Linking Words – Full List, Examples & Worksheet
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Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.
Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost.
Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses.
Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English. I also list examples of linking words under every category, and I whipped up a helpful worksheet to test your skills.
What Are Linking Words?
Linking words, transition words, or connecting words in the English language help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing.
Linking words and phrases are connectors or transitional phrases. They are also part of formal language, so you’ll find them in academic writing, opinion writing, critical essays, dialectic essays , journalism, and business documents.
Some linking verbs link clauses within a sentence, such as although, in case, and whatever. That means you can find them in the middle of sentences from time to time. Others link two complete sentences, such as besides, as a result, and however.
List of Transition Words
Now that you know the meaning of transition words, let’s look at the usage of transition words in sentences and clauses. Don’t worry, I’ll break it all down for you!
Below, I’ve got a list of linking words and phrases to serve as alternative choices for connecting ideas in writing. Note that there are several types of transition words which we will discuss later.
Linking words may help the reader understand additional comments or ideas in a statement. They may also express agreement or similarities. These words are also called additive transition words, commonly found in expository essays and narrative essays.
- In the first place
- As a matter of fact
- In like manner
- In addition
- Not only, but also
- Coupled with
- In the same way
- In the same manner
- First, second, third
- Not to mention
- In the light of
- By the same token
- At the same time
- Together with
Here are some examples of additive linking words in a sentence.
- The group found that a constructivist approach leads to higher test scores. Moreover, essay examinations show higher levels of learning.
- The resort has tennis courts. Furthermore, it has an Olympic pool.
Some linking words come in pairs to join negative ideas.
- Not, neither
- Neither, nor
Here are sentence examples of linking words showing negative ideas.
- I haven’t seen Lory, neither have I talked to her friend.
- I neither drink nor smoke.
Whereas some linking words show an extra idea, these transition phrases and words express contrasting ideas in writing.
- Although this may be true
- In contrast
- (and) still
- Different from
- Of course…, but
- On the other hand
- On the contrary
- Be that as it may
- Even so/though
- In spite of
Here are some sentences with linking words of opposition.
- The short story can be analyzed using a functionalist lens. However, its historical theme is better understood with a critical perspective.
- As much as I want to go, I must take care of my sister.
Some linking words show relationships between ideas by accepting an idea with reservation instead of showing complete opposition. Here are some examples.
- All the same
- Regardless of this
- Up to a point
Here are some sentence examples.
- Many citizens opposed this unfair policy, which the president nevertheless enacted.
- I like him even if we have different views in life.
You may also use linking words in your writing piece to show conditions and purpose for a logical flow of ideas. Words like reason get the reader ready to understand why. These words are commonly found in hypothesis essays.
- In the event that
- Granted (that)
- Provided that
- On (the) condition (that)
- For the purpose of
- With this intention
- With this in mind
- In the hope that
- Inasmuch as
- To the end that
- For fear that
- In order to
- Seeing/being that
- The researchers used this method so that the results would be valid, reliable, and aligned with the objectives.
- I will not be attending the seminar due to a high fever.
You can also use transition words in your piece of writing that show examples or support of an idea.
- In other words
- To put it differently
- For one thing
- In particular
- As an illustration
- In this case
- For example
- For instance
- For this reason
- To put it another way
- To demonstrate
- That is to say
- With attention to
- By all means
- To emphasize
- To enumerate
- Important to realize
- Another key point
- On the negative side
- First thing to remember
- Must be remembered
- To point out
- Point often overlooked
- She visited several cities, namely Portland, Jacksonville, Charleston, and Hartford.
- Transition words improve writing flow. For instance, we use further to add extra ideas related to the previous statement.
You might also spot transitional devices for essays that show consequences, results, and effects.
- As a result
- In that case
- Under those circumstances
Consider the examples below.
- We watered the plant for seven days. In effect, it grew three inches taller.
- Because she didn’t study for the test, Anna failed and had to retake it.
These words and phrases show transitions between sentences to show conclusions. You’ll find these words in essay conclusions of different essay types.
- In simple language
- In explanation
- In lay terms
- In a nutshell
- As can be seen
- In simple terms
- Generally speaking
- All things considered
- As shown above
- In the final analysis
- In the long run
- In either case
- Given these points
- As has been noted
- In any event
- On the whole
- By and large
- For the most part
- In conclusion
- To summarize
Note that in lay terms and in explanation are formal alternative choices to “ in a nutshell.”
Here are some examples.
- Matter is a material that occupies space and has mass. In simple language, it is any physical substance.
- I don’t want to climb the corporate ladder. After all, money isn’t everything.
Linking words’ other role in writing is to show sequence or chronology. Under the time category, these phrases add a meaning of time. You can find these words in an essay introduction when the writer explains how the paper is structured.
- In due time
- From time to time
- At the present time
- Sooner or later
- Up to the present time
- To begin with
- In the meantime
- In a moment
- Without delay
- All of a sudden
- At this instant
- First, second
- By the time
- I watched the movie on television. Eventually, I fell asleep.
- First, fill the pan with water. Then, bring it to a boil.
The following transition words are famous adverbial expressions that limit or modify space. Some of these words and phrases are also transition words of time.
- In the middle of
- To the left/right
- In front of
- On this side
- In the distance
- In the foreground
- In the background
- In the center of
- Adjacent to
- Opposite to
Below are sentence examples using transition words of space.
- My house is located behind the building.
- To the left of the supermarket is a flower shop.
Common Mistakes With Transition Words
Transition words help you create a flow of arguments for readers to understand what you’re saying. But misused transition words and phrases will make your writing unclear. Avoid these mistakes to give your readers a better experience.
Starting a Sentence With So, And, and Also
Both so and and are coordinating conjunctions, which means they can start independent clauses that stand on their own. But it’s not recommended to use these words and also as sentence starters in formal writing. For example:
- Incorrect: Also, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.
- Correct: Furthermore, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.
Combination of Transition Words And/Or
When writing an essay, avoid English transition words and/or because it makes your paper look messy. Instead, consider whether you need both connectors or only one of them. If you need them both, try this alternative.
- Incorrect: boat and/or plane.
- Correct: boat, plane, or both.
Using As Well As as Alternative to And
As well as has a different meaning from the transition word and. And means you’re listing something of equal importance. Meanwhile, as well as is for additional, less essential information. Here’s an example.
- Incorrect: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis as well as provide recommendations for improvement.
- Correct: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis and provide recommendations for improvement.
Your writing may not make any sense to readers if you overuse archaic transition words like therewith .
For example, hereby means as a result. We can replace it with more modern and explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement is connected to the previous statement.
Linking Words Summary
A linking word is a term that connects different ideas in your text, whether they are contrasting, supporting, or adding. They can improve your writing and help it flow better, I promise!
Regardless of the style of writing, every piece of writing contains linking words to show perfect transitions. I hope my guide on the definition and list of transitions helps you use these words and phrases correctly. Memorize each category, and don’t overuse them in essays.
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- Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples
Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples
Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on March 15, 2023.
Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.
The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.
For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.
Table of contents
When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words.
Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.
Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.
Example text with and without transition words
The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.
If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.
Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.
Don’t overuse transition words
While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.
In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.
