- The Ethics Of Animal Testing For Vaccine Development And Potential Alternatives
- The Good and Bad of Human Testing and Animal Testing
- What Should the Government Do About Animal Testing?
- Why Does Animal Testing Lower Our Standard of Living?
- Should Animals Be Used in Research?
- Why Should Animal Testing Be Accepted in the World?
- How Does Technology Impact Animal Testing?
- Why Should Animal Testing Be Illegal?
- Should Animal Testing Remain Legal?
- Why Should Animal Testing Be Banned?
- Can the Animal Testing Done to Find Cures for Diseases Be Humane?
- Does Animal Testing Really Work?
- Why Can’t Alternatives Like Computers Replace Research Animals?
- Should Animal Testing Continue to Test Cures for Human Diseases?
- How Does Animal Testing Effect Medicine?
- Should Animal Testing Continue or Be Stopped?
- What Are Advantages and Disadvantages of Animal Testing?
- Why Can Animal Testing Save Our Lives?
- Is Stem Cell Research Beginning of the End of Animal Testing?
- Do Beauty Products Suffer From Negative Publicity if They Conduct Trials on Animals?
- Should Medicine Trials Be Conducted?
- Can Results of Animal Testing Be Generalized to Adults?
- What Are the Origin and History of Animal Testing?
- Why Are Animals Needed to Screen Consumer Products for Safety When Products Tested by Alternative Methods, Are Available?
- How Much Does an Animal Suffer Due to Testing?
- What Is the Effectiveness of Animal Rights Groups in Stopping Animal Testing?
- How Do We Learn From Biomedical Research Using Animals?
- Who Cares for Animals in Research?
- How Do Laboratory Animal Science Professionals Feel About Their Work?
- Why Are There Increasing Numbers of Mice, Rats, and Fish Used in Research?
- How Can We Be Sure Lost or Stolen Pets Are Not Used in Research?
- Why Do Clinical Trials in Humans Require Prior Animal Testing?
💯 Free Animal Testing Essay Topic Generator
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IvyPanda . "105 Animal Testing Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." November 9, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/animal-testing-essay-examples/.
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How to Write an Animal Testing Essay: Tips for Argumentative & Persuasive Papers
Animal testing is among the most debatable issues in the modern world. Big cosmetic companies claim that it is the only way to make their products safe for us. But should we pay such a price to be beautiful and healthy? Is animal cruelty all we have for medical progress? Should animal testing be banned?
Our expert team discusses challenges you might face while writing an animal testing essay. Also, we will explain how to write different types of papers on this topic. Don’t forget to read our free essay example at the end.
- 🦮 Things to Know About Animal Rights Essay
📜 Animal Testing Argumentative Essay
🗣️ animal testing persuasive essay.
- ⚖️ Animal Testing For & Against Arguments
- 🦥 Animal testing Essay Sample
- 🐾 15 Awesome Titles for Animal Testing Essay
🦮 Animal Rights Essay Writing Guide
Here’s an introduction to animal testing essay writing. This topic is full of controversies and nuances that you need to know.
1. Animal Testing Essay Challenges
It might seem complicated to stay professional while writing about a sensitive topic. What should you consider before you start to write an animal testing essay?
Be ready to:
- Provide trustworthy facts and numbers. As this topic is debatable, you need to choose scientific data sources. All the evidence that supports your thesis should be credible and accurate.
- Keep your writing ethical. Avoid using biased information, overly emotional language, and stereotypes . Instead, use inclusive language without ambiguous interpretations.
- Regard an opposite opinion. It is essential to understand the issue from different perspectives. Include an opposing point of view to show your competence and the depth of your research.
- Overcome a moral dilemma. There is a lot to debate about animal testing, and you might not find a perfect solution. Therefore, be prepared to find the middle ground.
- Keep up with the scientific progress. As so much research constantly updates, you need to be aware of the last changes. It will help you to include only relevant data in your paper.
2. Animal Testing Essay Tips
Here are some tips to make your writing experience easier:
- Use academic research databases to look for evidence.
- Study the background and the development of the issue.
- Don’t hesitate to verify your data using other publications.
- Be objective when providing your arguments and evidence.
- Create an outline before writing your first draft.
- Create several versions of your essay to select the best one.
- Read papers that cover the same topic.
- Study the opposite point of view.
- Spend some extra time on proofreading and editing.
3. Animal Testing Essay Strategies: Argumentative Vs. Persuasive
Argumentative and persuasive essays on animal testing might seem somewhat similar. Here, we will describe the differences between these two types.
An argumentative essay’s primary purpose is to convince the audience that your position is valid and worth attention.
- It requires profound research. You need to study the terminology and updates while exploring the issue.
- Its main bases are logic and evidence. Avoid emotional appeals even if they make your arguments sound stronger.
- It implies research of both sides. You will need to include an opposing argument and show its relevance.
A persuasive essay convinces its audience using both facts and emotional response of the readers to prove one’s opinion.
- It is less formal. The tone is more relaxed. Choose facts that instantly appeal to your audience.
- Its primary basis is opinion. You will rely on the choice of words and strong arguments rather than on evidence.
- It focuses on one perspective. You have to convince readers that your way of thinking is the only option. Reviewing other positions is optional.
Now that you know the differences, we will look at each type. Here, we will explain how to prepare for writing and create an animal-testing argumentative essay outline.
What Is Animal Testing Argumentative Essay About?
An animal testing argumentative essay discusses the pros and cons of animal testing giving preference to one of the sides. You should state whether animal testing is necessary in your thesis and provide at least two arguments to support your claim. Then you will need to include at least one counterargument to show another perspective.
Animal Testing Argumentative Essay Outline
There are several types of organization for an argumentative essay: classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin. Rogerian is the most suitable one for this topic. This type of organization requires drawing attention to different opinions while promoting your arguments.
3 Tips for Animal Testing Argumentative Essay
Follow these tips to make your essay better:
- Choose an arguable topic. Something that is not obvious. It should puzzle your readers and make them interested in what you say.
- Stick to your thesis. It is the basis of your paper. You need to support every word of your thesis in body paragraphs.
- Think about your audience. Knowing who your readers are will help you choose the writing tone. It also determines the need for more or fewer explanations and background information.
Here is another pattern for developing your animal rights essay . Read the paragraph below to figure out how to write an excellent animal testing persuasive essay.
What Is Animal Testing Persuasive Essay About?
An animal testing persuasive essay is focused on one side of the issue. Here, you choose if you are for or against animal testing and prove your opinion. Appealing to conscience, sense of intelligence, or your readers’ emotions is your best instrument. You need to sound convincing to make your audience accept your perspective.
Animal Testing Persuasive Essay Outline
In this case, you need to focus on solid arguments supporting your viewpoint. It will determine the way your audience reacts to your writing.
3 Tips for Animal Testing Persuasive Essay
What do you need to do to write a better persuasive essay?
- Show your empathy. It will affect your readers’ experiences and create an emotional bond between you.
- Repeat yourself. Work with paraphrasing and figures of speech. Strategic repetition is an effective tool to remind your readers about the message you are trying to convey.
- Use rhetorical questions. Puzzle your audience by asking them something controversial. At the same time, your argumentation should promote your position as an answer.
⚖️ Animal Testing Essay: For & Against
Here, you will find the pros and cons of animal testing . You can use these arguments in argumentative and persuasive essays.
I. Arguments FOR Animal Testing
Here is why animal testing should be allowed:
- Many life-saving medicines rely on animal testing . According to the California Biomedical Association, animal research helped almost every medical breakthrough in the last century . Millions of human lives depend on animal testing. It helps treat breast cancer, tuberculosis, leukemia, and many others.
- There is no alternative to testing vaccines . Scientists needed animal testing to ensure that a vaccine doesn’t make a virus more dangerous. During the global pandemic of 2020, researchers used genetically modified mice to develop vaccines. There was no other way to ensure people’s safety.
- Animal testing prevents risking lives of human volunteers . If we test medicine or cosmetical products on toxicity, we can’t use people. Human trials also possess risks of side effects, but it could be worse without animal testing.
- It ensures the safety of the products we use . China does not even allow to put cosmetical products on the market before animal testing. We use more and more cosmetical products every day. There are more and more of them on the market. That is why we need to ensure that every product we use is safe for us.
- We need animal testing to make drugs for animals as well . Scientists use animal testing to develop medicines, vaccines, and medical devices.
II. Arguments AGAINST Animal Testing
The reasons why animal testing should be stopped:
- Not all of the testing results apply to people . Many anatomic, cellular, and metabolic differences make animals poor models for us. So some drugs that pass animal testing can eventually fail on people.
- There are alternative testing methods . Skin-producing technologies such as tissue bioprinting and human skin cells growth can replace animal testing. Of course, it is not possible for all the products, but these technologies can significantly reduce the use of animals.
- It does not guarantee 100% safety . Human bodies might react differently to the same ingredients. When drugs do not show any side effects or harmful consequences on animals, they still might be dangerous for humans.
- The demand for cruelty-free products increases . People know about the inhumanity of animal testing and choose to buy cruelty-free products. Politicians are also concerned and take measures against animal testing. European Union, Australia, and South Korea banned cosmetics tested on animals. That is why cosmetical brands give up animal testing and switch to other options.
- Inhumane treatment and bad conditions . Animals suffer from food and water deprivation, inflicted burns and other wounds, and CO2 asphyxiation. Also, many of them have their eyes open for hours to test cosmetic products. Animals deserve ethical treatment as they cannot protect themselves from humans.
🦥 Animal Testing Essay Sample
Read an animal testing argumentative essay example below. You can use it as a reference to your writing.
Should Animal Testing Be Banned Essay
As technological progress moves on, we need to move on too. Some practices that were considered normal should be reviewed in the 21st century. We need to choose animal welfare and moral standards over inhumanity. Animal testing should be banned because it is cruel, expensive, and inefficient.
Animals suffer when scientists use them as test models. Some live in small cages and do not have enough space for motion. Others are forced to eat or drink something unnatural for them. It is common for animals to experience pain because of skin and eye burns, itching, or other side effects in the worst cases. For example, during the Draize test, researchers put chemicals into rabbits' eyes to see the reaction.
Keeping and breeding animals need money. It implies costs for space, food, and other maintenance expenses. As animal tests are not always reliable and need several attempts, the price for developing a successful drug can exceed one billion dollars. Every time you buy a pill or a cosmetic product tested on animals, you pay for animal testing.
Animal testing does not guarantee identical results for humans in most cases. The failure rate for animal testing is higher than 95%. There are also many controversies because the reactions of animals and people to certain ingredients can be opposite. For example, penicillin can kill guinea pigs but helps people. Aspirin is dangerous for pets but relieves human headaches.
To put it all together, animal testing is immoral in the 21st century. It is inhuman, not accurate, and pricey to the companies. It would be better if they invested the money in new technologies to replace animal experimentation. All in all, we pay for these products as customers. We have a right to choose whether or not we want them to be tested on animals.
🐾 Titles for Animal Testing Essay
Last but not least. Below we’ve collected some of our best animal testing essay examples. Use them for inspiration, or try our free research title generator .
- Is Animal Testing Really Needed?
- Animals in Research, Education, and Teaching.
- Animal Experiments: Benefits, Ethics, and Defenders.
- Animal Experimentation: Justification Arguments.
- Animal Testing Ban: Counterargument and Rebuttal.
- Genetically Modified Animals and Implications.
- Animal Research, Its Ineffectiveness, and Amorality.
- Equal Consideration of Interests to Animals.
- The Ethics of Animal Use in Scientific Research.
- Animal Testing Effectiveness: For and Against.
- Animal Testing: The Controversies.
- Debates of Using Animals in Scientific Analysis.
- Animal Testing in Scientific Experiments.
- Cosmetic and Medical Animal Testing.
- Pavlov’s Dog Experiment.
- Animal Testing for Medical Purposes .
- Duties to Non-Human Animals .
- Animal Testing in Biomedical Research .
- Animal-Based Therapy Overview and Analysis .
- Psychologist Perspective on Research Involving Animal and Human Subjects .
- Qualities That Humans and Animals Share .
- Effects of Animal Companions in Psychotherapy .
- Red Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Dogs Experiment .
- The Use of Animals for Research .
- Human and Animal Experiments in Psychology Studies: Implications for Society .
- “The Kingdom of Dogs” Article by Adams: A Different Perspective on Pavlov’s Dog Experiment .