The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.
There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.
Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.
Additive transition words
Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.
Adversative transition words
Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.
Causal transition words
Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.
Sequential transition words
Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.
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Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.
Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.
Confused use of therefore
“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.
- We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.
The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”
- We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.
Starting a sentence with also , and , or so
While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.
- Also , a second round of testing was carried out.
To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.
- A second round of testing was also carried out.
- Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.
Transition words creating sentence fragments
Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.
The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.
- Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.
We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”
- Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
- Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.
And vs. as well as
Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.
- Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”
- Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
- Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.
Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”
- Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
- Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.
Use of and/or
The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.
First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.
- Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
- Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.
Archaic transition words
Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.
- Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.
These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.
- Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.
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Linking Words And Phrases In English (List With Examples)
In this study guide, you will learn how to use linking words in English. You will discover the meaning of common linking words and learn how to use them in a sentence. Examples are provided to show you the sentence position and use of common linking words in English. Check out the exercises at the end to test your understanding!
What are linking words?
- Meanings & uses
- List with examples
What you will learn:
Discourse markers (‘linkers’) are words or phrases that we use to make links between words in a sentence. These discourse markers are used in both spoken and written English.
Here we will focus on discourse markers in writing and formal spoken English – commonly known as ‘linking words’. Linkers are a way of making connections between ideas and sentences.
Formal and informal linkers
Informal linking words are used in spoken English. You can link your ideas with words and phrases like: I mean , honestly , after all , besides and in any case . It is useful to learn which linking words are most appropriate in formal and informal situations. In an email, you might choose linking words such as so , but , and because . These should already be familiar.
In an essay, you are more likely to choose formal linkers, such as therefore , however , consequently, on the contrary and moreover . There are some linking words that are so formal that you may choose not to use them at all in your writing. Examples include: thus , hence and nonetheless .
Linking words and sentence position
Many linking words are used at the beginning of a sentence, while others can be used in the middle or at the end. Words and phrases connected with sequencing and structure appear at the start of a sentence. Examples include: first , secondly , finally and in conclusion . Adverbs, which express the writer’s opinion, also occur at the start of a sentence, for example evidently and obviously .
Linking words can be used between clauses, in the middle of the sentence. Examples include: words that contrast ideas ( however , although), show consequence ( therefore, as a result), and phrases that add more information ( moreover, furthermore) . A few linking words can be placed at the end of the sentence. Look at the following example: Learning a second language is motivating. It can be very difficult, however .
The use of punctuation with some linking words and phrases is important. Some grammar books provide you with specific rules about punctuation and clauses in a sentence. The most important reason for using punctuation in a sentence is so the reader can understand your intended meaning.
Punctuation, particularly commas , should help the reader to identify clauses in your writing and lead to a clearer understanding of the text. Look at these two example sentences – which is easier to understand?
A: To conclude the cars of the future are likely to be more environmentally friendly however this change may take many years to implement and moreover will require the support of the general public.
B: To conclude, the cars of the future are likely to be more environmentally friendly, however, this change may take many years to implement and, moreover, will require the support of the general public.
Linking words are very important in written texts. Without them, your writing may be disconnected and difficult to read. In English examinations, students are often graded on their ability to write cohesive sentences. Therefore, learning how to use linking words correctly is an important skill in learning English as a second language. The examples below will help you to understand the meaning of linking words in written texts and to improve your own linking skills!
Linking words: meanings and uses
Conjunctions are a familiar group of linking words, which join two clauses in a sentence, such as but , because or however. In fact, linking words have many different functions in a sentence and range from single words to phrases of up to four words. The categories below show the most common types of linking words.
Sequencing First, secondly, subsequently, finally
Words like first , second and finally appear at the start of a sentence. They help the reader to navigate their way through the text. They are used in essays but also in instructions, for example recipes.
Adding information In addition, also, furthermore, what is more
These linking words are used to give additional information or to strengthen our argument.
Comparison Similarly, equally, likewise
We use these linking words to add further examples or to make connections between ideas.
Giving examples For example, for instance, e.g., such as
Use these linking words to give examples.
Consequence Consequently, therefore, as a result, hence
These linking words can be used to describe how one idea logically follows another.
Generalisation On the whole, generally, in general
These linking words are usually positioned at the start of a sentence. They are used before a general statement.
Summing up To sum up, in summary, to summarise, to conclude, in conclusion
These types of phrases are commonly used to start the final section of an essay. They are also used in formal spoken English, for example a speech or the TV news, to signal to the listener that the speech is coming to an end.
Contrasting However, on the other hand, conversely, in contrast, rather, while, whereas
These linking words are used to introduce an idea or argument that contrasts with what has been said before. In an essay, they are useful for introducing, for example, the disadvantages in an advantages and disadvantages essay. The use of rather in this context is very formal.
Stating fact In fact, as a matter of fact, actually
These types of linking words can be used to signal to the reader that the writer’s meaning is different to what the reader expects.
Concession Although, despite, in spite of, even though
These linking words are used to show that we acknowledge another person’s opinion, even if we may not agree with it.
A-Z List of common linking words with examples
The list below includes all the commonly used linking words in written English. Example sentences are also provided to help you understand them in context.
Additionally Additionally , students should complete at least 3 hours of homework per week.
As a result In recent years, few students have studied languages at school. As a result , the number of people taking language courses at degree level has decreased.
But It is important to adjust your mirrors, but do not do this while driving your car.
Consequently John did not study hard for his exams. Consequently , his grades was disappointing.
Conversely People who have no savings often have trouble when applying for bank loans. Conversely , those who already have savings find it much easier to get credit.
Equally Studying languages face-to-face has a positive impact on learning. Equally , online learning can allow students to progress quickly.
Firstly, secondly, etc. Firstly , we’d like to say a warm welcome to all our new undergrads. Secondly , we’d like to remind you that students should attend all lectures on time for the duration of the semester.
For example You should wear suitable clothing for this trip. For example , a waterproof coat and a warm hat.
For instance You can substitute some ingredients in this recipe. For instance , honey can be used instead of sugar.
Furthermore In my opinion, the government should provide adequate guidance on physical exercise. Furthermore , I believe it has a duty to advise the public on health and diet.
Generally (speaking) Generally , working from home is less stressful and more productive than working in a noisy office.
Hence Mark had inherited a lot of money from his grandmother; hence the large house.
However Sports facilities, such as gyms and swimming pools, help people to keep fit. However , people also need motivation to help them improve their health.
In addition As a community, we should do more to improve our wellbeing. In addition , the government should start a new advertising campaign to promote health and fitness nationwide.
In conclusion In conclusion , the advantages of tourism outweigh the disadvantages.
In contrast Working from home can save time and money. In contrast , commuting long distances to work every day can be time-consuming and expensive.
In fact We didn’t enjoy the film. In fact , it was pretty terrible!
In general In general , working from home is more convenient than travelling to the office.
In particular Young children are influenced by the people around them, in particular their parents.
In spite of this Tony was not offered a place at his chosen university. In spite of this , he achieved a first class degree and went on to have a successful career.
Likewise Squirrels feed on hard grains and nuts, using their sharp front cutting teeth to break up their food. Likewise , rats are able to gnaw through hard materials.