- Animal Studies: The Role in Behaviorism Development .
- Suggestions for Developing Argumentative Essays
- 8 Persuasive Writing Tips and Techniques
- Animal Testing – Pros & Cons – ProCon.org
- The Debate on Animal Experimentation – Sather Health
- Importance of Animals in Human Lives | Sciencing
- Are There Any Benefits to Animal Testing? Get the Facts | PETA
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Animal Testing - Free Essay Samples And Topic Ideas
Animal testing, the use of non-human animals in experiments to assess the safety and efficacy of substances, evokes strong ethical debates. Essays on animal testing could explore the scientific, ethical, and legal aspects surrounding this practice. Discussions might delve into the necessity, alternatives, and the rights of animals versus the benefits to humanity. Moreover, analyzing the historical evolution of animal testing, the regulations governing it, and the public opinion and activism surrounding animal testing can provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted issues involved in this contentious practice. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to Animal Testing you can find at PapersOwl Website. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.
Animal Testing should be Banned
Many organizations are debating whether animal testing ought to be banned in the U. S. Some believe that animal testing ought to be done. At the same time, others believe that animal testing is completely wrong. Some experts believe that other options can be available instead of doing the test on animals. Using animals to test the safety of certain products and for medical research purposes is wrong, and it should be made a point that the pain and suffering […]
Animal Testing is Unethical, Unreliable and Unnecessary
Every year, 100 million animals sit in U.S laboratories caged and waiting to be burned, abused, and infected (Madhusree 1). The test subjects have few rights, protective services, or liberties. The pictures of restrained tormented animals are hidden in a veil of secrecy amongst red lipsticks, sweetener packets, and paints. What the world desires carries a secret pain, and comes at a cost that often goes unnoticed. Despite the scientific advancements achieved through animal testing, scientists should resort to alternative […]
Experimenting on Animals
As the years pass, more and more animals are being terrorized and are being used for testing. Animal testing is when they use animals to test out cosmetics, medicinal products, household cleaners, chemicals, etc (Humane Society International). 'Peta' one of the many animal rights groups had only 18 members just four years ago. Now there are more than 23,000 supporters(Robins). The number of people in this group shows how much they are wanting a stop to come to this. This […]
Animal Testing: is it Ethical?
Animals being sacred gifts given to us, they are the best part of our lives and provide us with a special way of love. They do nothing but bring joy and happiness to us. My whole life I've grown up with all different kinds of animals. I've had a dog named Shelby, two cats Ruby and Smokey, a bird named Cheeks, two hamsters Bernard and Sandy, and I currently have a dog named Rocky and a rabbit named Daisy. I […]
Pros and Cons of Animal Testing
Aside from what anyone thinks animal testing does has positives, although some might argue that they don't outweigh the negatives. Testing on a living organism could be more accurate than a small percentage of alternatives. It also gave us a much better understanding of our own anatomy considering before we tested on animals we thought our lungs pumped our blood throughout our body(Animal Experimentation). Also animal testing has given us an insight on the effectiveness of medications developed to combat […]
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The Importance of Animal Models in Vaccines
If you have ever taken any type of medicine or had a vaccine, you have benefited from animal testing: Research with animals led to vaccinations against smallpox, measles, mumps, and tetanus. The world's first vaccine was tested on a cow in 1796 during the observation of milkmaids who caught cowpox , which is now called smallpox, from infected cow utters. This disease was eradicated in 1980 with the help of lab animals. Looking at the more frequent viruses in our […]
Opposing Views Animal Testing
The United Nations guarantees a Universal Declaration of Human Rights that asserts that everyone has got a right to liberty, life and also security. Despite that, the declaration protects human beings from cruel treatment, slavery and eventually torture. These rights are considered to be inherent according to the law of land. There has been always a debate on whether animals have got moral rights that should be recognized as well as protected by the human society. In the actual sense, […]
The Animal Testing and Experimentation Industry
Companies test their products on animals for the benefits of their own profit. Animals are treated harshly during this process. Most product consumers are unaware of the actions these companies are making. People continue to buy these products, probably unaware of the conditions the animals are under. With the revision and production of new items, animals continue to be used for the benefit of these companies. Animals are often tested for cosmetics, medications, and other daily uses. The animals are […]
Animal Testing in Medical and Cosmetic Research
Every year there is less and less animal testing done in both medical and cosmetic research. There are plenty of reasons as to why animal testing has been proven to be effective in research experiments. While the beginnings of animal testing were not entirely reassuring of its tactics in the process of testing . However with the time animal testing has been around, it has greatly improved with the advancement of regulations and technology put towards animal testing. Therefore, animal […]
Problems with Animal Testing: Inhumane Practices and Neglected Interests
Abstract The Animal Welfare Act (AWA), enacted in August 1966, regulates the treatment and care of animals in research (Murnaghan 4). However, researchers annually exploit approximately 26 million animals for scientific and commercial testing in the United States (The Flaws and Human Harms ). These exploitations occur while developing medical treatments, determining toxicity levels in medicine, and ensuring the safety of cosmetic products prior to human utilization. While conducting a study on animal welfare, the United States Department of Agriculture […]
Ethical Issues in Animal Experimentation
There is of course the huge ethical consequence that comes from testing on animals. It is also super expensive to actually test on animals and some of the information from the tests don't give accurate results for us. Animals are different from humans everyone knows that. That's money, manpower and time going to waste. It's also very expensive compared to other options that are out or already developed. The cost of animal testing is enormous and doesn't always yield results. […]
Effectiveness of Animal Testing
For Centuries animals have been tested on for research all across the globe. These animals can range from elephants to mice and can have an age range from new-borne to oldest surviving. The oldest form of animal testing has been dated back to around 199-217 AD. That's before the time of some of the earths early great scientists and researchers like Aristotle and Erasistratus. It is still as important today because of how much information we can actually gain from […]
Medical Animal Testing should be Banned
Medical animal testing should be banned for there being other humane testing methods that exist. Because there are other alternatives that would replace or relieve animal testing, the use of animals would decrease dramatically. An example of a company who believes in an alternative to animal testing is Procter & Gamble Co. or P&G. Every year they spend $4.5 million on research that advances alternatives to animal testing. Though these alternatives may not replace all animal testing; but, it would […]
The Controversy of Animal Testing