Moreover Children from less affluent households were reported to read less. Moreover , children who did not have books in the house were found to be much more likely to have a low reading age.
Nevertheless You should try to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day and reduce your fat intake. Nevertheless , any changes you can make to your diet will have a positive effect.
Nonetheless The disadvantages of living in a city include noise and pollution. Nonetheless , the majority of people still choose to live in urban areas.
On the contrary On the contrary , many students chose universities that showed a good standard of teaching rather than a high ranking.
On the other hand Tourism can have a positive effect on the wealth of a country. On the other hand , it can also have a negative impact on the environment.
On the whole On the whole , most students prefer informal tutorial groups to large group lectures.
Rather Rob wasn’t successful in the interview, rather he was given some advice on improving his application.
So I really love Spanish culture, so I’m looking forward to my trip to Madrid next month.
Such as Stringed instruments, such as the violin and the cello, are among the most difficult to learn.
Therefore Sue broke her leg. Therefore , she was unable to attend work for a month.
Thus The availability of high-sugar and high-fat foods has had an impact on people’s health; thus , the rate of obesity is increasing.
To conclude To conclude , a child’s home background has a dramatic effect on their educational achievement.
To summarise To summarise , consumer habits are changing: there has been a marked increase in the amount of clothing and technology sold online during the pandemic.
To sum up To sum up , learning a new skill, like a language, can be challenging, but it is also rewarding.
Similarly Similarly , increasing the price of fuel and raising parking charges may discourage people from driving into city centres.
Still Digital technology has made working from home easier. Still , many people prefer the social contact of going to their workplace.
What is more Too much screen time may affect children’s activity levels. What is more , extended time spent using electronic devices may have a negative impact on their eyesight.
Whereas Boys tend to develop physical skills, such as jumping, at a young age, whereas girls tend to develop fine motor skills.
While While men still make up the largest proportion of students on science courses, the number of women is steadily increasing.
Yet The penalties for breaking the law are high, yet some people continue to commit crimes.
Linking words: exercises
- Which of these groups of linking words show consequence? a. however, although, but b. therefore, so, as a result c. for example, such as d. to conclude, in summary, to sum up
- Which of these groups of linking words are used to contrast ideas? a. however, although, but b. therefore, so, as a result c. for example, such as d. to conclude, in summary, to sum up
- Which linking word does not belong in this group? a. on the whole b. in general c. as a result d. generally
- Which statement is correct? a. Linking words can be positioned at the start, middle or end of a sentence. b. Linking words can be positioned at the start or end of a sentence. c. There are no rules about where linking words can be positioned in a sentence. d. Linking words can be positioned at the middle or end of a sentence.
- Which word is spelled incorrectly ? a. nonethemless b. consequently c. similarly d. likewise
- Which word has a similar meaning to ‘sum up’? a. in conclusion b. in addition c. in contrast
- I eat lots of vegetables, _______________ carrots, broccoli and peppers. a. such as b. similarly c. therefore
- Jason’s income has decreased in recent months, ________ he needs to be careful with money. a. although b. therefore c. however
- The weather here reaches around -10ºC in winter, ________ the summer is quite warm. a. whereas b. so c. in addition
- _____________ measure the dry ingredients and put them in a bowl. a. in spite of this b. first c. hence
- You can use a paper dictionary to check vocabulary. _________, you can use an electronic dictionary. a. in any case b. subsequently c. equally d. for instance
- Eating healthy food can have an impact on your weight and your health. ____________, you should try to limit your consumption of fatty food. a. rather b. in particular c. despite this d. while
- There are many ways to read a book electronically. _________, many people still choose to buy paperback books. a. to sum up b. yet c. for example d. what is more
- Many people like the convenience of working solo from home. _____________, working with other people can be more motivating. a. for instance b. therefore c. nonetheless d. conversely
- Which word does not fit in this group of linking words? a . on the other hand b. nevertheless c. however d. finally
- Which word does not fit in this group of linking words? a. as a matter of fact b. in fact c. whereas d. actually
- Which linking words are used to add information? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
- Which linking words are used to make comparisons? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
- Which linking words are used for summing up? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
- Which linking words are used to contrast ideas? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
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75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)
Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic writing.
Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing
Linking words expressing additions in academic writing, linking words expressing cause and effect in academic writing, linking words expressing contrasts and comparisons in academic writing, linking words expressing emphasis in academic writing, linking words expressing illustrations in academic writing, linking words expressing summaries and conclusions in academic writing, linking words expressing conditionality in academic writing, linking words expressing generalisations in academic writing, linking words expressing concessions in academic writing.
1. First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)
Example: First, I review the existing literature on cross-border collaboration. Second, I explain the methodology …
Example: The thesis starts with a literature review. Next, I describe the case study design.
Example: Finally, recommendations for future research are presented.
Example: Study participants underwent several experiments and were subsequently examined.
Example: The event increased public awareness of this issue. Afterwards, politicians debated it more openly.
Example: Eventually, this led to the creation of a social movement.
Example: Before scientists discovered the role of neurons in information processing, they assumed that…
Example: Previously, scholars believed that nurture was the most important factor in a child’s development.
Example: Scholars examine the causes and effects of poverty.
Example: Furthermore, the data illustrates the number of chemicals that can be found in drinking water.
Example: Additionally, the interviewee lamented a lack of attention to his work.
12. As well as
Example: Scholars utilise qualitative as well as quantitative methods to study this phenomenon.
Example: Besides the public outreach component, we wrote a handbook to disseminate the research results in the academic community.
Example: The financial compensation was also appreciated by the study participants.
Example: Moreover, interviewees were asked to describe their own experiences.
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Example: This theory was ultimately rejected because it was built on a flawed dataset.
Example: The outcomes improved since different parties joined forces.
Example: As the number of studies increases, better conclusions can be drawn.
Example: Scientists realised that the data analysis had flaws. So they decided not to run the same data analysis again.
Example: Many researchers have conducted this experiment with similar results. Therefore, this theory can be debunked.
Example: The literature highlights the importance of age and physical fitness. Consequently, these factors will be investigated further.
Example: Due to a low response rate, the study’s validity is low.
Example: One academic study found the opposite results. Nevertheless, it can be argued that…
Example: Many scholars have explored this issue. Yet, to date, no inclusive framework exists to explain…
Example: Although a confidentiality agreement was provided, study participants were hesitant to disclose private information.
26. In spite of
Example: In spite of the different study contexts, all experiments pointed to similar results.
Example: People often stated that they are aware of the rules whereas they behaved as if they did not.
Example: While older studies often emphasise structural effects, newer ones tend to highlight the role of agency.
29. In contrast
Example: In contrast to previous findings, my analysis shows that…
Example: One study found that the majority of residents in disadvantaged areas do not have access to sufficient resources. Similarly, my research revealed that most residents live too far away from the services and resources they would need to climb the social ladder.
Example: E qually important, however, is the role of personal beliefs in decision-making processes.
Example: The interviewee considered this issue important and expected his colleagues to do likewise.
33. On the other hand
Example: On the one hand, research in this field advanced considerably in the last 20 years. On the other hand, a lot remains unclear.
Example: Unlike social scientists, physical scientists often conduct laboratory examinations.