Imagine a cute white little bunny. You couldn't even fathom harming this creature, could you? However, every day bunnies, like the one you imagined, are used in trials where they are harmed. I'm sure you've heard of companies claiming that they are cruelty free or don't support animal testing , but are you aware of what animal testing really is and what the animals endure during their trials? Companies every day torture animals in tests that don't always prove to […]
Support of Animal Testing
The arguments of those who support animal testing are understandable in certain situations, and, in these situation the views are valid and their views ought to be respected. And although there are downsides to animal testing and experimenting there's upsides as well. At the cost of an animal's life or comfortably humans lives will be saved or given an increased quality of life. In the nineteenth century, physicians could do very little to treat heart disease, because there was no […]
The Ethics of Animal Experimentation
1. Background Information 2.1 What is animal testing? An animal test is any scientific experiment or test in which a animal is forced to undergo something that is likely to cause them pain, suffering, distress or lasting damage. In animal experiments, animals would be injected or feed with probably harmful substances, exposed to radiation and forced to inhale toxic gases. Also, the lab resistant may surgically removing animals' organs or tissues to deliberately cause damage and subjecting animals to frightening […]
The Cruelty in Animal Testing
Every year in the United States, it is estimated that tens of millions of animals are used for research and testing purposes (Animal Experimentation 50). These animals are usually mice, rats, rabbits, fish, guinea pigs, non-human primates, and other farm animals. Test animals undergo testing for cosmetics and household products, trials for new medicines, and scientific experiments. These tests and experiments are uncomfortable and often painful for the animals. The United States has laws to protect animals, but there are […]
Cruelty to Animals and Animal Testing
Animal cruelty can be defined in many ways: Being violent to animals in any way, failure to provide for animals, being neglectful to animals. Also causing animals psychological harm in the form of distress, torment or terror may also constitute animal cruelty (RSPCA). For example when picking out eyeliner or other makeup products, do people stop to see at the stores what kind of makeup they are buying and using? People could be supporting animal testing and cruelty and not […]
Animal Testing and its Importance
From over-the-counter medicine to the shampoo we use, it's easy to forget how relatively easy our lives have become with the many commodities available to us today. What we do not often consider is how these privileges came to be. What we do not think about is the prevalence of animal testing behind many necessary medicines and products. While controversial, the age-old practice of using animals for scientific and commercial testing has no doubt made many invaluable contributions to our […]
Animal Research for Human Benefit is Unnecessary
Most people believe animal testing is essential to drug and vaccine research. Which is true, in a sense, because scientist have come up with a lot of vaccines for certain viruses. However, during the process, animals are treated poorly and their cages are in awful conditions. Most of the chemicals being administered into these patients are not safe for them, which sometimes results in death. Not only that, animals cannot comprehend what humans can. They cannot speak for themselves. These […]
Reasons of Animal Cruelty
"The Humane Society of the United States estimates that nearly 1 million animals a year are abused or killed in episodes of domestic violence" (Rajewski). Animal abuse is referred to as an act of intentional mistreatment against animals and is inflicted by humans for reasons other than survival or self-defense. The topic of animal cruelty has been debated for an extremely long time, but nothing has changed for the past decade, and people continue to use violence against animals. It […]
The conversation of animal testing has never been anything less than controversial. Although animal testing is not new, the topic still faces severe criticism by several animal activists' groups. Humans have used animals as a means to learn about various subjects for a while now. It dates back to uses from Greek-physician scientists ""such as Aristotle, 384 “ 322 BC and Erasistratus, 304 “ 258 BC (Hajar 1). During these experiments' scientists would use live animals as their test subjects. […]
New and Safe Treatments for Humanity
Animal testing has long been a means to discover new and safe treatments for humanity. Modern medicines and innovations are constantly being created and updated, creating an ongoing need for ways to test them. There have been many different methods of testing throughout history. By the Roman era, dissection and vivisection (the dissection of live animals) were established scientific practices (Fellenz 72). That was a more official part of animal testing history. Although not technically experimenting, people learned how animal […]
Animal Rights and Society
2. Background information 2.1 What is animal testing Animal testing is different experiments, researches that carried out on the animals. Different animals are used in different test, e.g. mice, rabbits, pigs. Those animals are used to check the safety and assess the effectiveness of the products that for human use, e.g. medicine, food, cosmetics. It's also used to understand how well the product works on human body. However, all of those tests may harm to animals and cause them physical […]
Using Animals for Medical Testing is both Ethical and Essential?
In this Argumentative essay I have chosen to talk about Animal testing and why I think it is needed in today's work of medicines and cures. I will be given you four main facts on why I believe it is still very helpful to us humans and even helpful to the animals themselves. Honestly speaking people have become so sensitive in today's environments about many things like animal feelings, or they think like us humans. They truly forgotten that these […]
The Americans for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ASPCA
Introduction Service learning and community partnership incorporates academic learning into service projects that becomes more common and popular in today's community. What it does is teaches us about the history and needs of the agency being helped as well as seeing positive changes that their involvement makes. Just by incorporating different aspects of learning into community service, we can become invested in their work and more likely to stay committed to the cause. The cause of the agency is to […]
The Study on Animal Experimentation
Animal testing has been a severe problem that still has not been resolved. Animal testing should be stopped for the safety of animals and human, but since it cannot be, how can it be improved? Many scientists rely on animal testing to collect data on safety and efficacy from experiments. They use animals to test products like food, drugs, cosmetics, medicines, and chemicals. They use animals because animals serve to protect consumers, workers and the environment from the harmful effects […]
Types of Animal Cruelty
The definition of animal cruelty varies from person to person and although it is talked about occasionally, many people tend to downplay the seriousness of it. Animal abuse comes in many forms such as scientific research, abandonment, mistreatment, and so on. The experimentation and cruelty committed should be banned because animals share the same basic rights as humans. Without a doubt, mistreatment of animals is the most common form of animal cruelty. It comes in many forms which are: animal […]
The Definition of Animal Cruelty
The definition of animal cruelty is the infliction by omission or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human. A car like any other is driving down the street, rain pounding on the windshield. The girl in the passenger seat sees a dark blur on the side of the road. She focuses on it, and sees a soaked dog, whose fur is severely matted, and covered in mud. Its tail had no wag, and it was so […]
What is Animal Cruelty?
Animal cruelty is the act of humans inflicting harm and suffering onto an animal. This can include neglect, animal fighting, and overt abuse. In the United States, an animal is abused every ten seconds. Animal protection organizations are working to stop animal cruelty everywhere. Many of these organizations believe in animal rights and animal welfare. Animal rights activists usually go to the extremes, and will even break laws to make a statement to the public. One point of contention for […]
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Essay About Animal Testing Imagine being locked up inside a small and cramped cage with nothing but a feces-filled water bowl that has not been changed for 5 days. The feeling of losing your mind has become inevitable and it seems like “surviving” is impossible. Glancing around the room, you see many creatures are in pain. A mother has been forcefully torn from her newborn she is going insane as she looks desperately for her child, a cat is screaming in agony after it has been performed vivisection on. A garbage bin contains piles of animals rendered useless after vicious quantities of drug intake. You then notice a hand reaching out to grab hold and you wonder. Is it over? Animal research is a controversial topic and has been a popular conversation among the public and in veterinary doctors. Animal testing is wrong and these innocent creatures should not go through this kind of suffering. In all respects, animal testing should be banned because it is inhumane, the test results are often not useful, and there are better alternatives for this issue. Every day, mice, rats, cats, dogs, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, birds and primates are used. They don’t have a voice to speak for themselves. Animals are caught and captured from the wild, stuffed into little crates, and tested for any issues before being relocated. Furthermore, the experimental laboratories shall keep them for as long as they need. This can sometimes mean animals are sentenced to death to serve and submit to these awful treatments. The testing they encounter involve injecting, force-feeding, shocking, dripping medications into their eyes and skin, inhaling toxins, embedding wires inside their brains, and repetitive surgeries. In most cases, animals don’t even receive painkillers or medication after trials. In addition, animals experience pain as humans do. The feeling of pain is something that can be felt internally and expressed through facial and actions it is a mental indication. They may jolt, shriek, whimper, or scream when they cry out in pain. Whenever they are physically abused, it can lead to neurotic related behavior that leaves them disabled. Pacing around in circles, ripping their fur out, and biting themselves are only a couple of the things that could be carried out. We learn to respect each other and try our best to not hurt people around us why can’t we have the same relationship with wildlife? What’s more, is that major results of animal testing end up shown as unsuccessful and useless. According to the National Institute of Health, it was shown that experiments end up neglecting about 92% of their research due to failing when entering the clinical evaluation. The other 8% was shown as medications that had side effects that were not presented in animal testing. Animals don’t have the same disease compared to humans. Multiple examples include heart diseases, cancer, HIV, Parkinson’s disease, and many more. Dr. Richard Klauser, former director of the US National Cancer Research states that: “The history of cancer research has been the history of curing cancer in the mouse. We have cured cancer in mice for decades and it simply didn’t work on humans.” This can show that not only in mice but most of the 100 million animals used, do not always show the same results as expected and can be misleading. Another report has shown that the US Drug & Food Administrator in 2017, only ended certifying 46 new drugs after testing on 115 million animals globally. It was concluded that these drugs weren’t even needed as common cures but were rare diseases. Lastly, observations usually turn out as unreliable and dangerous. This is because both species have huge biological difference humans and animals have different responses to illnesses, substances and healing approaches. Not all of the assumptions that the chances of imitating an animal as their “model” will not always have the same effect. Not everyone needs new shades of lipstick when there are already so many shades available. Dripping these cosmetic products into the eyes and skins of rabbits to sell in shops don’t benefit society- what more could we ask for? Research has found that the Draize skin irritation in rabbits will only show up 60% efficiency on humans. In other cases, using remodeled human skin can boost the results up to 86%. Science is expanding and scientists are gradually finding new ways to improve the lifestyle of humans. Alternatives include cell manipulation, human tissue from donors, computer models, synthetic skin, and volunteer studies. With that, animal testing should not be limiting the opportunity of opening up to more effective methods of analysis. There is always an option to approach a scenario differently. Then why is it taking so long for others to understand that animal testing is beyond cruel? If people were to imagine themselves in the shoes of these creatures, would they want to live every day in pain? Essentially, animals should be free of these torture devices and know that they have the right to be unconfined, not impersonated, killed, or carry trails out on. The purpose that many need to understand is that animals aren’t for people to use but instead to cherish. With that, stopping harsh treatments, rid of unnecessary testing, and have more options to animal testing. Just imagine it: asking yourself the question “We don’t have a solution for animal testing.”. But instead, “We don’t have a solution for animal testing just yet.” Would the world not already have humans and animals living peacefully together?
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- Social Issues
Persuasive Essay Against Animal Testing
Animal testing affects over 100 million animals a year. The main animals that are used are birds, fish, monkeys, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, cats, dogs, frogs, rats, and mice. These animals are used for cosmetic, drug, chemical, and food testing. These animals also struggle in medical training, biology lessons, and interest-guided experiments (“Animal Testing Facts and Statistics”). While animal testing helps researchers develop new treatments and drugs, it needs to be put to an end because it is inhumane, it is inaccurate, and there are other testing methods.
Animal testing needs to be stopped because it is harsh. First animals are put through experiments that torment them. According to Kabene, the animals undergo painful experiments for, “cosmetic and medical tests.” This needs to stop especially the non-medical animal testing that is causing animals to go through extreme amounts of pain. The way that animals suffer when they are not going through tests is also cruel. For example, Jiaa states that animals are, “storage into cramped spaces, and lack of quality/quantity in nutrition.” Even when the animals are not going through painful testing, they receive poor behavior from the people looking after them. Some of the animals that do accommodate either go through life changes that affect them for the rest of their life or the animals will be neutralized. For example, losing their eyesight, muscle coordination, and possibly even their limbs (Jiaa). Those are the results of animal testing. Animal testing is inhumane, and it needs to be stopped.
Furthermore, animal testing gives inaccurate results that are why terminating it needs to occur. According to “Pros & Cons- ProCon.org,” “94% of drugs that pass animal test fail in human trials.” This quote shows that animal testing is ineffective. More than three-fourths of the drugs that worked in animals were unsuccessful in the human trials. That makes animal testing highly imprecise. The reason this happens is that humans and animals have different biological make-ups. They have cellular, metabolic, and anatomic differences. That makes animals inadequate test subjects for humans. Also, animal testing could mislead scientists to overlook cures and treatments (“Pros & Cons - ProCon.org”). Since animal testing gives ineffective results for human experiments it needs to be stopped.