Example: Particularly relevant for this study is the molecular orbital theory.
Example: Especially younger interviewees expressed dissatisfaction with the status quo.
37. Above all
Example: Above all, this method can generate better insights into the physical processes at hand.
Example: Indeed, motivation turned out to be a defining factor of academic success.
Example: Clearly, these scholars were not aware of recent advances in medical sciences.
Example: This was definitely the most important event of the year.
Example: More importantly, the findings underscore the importance of conflict resolution.
Example: Undoubtedly, all stakeholders had good intentions.
Example: Obviously it is too early to draw final conclusions.
43. Of course
Example: Of course, this study should be replicated in a different context.
Example: Surprisingly, all results were unambiguous.
45. Such as
Example: Scientists have explored different parts of the problem, such as CO2 emissions and hydrological processes.
46. For example
Example: Many interviewees were nervous. For example, when asked to describe the event, some of them started to stutter.
47. For instance
Example: Scholars have criticised this approach for different reasons. For instance, they argued that qualitative methods are insufficient to draw generalisable conclusions.
48. In this case
Example: Difficulties arise when no study participants can be found. In this case, alternative methods should be considered.
50. To conclude
Example: To conclude, the empirical analysis supports previous research findings.
51. In conclusion
Example: In conclusion, the reviewed literature highlights a clear research gap.
52. To sum up
Example: To sum up, a mixed methods approach is a better choice than a purely quantitative one.
53. In summary
Example: In summary, it is my opinion that conditions should be improved.
54. In short
Example: In short, scholars call for more research on climate change mitigation.
Example: Altogether, these examples support the main argument.
Example: Energy supply became a growing problem. Thus, new policies were implemented.
Example: The first dataset was incomplete. Hence, a new dataset had to be developed.
Example: Unless stated otherwise, I refer to the concept as…
59. As long as
Example: As long as the conditions do not change, the results should remain stable.
Example: If scientists study this phenomenon in the future, they should pay attention to structural drivers.
61. Provided that
Example: Provided that nothing changes, the effects on society will be negative.
Example: Should the distribution change, it is fair to expect…
63. Even if
Example: Even if more experiments are conducted, human behaviour remains hard to predict.
Example: Often, this issue was flagged by interviewees themselves.
Example: Commonly, this criterion is used for categorising plants.
Example: Overall the data confirmed the hypothesis.
Example: Typically emotions run high in such situations.
Example: Generally speaking, scholars address this issue from two angles.
Example: Mainly researchers in the global North discuss this phenomenon.
Example: Mostly, these results cannot be replicated outside of the lab.
71. Even if
Example: This is hard to prove. Even if the study sample is large enough.
72. Regardless of
Example: Regardless of their genetic makeup, mice showcased the same symptoms.
Example: Albeit experiencing setbacks, successful students do not get discouraged.
Example: Admittedly, the validity of this study should be increased.
Example: Nonetheless, this study can be seen as a valuable contribution to the international literature.
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- Academic writing
- Commonly confused words
- Critical thinking
- Linking/transition words
- Terms and definitions
- Action Words: What is description, application, analysis and evaluation
Linking/transition words: Things you need to know...
All assignments are written in formal language. You need to ensure that you demonstrate your knowledge and understanding alongside your ability to answer the question/solve the problem.
Below are some ideas to help you to develop your structure and flow.
- Linking / transition words and phrases join ideas, sentences and paragraphs together. They should be used within sentences and to move from one idea to another (between sentences).
These words and phrases indicate the direction, order and flow of ideas. Significantly, they strengthen the quality and structure of your work.
- Redundant Words - less is more. P articularly when trying to reduce the word count, it is important to look for phrases which can be replaced with a single word.
Transitions link one main idea to another separated by a semi-colon or full-stop. When the transition word is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:
Among other functions, they can signal cause and effect or sequencing (see examples in the table below).
Linking words: conjunctions
Linking words within a sentence are referred to as coordinating conjunctions. Do not worry about the term: think about the function.
Conciseness / redundant words
Microsoft Word now has an additional feature within the Edito r - it is called conciseness or wordiness.
- If you cannot see the Editor menu a quick tip is to hold down the function (fn key at the bottom left of the keyboard) + F7 (top line of keys).
- From the Refinements section - select Conciseness - if there are any suggestions a number will appear in the box alongside this option
- A dotted line will appear under any groups of groups
- Either select the identified text by clicking with your right mouse button OR click on the down down next to the Conciseness menu.
- MS Word will display any alternative words which you can either select and they will be replaced in your text or reject if you want to keep the original phrases.
Examples: try to replace phrases with a single words which mean the same.
Need to know more...
- Related pages
- External links
- Academic writing Illustrates the main features of academic writing so that you are aware of what it is and what it involves
- Critical Thinking Academic work involves thinking, not just accepting what you read or are told.
- Terms and Definitions Important words appear in your assignments and examinations. The aim of this factsheet is to help you to fully understand what they mean.
Additional resources to help you to improve your confidence and grades:-
- Writing Effectively demonstrates the importance of: clarity, structure, relevance, argument and precision.
- Writing Mechanics gives further examples and resources on areas including: sentence structure, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation and grammar.
Linking/Transition words - Scribbr https://www.scribbr.co.uk/syntax/transition-words-examples/ [Accessed 10 February 2023]
There are many books concerning academic writing, look around Dewey number 808
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Linking Words, Connecting Words: Full List and Useful Examples
Linking words (connecting words) are something we need to know in any style of writing, because it helps the reader to follow the flow of what you are saying. Whether it’s an argument in an essay , or an epic scene in a fantasy novel, your reader needs to be able to follow what you are saying. So, what are linking words, why should you bother learning them, and what does it look like in practice? Well, this guide will answer all of those questions!
Table of Contents
What are linking words.
Linking words are words that connect ideas together in a piece of writing . It shows that two things are related in some way, or that the point you are making has supporting information. The difference between linking words and simple paragraph starters that we looked at previously, is that linking words can be found at the start of paragraphs, but also in the middle of sentences to connect two ideas together too.
Why Should I Learn Linking Words/Connecting Words?
The answer to this one is fairly straightforward. If you don’t know a variety of linking words to connect ideas together in a piece of writing, then you’re writing won’t make sense. In the very best case here, your reader will become confused and fail to follow the message you are trying to get across in your writing, because the bits of text that should ordinarily fit together, just won’t without the linking words there to connect them.
So, you know what they are and why you need to know them – but what are some examples of linking words? We couldn’t possibly include them all because there are literally hundreds, but hopefully by highlighting some examples and showing their importance in a sentence, you’ll be able to understand the job they do more clearly and focus on learning some other ones for yourself.
Examples of Linking Words
Linking words to add more information.
These words simply add additional information to your sentence or paragraph to show that two ideas are similar. Here are some examples:
- It started to rain and I got soaked – ‘and’ is the linking word that connects the two ideas of the individual being in the rain and getting soaked.
- It can’t be the dog’s fault nor the cat’s – ‘nor’ connects the idea that neither the cat or dog was at fault.
- We could go shopping first then get a bite to eat – ‘then’ shows that both ideas are connected, it also adds some sequence to the sentence by showing the order of things.