Animal testing can be stopped because there are other alternatives to it. For example, Curtis states that, “to conduct tests on ingredients and finished products in humans under critical observation.” The quote is saying that human test subjects could be used instead of animals. Human volunteers are available for specific experiments. The human test subjects have been way more accurate than animal test subjects could ever be. Another alternative is vitro testing, which are tests done in a petri dish of human cells (“Pros & Cons - ProCon.org”). This alternative is a crucial advancement for the stopping of animal testing. The reason why is that no harm to humans or animals would be done in this alternative. Human volunteers and vitro testing are the two best alternatives to animal testing. Both would be better than animal testing because these alternatives can give more accurate results. Which would benefit humans more than testing on animals. Finding alternatives to animal testing is a major step to ending animal testing.
There are some positives to animal testing, but the negatives far outweigh the positives. For example, it helps provide product safety for humans. It slims the chances of humans being affected by certain everyday products like cosmetics. For instance, skin irritation and even death during the human testing phase. Except animal testing would not help with this because animals have different skin and different biological make-ups than humans. Which would lead to inaccurate results, and nobody could be sure how it would genuinely affect humans till it is tested on humans. Another result of animal testing is medical advancement. Specifically, vaccines and medical procedures like open-heart surgery. Some vaccines that were tested on animals and have worked in the human trials are hepatitis B and polio. Also, by testing on animals, veterinary medicine has benefited. Doing experiments on animals gives researchers a promising idea of how that experiment is going to affect the human body (Jiaa). Except, animal testing is inaccurate and, it is hard to see what will happen until testing is done on humans. Although animal testing is harmful and inhumane to animals there are some positives. However, there are more negatives to animal testing than there are positives.
In conclusion, animal testing needs to come to an end. First, animal testing is inhumane. It is cruel because the animals are constantly getting mistreated. Second, many of the test results are inaccurate and fail in human trials. Third, there are other alternatives to animal testing like human volunteers and vitro testing. Lastly, there are some positives to animal testing like product safety and medical improvement. Except there are more negatives to animal testing than positives and it must be stopped. Animal testing needs to be put to an end.
“Animal Testing Facts and Statistics.” PETA, 6 Oct. 2021, https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-used-experimentation-factsheets/animal-experiments-overview/.
Curtis, Gary L. "An alternative to animal testing." Drug & Cosmetic Industry, vol. 150, no. 4,
Apr. 1992, pp. 46+. Gale Academic OneFile Select, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A12092354/GPS?u=tonk7465&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=45eab0ca. Accessed 2 Nov. 2021.
Jiaa, Sherry. “The Debate on Animal Experimentation.” Sather Health, 29 Dec. 2017, https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~sather/the-debate-on-animal-experimentation/.
Kabene, Stefane, and Said Baadel. “Bioethics: A Look at Animal Testing in Medicine and Cosmetics in the UK.” Journal of Medical Ethics & History of Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, Feb. 2019, pp. 1–11. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=145249939&site=ehost-live
“Pros & Cons - ProCon.org.” Animal Testing, 10 June 2020, animal-testing.procon.org/.
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The Use of Animal in Testing Should Be Banned
Today, the topic of ecology and nature is often a subject for discussion. Probably, very few people think about the process of production and release of cosmetic products, namely life bringing for the sake of beauty. It is not a human life, but the life of an innocent creature, an animal, which is meant here. It is not a secret that many companies use animals in testing their products. It does not only concern putting some cream on the skin of an animal and looking whether it reddens or not. Everything is much more difficult and crueler. A lot of things are learned experimentally in the world. Some scientists have managed to prove that experiments carried out by them are useful to mankind. However, there are many cases when scientists conduct an investigation using cruel methods, scoffing at animals, and practically reaching no results or benefits.
3 Different Opinions Concerning Animal Testing
The public holds different opinions concerning animal testing. Everything depends on how to consider animals and people. Now, there are three alternative points of view on this question.
The supporters of the movement for animals’ release consider a person only as one of many animal species, and they do not see any reasons to put a person above other types. In this case, animal experiments are the same crime as racial or sexual discrimination, and it represents no other than the intended cruelty based on prejudice.
The opposite opinion says that animals by their nature belong to people and are the lowest beings, and their value consists in the fact that they should be useful to people. Therefore, there should not be found any restrictions on the use of animals for the sake of the welfare and benefit of people. It is possible to prove that people who are ready to allow the death of animals as a result of the environmental pollution as well as those who breed the cattle and birds with industrial methods also adhere to this point of view.
The Christian Outlook
The third point of view relies on a Christian outlook. It claims that despite the biological similarity between people and animals, people are absolutely unique beings and possess a supreme value. Some scientists consider that between people and animals there are quite accurate distinctions, for example, an ability to perceive beauty or moral consciousness, an ability to distinguish moral and immoral acts. God is the Creator of all life on the earth. He created both people and animals. It is said in the Bible that the duty is assigned to people to take care of the world as well as animals living in it. People should not think that animals undoubtedly belong to them, and they are free to do with them everything they want. People are urged to run the natural world wisely. They are created to live in love and harmony with God, each other, and the surrounding nature. Finally, they should be in charge of their actions and deeds (Singer, 1990).
Animals do not belong to people, and people cannot do with them everything they want. Animals possess an equal value with people, so such experiences are immoral. The person possesses the unique value given to him/her by God, but he/she is responsible before God for the attitude towards animals. God urges people to care for animals. People will be punished by God for the bad treatment of animals.
Different scientists also adhere to various points of view on the problem. According to Professor Cohen, a famous virologist of the American Academy of Sciences, three-quarters of all animal experiments can be replaced in laboratories by using cells right now (Miller & Williams, 1983). On the other hand, Professor Fingerton notes that researches on the highest nervous activity and behavior of people and animals cannot be replaced yet (Dawkins, 1980).
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Cruel Tests on Animals Should Be Stopped
However, cruel tests on animals continue to exist, first of all, because many consumers are not familiar with this serious moral problem, and manufacturers are not interested in informing buyers about it. The participants of the movement for ceasing animal experiments often hear the question, “What are cosmetic tests for animals? It is simply ridiculous: rabbits have painted eyelashes, and rats are put on make-up?” (Reinhardt, 1994). When real information reaches consumers, they are shocked.
Animal Testing for Cosmetics
During the testing of cosmetics, cleaners, and new mixtures developed by the cosmetic industry, animals breathe in steams of substance, the concentration of which is so great that many of them die from poisoning. Drayz’s industrial testing of cosmetics is carried out in the following way: the tested substance is put on the eyes of rabbits, their heads are fixed with a special collar, and they spend 21 days in such a position. Animals cannot rub their eyes, which are corroded by the preparation, with a paw. The test often comes to an end when the cornea grows turbid, and the eye perishes. Another known industrial test for the determination of toxicity consists in the following: a group of animals is given an increasing dose of the examined substance, and the task of an experimenter is to define a dose, which kills 50% of animals for a determined time (Smith & Boyd, 1991). The substance is usually injected into an organism of an animal by means of a tube inserted through the gullet in the stomach.
Vivisection is considered to be monstrous and often senseless. Cosmetic testing is not carried out for the sake of rescuing a human life, but for the sake of human beauty. There are many experiments on rabbits when solutions, which are applied in shampoos, mascaras for eyelashes, household chemicals are poured in their eyes, and then, it is observed in how many hours or days this chemical will corrode these experimental creatures. The same senseless experiments are carried out in medical schools. Why is it necessary to drip acid on a frog if every school student can predict the reaction of the frog without any experiment? In the educational process, there is training to let animals bleed when it is necessary to sacrifice an innocent being. It influences the career of a person. Cruelty deprives people of humanity. Medical students face cruelty in the first year of study. Statistically, science loses a great number of experts because of an ethical aspect. Those who remain get accustomed to irresponsibility and cruelty. A person can do everything with an animal without any control.
About 800 Milion Animals Become Science Victims Every Year
About 2 million animals are objects of experiments in Canada, 7 million – in France, 17 million – in the USA, and about 800 million – worldwide (Sharpe, 1988). 90 % of these animals are rats, mice, fish, or birds. 85,5 % of various animal species serve for researches, 9,5 % – for testing of products, and 5 % – for education (Sharpe, 1988). A large number of animals become science victims, in particular cats, dogs, primacies, frogs, insects, birds, hares, calves and their mothers, pigs, hamsters, and others. From all areas of animal testing, the experiments connected with cosmetics are a sphere where mankind even cannot justify itself with the need for researches for the sake of life preservation and human health as animals are sacrificed only for the sake of a human whim. For this reason, the search for alternatives has been concentrated on around cosmetic tests, though alternative models for researches on all spheres are being offered now.
Animal Testing Must Be Forbidden
Animal testing must be forbidden because an animal is not an ideal sample for research on human diseases. The assumption that a rat is a tiny human being is an error and a scientific deception. A person and an animal have some common anatomic and physiological characteristics, but they react differently to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The tablet of aspirin can kill a cat and cause malignant tumors in a mouse. Penicillin kills Indian pigs. Arsenic does not influence monkeys and hens. Morfin calms people but has no influence on cats and horses. Insulin causes malformations in hens, hares, and mice (Ryder, 1995).
Many diseases, which kill people, do not influence animals, for example, AIDS. Human cancer is different from the animal one and, vice versa, animals’ cancer tumors cannot develop for 20 years. The tuberculosis of people is an absolutely different type than the one caused artificially in animals. The metabolism of people and animals occurs differently. People are 60 times more sensitive to thalidomide, a sedative prescribed to pregnant women than mice, 100 times more sensitive than rats, 200 times than dogs, and 700 times than hamsters (Rolston, 1988).
Drugs Developed without Animal Experiments
Therefore, it is clear that when it is beneficial to them, scientists assume that experiments on animals can never be completely extrapolated to people. Pursued by the law on harmful medicines (such as thalidomide) or on toxic products, experimenters remember at once this fundamental difference between people and animals. Thus, why is it necessary to continue conducting experiments if they are not authentic initially? Iodine and penicillin are good examples of drugs developed without animal experiments. The basic progress in many areas of medicine is connected with the clinical supervision of patients, sanitary actions, unpredicted inventions, and epidemiology.
Having been estimated by some sources, only one percent of the by-side reactions to medicines are found during the tests on animals (Anon, 1992). It occurs in particular because it is actually impossible to find the most common symptoms in animals, such as nausea, dizziness, headaches, and sight violations. Moreover, the life expectancy of the most widespread laboratory animals is up to 66 times shorter than the life expectancy of people, which complicates the forecasting of potential long-term by-side effects.
Many procedures cause fear or stress to some extent. As a rule, it is necessary to use anesthesia and analgesia (a pain removal) for the animals used in painful procedures, however, it is not always used or it is considered not obligatory, or, according to researchers, can lead to incorrect results.
Even usual laboratory procedures, such as debridement, an injection, blood sampling, and feeding by means of a probe (a tube insert in a mouth and a stomach of an animal) cause stress in animals. The reaction of animals to the skilled and unskilled worker is often various, which speaks about the importance of laboratory staff training inhumane treatment of animals. Moreover, the animals in a condition of stress show abnormal physiological parameters, and there can be changes in the behavior, influencing the scientific results more often negatively.
For real progress in medicine, experiments on animals are not necessary. The USA, the biggest consumer of laboratory animals in the world, is not considered the country with the healthiest nation (Porter, 1992). According to their life expectancy, Americans hold only the seventeenth place in a rating of all countries. Mankind annually sacrifices more than 100 million experimental animals for the sake of health and beauty. Is it possible morally to justify such a “sacrifice” at the present time?
Today, there are also some humane ways of carrying out medical and cosmetic experiments. Professors Farnsworth and Petsuto of the pharmacological faculty of the University of Illinois declared that there were enough methods elaborated for the toxicity determination of preparations (Clark, 1984). The matter concerned enzymes, bactericidal creatures, cells, and tissues of a person (received from the placenta after childbirth or biopsy), structures developed by a program, the organization of donor banks, and others. For example, in the Quebec University, there is the program created to simulate a frog (Nash, 1990). This animal reacted to experiments in the same way as a live one. Changes in consciousness and nonviolent medicine are alternatives to vivisection. Moreover, there are authentic methods available for testing medicines or products of national consumption. A large number of scientists consider such methods more convincing than experiments on animals.