Linking Words to Contrast a Point
Sometimes you need to link two ideas together that are actually opposites in terms of what you are trying to say. Here are some words that will help you do that:
- Annie could have gone for a run but she decided she was too tired – ‘but’ connects two ideas that are related, but they oppose one another. She could have gone for a run, but she didn’t.
- It’s my turn to make dinner tonight although a takeout might be easier – ‘although’ provides an opposite argument again, so it links the ideas in a contrasting way.
- Carrots seemed to be the bunnies preferred food. On the other hand , lettuce was chosen second most frequently and the difference was marginal – ‘on the other hand’ shows clearly to the reader that a different point of view is coming.
Linking Words to Support a Point
If you’re trying to prove something or say something happened as a result of something else, then you will need words like the following:
- I failed my test because I didn’t study – ‘because’ gets the reader ready to learn why somebody failed their test.
- I could have done something differently, in fact we all could have – ‘in fact’ shows that the two ideas are linked together and support one another.
- Jack had been sad since his girlfriend broke up with him – ‘since’ is being used here to explain why Jack was sad, so it links the ideas again.
There are many more examples and reasons for using linking words, but if you do some more research into the different linking words that there are, you’ll be able to see how you might use them to connect two ideas together in some way. Remember, they don’t always need to support one another. Sometimes ideas are connected because they oppose one another too.
Learn more with an ultimate guide to transition words and phrases in the English language.
Complete List of Linking Words & Connecting Words
Linking words – result.
Function: To provide the result of what has been stated or has occurred
- As a consequence (of)
- As a result
- For this reason
Connecting Words – Emphasis
Function: To put forward a point or idea more forcefully
- It should be noted
- Particularly / in particular
- To emphasize
- With attention
- Without a doubt
Linking Words – Addition
Function: To add to what has been previously stated
- Additionally/an additional
- Apart from this
- As well as that
- Coupled with
- In addition
- In addition to this
- In the same fashion
- Not only…but also
- Not to mention
- Together with
Linking Words – Reason
Function: To provide reasons for what has been stated or has occurred
- For the purpose of
- Granted that
- In order to
- Provided that
- Seeing that
- With this in mind
- With this intention
- With this purpose
Connecting Words – Illustration
Function: To provide examples
- As an example of
- For example/ For instance
- For one thing
- Illustrated by
- In another case
- In the case of
- In this case
- In this situation
- On this occasion
- Proof of this
- To demonstrate
- To demonstrate/ To clarify
- To simplify
Linking Words – Contrast
Function: To show how things are different
- As opposed to
- Contrary to
- Despite/in spite of
- Differing from
- In contrast (to)
- In opposition
- On the other hand
Linking Words – Comparison
Function: To show how things are similar
- By the same token
- Compare / compare(d) to (with)
- In a similar manner
- In like manner
- In the same way
- In the spitting image of
- Just as…so too
- Most important
- Still another
Connecting Words – Order
1. Function: To indicate the order of what is being said
- First/ firstly
- Second/ secondly
- Third/ thirdly
- At this time
2. Function: To mark the end of an ascending order
- Lastly and most importantly
- Last but not least
3. Definition: To mark the beginning of a descending order
- First and foremost…
Connecting Words – Summary
Function: To sum up what has been previously stated
- All things considered
- As demonstrated above
- As shown above
- As you can see
- By and large
- Generally speaking
- Given these points
- In any event
- In conclusion
- In the final analysis
- On the whole
- To conclude
- To summarise
Linking Words – Condition
Function: To provide a condition to what has been stated
- Although this may be true
- In that case
- In the event that
- On the condition that
Connecting Words – Concession
Function: Connecting words and phrases to accept a point or idea with reservation
- All the same
- Although/Even though
- Be that as it may
- Even though
- In spite of
- Regardless of this
- Up to a point
Connecting Words – Generalisation
Function: To make a general statement
- Broadly speaking
- For the most part
- In general/ Generally
- In most cases
- More often than not
Connecting Words – Restatement
Function: To express an alternative to what has been previously stated
- Alternatively stated
- Expressed simply
- In a nutshell
- In other words
- In simple language
- In simple terms
- In summation
- Otherwise stated
- Put differently
- Put in another way
- Said differently
- That is to say
- To put it differently
Connecting Words – Reference
Function: To a relationship between continuing ideas presented in your essay.
- As applied to
- In connection to
- Pertaining to
- Some examples of these might be:
- Speaking about/of
- The fact that
- With regards to
- With respect to
Connecting Words – Clarification
Function: To indicate that you will be exploring your ideas in more detail.
- In explanation
- In lay terms
- Simply stated
- To break it down
- To clearly define
- To make plain
- To put it clearly
- To put it in another way
Connecting Words – Space/ Location
Function: To clarify spatial relationships/ provide spatial order and reference.
- At the rear
- To the left
Linking Words & Connecting Words Chart
Linking Words and Phrases | Video
Learn transition words video with American English pronunciation.
Last Updated on April 2, 2021
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IELTS Writing Task 1 and Task 2 – Linking Words (with PDF)
Just how important are linkers for IELTS? When it comes to Writing Task 1 and Writing Task 2, connecting words for IELTS are incredibly important. Overall, they’ll have a significant impact on your band descriptor—in other words, on your IELTS scores. So how do you use IELTS writing linking words well? I’ll show you how in this IELTS linking words PDF!
IELTS Linking Words PDF
Once you’ve downloaded the IELTS linking words PDF , come back to this post to read on. In this post, we’ll look at linkers for IELTS and how you can use connecting words for IELTS tasks to boost your score.
Table of Contents
How to use linking words for ielts writing task 1, how to use linking words for ielts writing task 2, connecting words for both ielts tasks.
- Practice with Linking Words for Writing Task 1
Practice with Linking Words for Writing Task 2
Using the ielts linking words pdf, the function of linking words in ielts writing.
The IELTS Writing exam is marked on four criteria : grammar and sentence structure; vocabulary usage; answering the task response; and coherence and cohesion. Each makes up 25% of the overall score. Often, when I read an essay by an ESL student, I’m impressed by their range of vocabulary and their expert grammar use, but disappointed about how incoherently one sentence flows to the next.
In other words? They need more connecting words for IELTS’s higher band descriptors!
To develop coherence and cohesion, we need to use a variety of phrases to link one idea to the next, so that the reader can follow your thinking. How you’ll do this should vary according to the task type that you’re approaching. Take a look at IELTS band descriptors 1 and 2 , then see how to use linkers for IELTS below!
On IELTS Task 1 , you’ll write a report based on two visuals (think: charts and graphs ). You’ll need connecting words for IELTS Task 1 to:
- Transition from a description of one visual to a description of the other
- Compare and contrast key features of the visuals
- Point out and highlight data or details of the visuals
For IELTS Task 2 , you’ll write an extended response to a prompt. In this case, you’ll need linkers for IELTS Task 2 to:
- Present your opinion
- Move between paragraphs
- Provide reasons
- Give examples
- Explain conditions and consequences of different scenarios
Even though the two IELTS Writing tasks are very different, you’ll still need to structure your responses with an introduction in either case. And a conclusion could potentially be used in both tasks as well, although conclusions are optional in IELTS Academic Writing Task 1. (See our article on Writing Task 1 Academic paragraph structure for details.) Because of this, IELTS Writing linking words that will help you on both tasks are those that:
- Connect your introduction to your summary of the visuals
- Move from your main discussion to your conclusion.
Categories of Linkers for IELTS Writing
With all of that in mind, let’s take a look at several series of linking words to help you on test day! You can also download these in the IELTS linking words PDF to return to for reinforcement.
While most of these words can be used in either task, I’ve put asterisks (*) by different words that are particularly good for Task 1 or Task 2. Here’s the key:
* Especially good linking words for IELTS Writing Task 1 (Academic) ** Especially good IELTS Writing Task 2 linking words (Note, however, that any of these phrase categories can be pretty useful in either essay!)
- I think/feel/believe that…
- Personally, I feel that…
- As far as I am concerned…
- From my point of view…
- I admit that….
- I concur that…
- I agree that….
- In addition,…
- On top of that,…
- In particular,…
- Without a doubt,…
- In contrast,…
- By contrast…
- In comparison,…
- On the other hand,…
- On the condition that…
- Provided that…
- As long as…
- Supposing that…
- Even though…
- In spite of…
- For instance,…
- For example,…
- A very good example is…
- The best example is…
- To illustrate,…
- First of all,…
- To start with…
- As a result,…
- As a consequence,…
- On that account,…
- For that reason,…
- In conclusion,…
- To conclude,…
- In the end,…
- To summarize,…
- To sum up,…
Ready to put your knowledge from the IELTS linking words PDF to the test? Here are some exercises you can use to practice using linkers for IELTS!
Practice with IELTS Linking Words for Writing Task 1
You can find the prompt for this question here !
These graphics highlight several key trends. (1) ________, in general terms, slightly more than half the population owned computers in 2002. (2) ________, that number rose to roughly 75% over the next eight years. (3)________, these numbers varied by group. (4)________, postgraduates were always ahead of the general population: roughly three-quarters of postgraduates owned computers in 2002, that figure rose to nearly 95% by 2010. (5)________, those who had not finished high school began with only a 15% computer ownership rate, which increased to about 45% after eight years.
(1) Firstly/First of all/To start with
(3) On the other hand/However/But/Nevertheless
(4) Any example linking word would work here except “such as,” because this is the beginning of a sentence.
(1)________, young people need freedom to make choices, especially when it comes to their careers. Deep down, some parents may want their children to choose prestigious careers, or jobs that will impact society in some way. These wishes are normal and not necessarily harmful. (2)________, it can be problematic if these desires turn into firm expectations. (3)________, offering a child freedom does not imply that parents should be absent. Parents should strive to foster open communication about career decisions. (4)_______, if Tim’s aspirations do not line up with his parents’ wishes, he may, (5) _______ fear that approaching them could lead to judgement and confrontation.
(1) Any opinion linking word or phrase would work here except for “I concur that” or “I agree that,” because this is the first idea introduced in the essay.
(3) However,/But/On the other hand,/Nevertheless,
The best way to improve your use of IELTS Writing linking words is to practice repeatedly, checking your work thoroughly each time. With the IELTS Linking Words PDF, we’ve made this easy for you!
In the IELTS linking words PDF, you’ll find the key information from this post. This includes the lists of linking words, which task(s) each word is best for, and practice using linking words using the exercises below!
Incorporating IELTS Writing linking words into your practice by using the PDF regularly will help you achieve greater fluency for test day–and help you boost your band score. Make it a regular part of your practice! And be sure to read up on the whole IELTS Writing section, so you can study for the test effectively. Magoosh has a complete guide to IELTS Writing that can help.
Most Popular Resources
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- Complete Guide to IELTS Vocab
Eliot Friesen-Meyers is the Senior Curriculum Manager for Magoosh IELTS and TOEFL. He attended Goshen College (B.A.), New York University (M.A.), and Harvard University (M.T.S.), gaining experience and skills in curriculum development, ESOL instruction, online teaching and learning, and IELTS and TOEFL test prep education. Eliot's teaching career started with Literacy Americorps in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and later, taught ESL programs at Northeastern University, University of California-Irvine, and Harold Washington College. Eliot was also a speaker at the 2019 TESOL International Conference . With over 10 years of experience, he understands the challenges students face and loves helping them overcome those challenges. Come join Eliot on Youtube , Facebook , and Instagram . Recent blog posts Complete Guide to IELTS Writing Task 1 Complete Guide to IELTS Writing Task 2
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The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay
Let’s face it: You can’t write an essay (or any other writing piece) without linking words.
Also known as connecting words or transition words, they serve to make your writing flow and help those reading your work follow the flow of your thoughts, ideas , and arguments .
This post is your guide to linking words and their role in writing. Not only will you learn the types of these words, examples, and reasons to use them, but you’ll also get a massive list of transition words and phrases as well as linking words PDF to download and use whenever necessary.
Table of Contents:
What are Linking Words?
Why use transition words in essays, linking words examples, addition/agreement/similarity, contrast/contradiction/limitation/opposition, comparison/concession/condition, clarification, cause/effect/result, emphasis/example, generalization, illustration, location/place/space, reason/reference, time/sequence, summary/conclusion/restatement.
- The Ultimate List of Linking Words: Download
Linking words are lexical items (words and phrases) we use to connect ideas in writing and get a reader to the next sentence or paragraph.
They aren’t about essay writing only:
Whether you write a fiction book, marketing content , academic works, autobiography , or poems, you’ll need to connect ideas. That’s what transition words do:
They link your thoughts and arguments into a chain to show how they relate to each other. Also known as transition words, these phrases often start a sentence or a paragraph. However, you’ll also use them in the middle of sentences to bring ideas together.
The most common places for linking words in essays are:
- the start of a paragraph
- the start of a sentence introducing a new idea or extending an argument
- the beginning of a concluding statement
Essay linking words is an integral part of academic writing. Put it simply, you can’t write a paper without using them; otherwise, your writing won’t make any sense for readers.
Transition words for essay serve to:
- connect ideas in writing
- create a flow of thoughts and arguments for readers to understand what you want to say
- guide readers from one idea to another, demonstrating how they relate to each other
- hook readers and encourage them to read the next sentence or paragraph
- add more information
- support or contrast a point
- show the result, conclude, demonstrate an effect of this or that point
Using essay maker and connecting words, each sentence and paragraph must pass readers on to the next one. These connecting words serve as an instrument to guide readers from one thought or point to the next.
Linking words examples are many, and it’s clear why: every piece of writing contains tons of connecting and transition words. Let’s take an essay sample from Bid4Papers writers to see the example of linking words in academic writing:
This one was an essay introduction .
Now, why not take a step further and look for essay linking words in essay conclusions ?
Types and List of Linking Words to Use in Essays
Below you’ll find the ultimate list of transition words for essays by categories. Choose the role you need a word to play (reason, contrast, emphasis, restatement, etc.) and consider the corresponding table of transitions.
If you need the whole transition words list in one place, jump to the next category of this post to find the downloadable linking words pdf.
And now, for connecting words categories:
These words serve to add info to what you’ve previously stated, demonstrate the commonality between arguments, and support your thoughts.