Computer Simulation Models Instead of Killing Rabbits
Such ways as clinical and epidemiological supervision of people, work with corpses, and computer models are much more reliable, quicker, cheaper, and more humane than experiments on animals. The scientists developed from cells of a human brain the model called “micro brain” by means of which they can study brain tumors (Britt, 2004). The skin imitation and artificial marrow are created in the same way. Nowadays, it is possible to check the toxicity of various substances on an egg membrane, to make vaccines of cell cultures, to make tests for pregnancy using blood tests instead of killing rabbits. “If there is information on the human genes, there is no sense to come back to animal experiments” – Gordon Baxter, the co-founder of the “Pharmagin Laboratories” company writes (only human tissues and computer models are used in this company on development and testing of drugs) (Regan, 2003).
Any experiment has to be made in order to get useful results. If it does not occur, the experiment can be considered as accepted neither in the scientific nor in the moral sense. Until recently, the animals have been used as visual aids in studies, for example, on physiology. It is quite difficult to justify such “experiments”, especially with the existence of modern methods of teaching.
One can assume that the only way to rescue 10,000 people would be the experiment on a mentally retarded child from the orphanage. The experiment's purpose is to rescue people as it would be worth sacrificing the life of this child. However, the majority of people agree that it is inadmissible to kill one person for the rescue of many others as it strikes the rights of his/her specific personality. When the matter concerns an animal, it can be often heard an argument that people have rights and animals do not have any. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to recognize the right for the animals, according to which one or several animals cannot be sacrificed for the sake of the greater good.
One more problem, which is worth discussing, concerns the fact of whether all animals are equally valuable. Many people do not like the experiments on such “higher” animals as, for example, the chimpanzee because they possess quite a developed mind, communicative skills and show the emotional behavior similar to the behavior of people (Schweitzer, 2005). In the same way, people will feel ill at ease at the thought of experiments on cats, dogs, or rabbits. However, they are disturbed much less by the destiny of animals, which are not so clever and nice and which people usually do not keep as domestic pets.
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Perhaps, a chimpanzee can really suffer such anguish that does not happen with the lowest animals, for example, mice. Perhaps, during the experiments, these highest animals feel such types of emotional pain as fear or panic. There is no way to learn whether experimental worms and insects feel any sufferings as their nervous system is so primitive that the scientists doubt their ability to feel pain. So, it will be logical to draw a conclusion that for experiments it is always better to use the lowest and simple animals, for example, not mice, but flies or frogs. Besides, experimental animals should be provided consciously with such conditions that would reduce their painful feelings to a minimum.
Testing the Weapon on Animals
Nowadays, the number of animals, which are exposed to experiments, decreases. However, the Ministry of Defense tests different types of weapon on animals almost without publishing the data about how many animals and what animals are used. Though traditional types of animal experiments are gradually disappearing, new spheres of experimental studies appear. For example, more and more animals are now used for experiments on genetic engineering, and one cannot help appreciating their help in the development and progress of medicine. In some cases, human genes are implemented in an organism of an animal. Such transgene animals can have diseases, which are very similar to the diseases of a person. Studying an impact of illness on an organism of the transgene animals, the scientists find out the reasons for human diseases, and it gives them greater opportunities for the development of new types of treatment of some human illnesses (Flemming, 1996).
Pharmaceutical companies and research laboratories also use animals for the production of medicines. One of the first examples of it is the sheep milking, which contains human protein alpha-1-anti-trypsin (Singer, 1993). The doctors need this protein for the treatment of patients suffering from one of the forms of fatal liver disease.
The defenders of the rights of animals consider that many medicines made by pharmaceutical firms and tested on animals are not necessary to people. Modern drugs are really capable to cure many diseases, but some diseases do not have enough medicines, for example, medicines for mental disorders and many types of cancer tumors, or they do not exist at all. Before testing a new medicine on patients, according to the law, it has to be tested on animals.
Nowadays, more and more medicines directed on the achievement of quite a narrow and specific result are created. Sometimes, during the test of these preparations on animals, the unexpected side effects, forbidding the application of the preparation for people’s treatment, are found. The test of medicines on animals also helps doctors to define what dose is safe for a person. If to take into account the sufferings of people from those diseases for which there is no effective treatment yet, it becomes obvious why many scientists consider the test of preparations on animals as quite justified (Wall, 1992).
The scientists have also learned to clone animals, and Dolly the sheep became the best-known clone. Clones are the exact copies of an animal received by means of the method, which is a generic equivalent of photocopying. Transgene technologies together with cloning give the chance to scientists to bring into the world hundreds of identical animals capable to make human proteins for the treatment of sick people. These are good examples of the cases when the suffering of animals is justified.
Experiments on Animals Must Be Forbidden
Nevertheless, it does not change my point of view that all the experiments on animals must be forbidden. I think animal tests cannot be justified by the fact that they benefit people. A person possesses the supreme value and it does not give him/her the right to taunt animals. So, there is a high need in the laws imposing restrictions on these experiments. All the experiments on animals need to be forbidden.
I absolutely think that it is unethical to conduct tests on animals even if it helps save human lives. Experiments can be good for science and for people, but they should be limited and controlled. When a dog is sewed two heads, it is not an ethical scientific experiment, but a kind of sadism. Animals should be protected, and many experiments are necessary, but it does not oblige one to take a positive view of them. Really, drugs can be tried on people, for example, on prisoners for life, incurably or mentally sick people. It is also possible to make experiments on rats, but never on dogs!
The latter case is all the same as experimenting on a one-year-old child who understands everything but can do nothing with this sadism. Though the international norms of carrying out experiments on animals have already existed for many years (they define the rules of animal living and feeding, indispensable use of anesthesia, and others), many scientists consider that such tests in many respects proceed only as a bad tradition. Therefore, it is necessary to educate the ethical relation of people to animals. The vivisection should also be replaced by alternative methods, so it needs some financing from the government.
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The Ethics of Animal Testing: an Argument Against Its Practice
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Published: Mar 18, 2021
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