Linking words for contrast is your instrument to show how things are different and provide counterarguments. They work best in persuasive and critical essays.
These lexical items will help you if you need to provide conditions to your statements, show how things are different/similar, or accept a point with reservation.
These words will help you with personal or narrative essays: They are linking words in opinion writing that indicates you’re going to explore ideas in more detail.
Expository essays will win with these words too.
Cause and effect connecting words do what their name says exactly: demonstrating a cause of some point and providing the result of what has been done or started.
These words are for putting forward your point more forcefully, providing examples.
Perfect transition words for hypothesis essays , generalization lexical items serve to make a general statement you’ll then specify and prove in detail.
These words and phrases are for you to provide examples in essays.
Use these words to provide order and reference or clarify spatial relationships between your points or ideas.
These transitional words will help you demonstrate relationships between ideas and provide reasons for what and why has started or occurred.
Use these words in your essay when you need to indicate the time and order of what you say.
Restatement words will help you express an alternative to what you previously stated. They work for all essay types, including rhetorical precis and dialectic essays .
Use summary and conclusion transitional phrases to sum up your points and come up with the final paragraph of your writing.
The Ultimate List of Connecting Words: Download
And now, for the most interesting and practical part:
Below you can find the linking words worksheet that gathers all the most commonly used transitional words in essays. Feel free to download this linking words PDF and refer to it every time you write an essay and experience writer’s block:
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Linking Verbs: Complete List and How to Identify Them
Main Linking Verbs Takeaways:
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- Here’s a Comprehensive Linking Verbs .pdf
- Unlike most verbs, a linking verb is not an action word .
- Instead, they connect the subject of a sentence with the rest of the sentence. They join a subject with its predicate noun or adjective .
- There are 12 main and 23 total linking verbs in the English language.
- These are always linking verbs : to seem , to become , and any form of the verb to be .
What is a Linking Verb in English Grammar?
According to traditional English grammar guides, a linking verb describes the subject by connecting it with the rest of a sentence. What’s more, they can be a single word or a group of words. Unlike other verbs, this type of verb does not convey action. Instead, they describe or identify a subject. Think of them as the glue that holds a sentence together.
There are several verbs that are always linking. These are:
- any form of the verb to be
Here are some examples of linking verbs used in sentences:
What is the Difference Between a Linking Verb and an Action Verb?
Typically, verbs are action words. However, linking verbs don’t express action. Instead of acting, they describe and connect. Specifically, this type of verb describes a state of being. Moreover, it connects the subject of a sentence with the subject complements . Subject complements are predicate nouns or predicate adjectives . “To be,” “to become,” and “to seem” are always linking verbs . Words that can function as a linking or an action verb include smell, appear, look, and sound .
How Many Linking Verbs are There?
There are 23 total linking verbs in the English language. This total is made up of about eight verbs that are always linking. Examples include become , seem , and any form of the verb to be like am , is , are , was , were , and has been . Additionally, this total includes about 15 more verbs that can also be action or helping verbs.
What are the 23 Linking Verbs?
The 23 linking verbs are:
What is the Most Common Linking Verb?
There are 12 popular linking verbs (is, seems, be, am, becomes, been, are, feels, being, was, appears, were).
But, you can transform some of them into other forms, such as helping verbs .
What Is the Difference Between a Linking Verb and a Helping Verb?
To start with, both linking verbs and helping verbs are not action verbs . However, there’s a big difference between their functions in a sentence. Linking verbs express a state of being or a condition. They connect the subject to the rest of the sentence. On the other hand, helping verbs or auxiliary verbs help the main action verb in a sentence. Consider the following examples:
Linking verbs used in sentences
Helping verbs used in sentence
Here is a list of common helping verbs. Bold verbs are also linking:
To further complicate things, sometimes “is” can be linking, action verb, or a helping verb depending on the sentence’s context.
In these sentences, “is” describes a state of being. The action referenced here is “to be.”
Download: Here’s a Comprehensive .pdf of Linking Verbs
How Do You Identify a Linking Verb?
Here’s are three quick tricks for identifying a linking verb . First, replace your verb with is or are . If the sentence still makes sense, then your verb is most likely a linking verb. This is because is and are can act as linking verb s, but they are also effective substitutes for others. Similarly, another trick is to replace the verb with an equals sign (=). If the sentence still make sense, the verb is almost certainly a linking verb . The final trick is to decide whether the verb describes a state of being or an action. If the verb describes the subject’s state of being, it’s probably a linking verb . However, if the verb describes an action, it’s probably not.
1. Replace the Verb With Is or Are
In the examples above, you can replace each verb in question with “is” or “are.” The sentences still make sense. Therefore, it’s confirmed that the each verb we replaced is linking.
However, in this example, the meaning of the sentence changes when we substitute the verb in question:
The verb dries is an action verb because it describes an action the subject takes and not a state of being.
2. Replace the Verb With =
One of my favorite short-hand tactics for taking notes in History class. Replacing the verb in question with an equal sign can also help you determine what kind of verb a word is.
How does Shayla feel? She’s annoyed, and we understand that after reading each example.
3. You Decide: State of Being or Action?
The example above describes the subject, Daria. What’s more, the word smells connects Daria to the rest of the sentence. The linking category of verbs describes the subject and connects it to the rest of the sentence. Therefore, smells is linking here.
However, this example describes an action that the subject of the sentence took. In other words, this example describes something that Daria did.
What did Daria do? She smelled (the cake. We know you’re fresh as a daisy, Daria).
Therefore, smells is an action verb here.
Linking, Helping, Action, or All of the Above? Set a new High Quiz Score
Linking verbs question #1.
The answer is TRUE. Linking verbs connect the subject of a sentence with its predicate.
Linking Verb Question #2
The answer is B. Seems connects the subject, John, with the rest of the sentence.
Verb "is" and "are" Question #3
The answer is TRUE. You can identify a linking verb in a sentence by replacing it with “is” or “are.”
Linking Verb Question #4
The answer is D. Work is an action verb.
Linking Verb Question #5
The answer is A. Unlike linking verbs, helping verbs help the main verb in a sentence by extending its meaning.
Helping Verb Question #6
The answer is B. Seems is a linking verb that connects the subject of a sentence with its predicate.
Read More: First, Second, and Third Person: Points of View in Writing
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Pam is an expert grammarian with years of experience teaching English, Writing and ESL Grammar courses at the university level. She is enamored with all things language and fascinated with how we use words to shape our world.
This was genuinely so helpful!! Thank you so much!
Thank you! We will be adding a downloadable .PDF with a full list of linking and helping verbs plus many more examples. We will let you know once it is available. Stay tuned! Thank you again for your warm comment and for reading.
Can you give an example of using do/does/did in Sentence as a linking verb?
Hi Merlin, thanks for your question. Technically, do/does/did are helping verbs. We made a downloadable .pdf with tons of examples of linking and helping verbs here: https://blog.inkforall.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Linking-Verbs-List.pdf
You can find do/does/did examples on page 3 under the Helping Verbs section in blue. Let us know what you think! Don’t be afraid to comment again for more examples. Thanks again for reading.
Thanks so much! I found clarity here. I am teaching this to my 3rd grade students. 🙂
Let me add this, the infographics are cute! 🙂 Keep up the good work.
WOW, Jade! Thank you for such warm words. We’re glad we could help. This is a tough subject at any age! The PDF in the article is also a great study guide for your students. The quizzes are also helpful practice. Thanks again for your comments!
I’m in fourth grade and we are learning about this thanks to you I know a lot about this topic
Amazing! Can I ask how do you make these beautiful infographics?
Wow, Viktor! Thank you for your kind words. Our graphic artist are really something aren’t they! I’ll pass along the compliment. Please do share our images and infographics to show the artists how much you enjoy their work, and help others understand these concepts as well. Thanks again!
cool i want to do this all day and im in 3rd grad
Hi, Karman! Excellent job! Study up. Glad our guide could help. How did you do on the quiz at the end of the article? Thanks again for your comment.
very well put together. Thank you for providing so much clarity on this topic.
You’re welcome, Reena! Thank you for the kind words and we’re glad that this article has helped clear any confusion you might have with linking verbs. Take care!
Its soo beneficial 👌🏻👌🏻👌🏻👌🏻👌🏻
We’re glad that you found this post helpful. It also comes with a downloadable .pdf containing tons of linking and helping verb examples. You may download it here . Again, thank you for stopping by! 🙂
its really informative
Hello Saba! Thank you for the positive feedback. Were you able to download our free PDF material containing a bunch of linking verb examples? If not, here’s a quick link for you. Again, we appreciate your time, so don’t hesitate to let us know if there’s anything else that we can do to improve our article. Have a great day!
yes this article was really appreciable! I want full English grammar notes please
Pam, Great information. I want to know the color verbs in the websites when I checked to analyze verbs. What does it mean?
Hi Ju Ya, The colors don’t have meaning. We’re updating our tools pages to remove the colors. Thank you for pointing this out to us!
so helpful, wow. much good
You have a list of sentences that are supposed to have linking verbs under “What is a Linking Verb in English Grammar?”. One of them says: The twins were outside when the storm hit. I think this is a state of being verb. Please explain if I am wrong, I do not see how this is linking.
In this sentence, Kim, were is a linking verb that links the subject, twins, with where they were – outside. Hope this helps. Thanks for reading our blog!
Also, under “What is the Difference Between a Linking Verb and a Helping Verb”, you say the sentences are “state of being” verbs. Aren’t these linking verbs that are linking a predicate nominative to the subject ?
That section is giving an explanation of what a linking verb is and below it are example sentences using linking verbs and helping verbs.
Hope this clears things up.
Thanks for stopping by!
Dear Pam, How come Helping verbs are the same as Linking verbs? If I am not getting wrong, helping verbs function as auxiliary verbs and only some of them are linking verbs too. Consequently I do not understand the answer A for question 5.
Helping verbs are not the same as linking verbs. Question #5 asks which of the following is False? So, the answer is saying they are not the same.
Hope this helps clears things up.
Thanks for reading our blog and stopping by!
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All English transitional words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs') do the same work as coordinating conjunctions: they connect two words, phrases, or clauses together and, thus, the text is easier to read and the coherence is improved.
Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost. Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses. Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English.
Division of Student Success To make your work more readable and meaningful, ideas and paragraphs must be linked. Linking words are essential in developing coherent, logical arguments and discussion in your assignments. They show the relationships between the ideas and are the glue that holds your assignment together.
Sentence starters, linking words, transitional phrases To access a large on-line academic writing phrase bank go HERE To download a large PDF academic writing phrase bank go HERE
Check the table on page 3 for more examples of linking words and phrases, as well as the Critical Essay Planner in our Writing Libguide. 2. Grammar check One rule you need to be careful of is that linking words relate two pieces of information. You cannot write a sentence including a linking word like 'but'
Types and examples of transition words There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions. Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable.
another key point especially for example first thing to remember specifically for instance most compelling evidence expressively to point out must be remembered surprisingly with this in mind point often overlooked frequently ... Linking words, Connectin Words, Conjunctions, Transitions Created Date:
Which linking words are used to add information? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more Which linking words are used to make comparisons? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary
linking words and phrases are often called connectives. Connectives act like a road map for the reader to indicate the flow and order of your writing and ideas. The use of linking words and phrases makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas between parts of a sentence, from one sentence to another, and from one paragraph to another.
For this reason, linking words and phrases are often called . connectives. Connectives act like a road map for the reader to indicate the flow and order of your writing. These play an important role in showing the logical connections between your ideas, the literature, and the statements you are making. This is particularly important in ...
This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic writing. Contents Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing Linking words expressing additions in academic writing Linking words expressing cause and effect in academic writing
Examples: try to replace phrases with a single words which mean the same. Factsheets Need to know more... Illustrates the main features of academic writing so that you are aware of what it is and what it involves Academic work involves thinking, not just accepting what you read or are told.
Some linking words should only be used within a sentence. ... For example: because of despite during in spite of By Viv Quarry 2. Grammar of linking words ItIt's's t timimee t too t taallkk - -0 044 6 677 9 922 5 500 7 744. 3. Uses of linking words & expressions ItIt's's t timimee t too t taallkk - -0 044 6 677 9 922 5 500 7 744 ...
What Are Linking Words? Why Should I Learn Linking Words/Connecting Words? Examples of Linking Words Linking Words to Add more Information Linking Words to Contrast a Point Linking Words to Support a Point Complete List of Linking Words & Connecting Words Linking Words - Result Connecting Words - Emphasis Linking Words - Addition
How to Use Linking Words for IELTS Writing Task 2. For IELTS Task 2, you'll write an extended response to a prompt. In this case, you'll need linkers for IELTS Task 2 to: Present your opinion. Move between paragraphs. Provide reasons. Give examples. Explain conditions and consequences of different scenarios.
Connectives and Linking Phrases (B2) CON004 - Connectives and Linking Words. CON003 - Connectives and Linking Phrases. CON002 - Connectives and Linking Phrases. CON001 - Connectives.
Types and List of Linking Words to Use in Essays: Addition/Agreement/Similarity Contrast/Contradiction/Limitation/Opposition Comparison/Concession/Condition Clarification Cause/Effect/Result Emphasis/Example Generalization Illustration Location/Place/Space Reason/Reference Time/Sequence Summary/Conclusion/Restatement
Connectives worksheet. Coordinating conjunctions - exercises. But / and / so / because / or. Because / so - pdf exercises. Conjunctions test - worksheet. Conjunctions - handout. Conjunctions - handouts. Coordinating conjunctions. Connectives and linking words.
Here's a Comprehensive Linking Verbs .pdf; Unlike most verbs, a linking verb is not an action word. Instead, they connect the subject of a sentence with the rest of the sentence. They join a subject with its predicate noun or adjective. There are 12 main and 23 total linking verbs in the English language. These are always linking verbs: to ...
TRANSITIONAL DEVICES: WORDS & PHRASES This handout was adapted from Dr. Heiko Possel's 2013 "Linking Words - A complete List - Sorted by categories". Dr. Possel's full list of linking words is available at smart-words.org. TO INDICATE CAUSE, CONDITION, OR PURPOSE as / so long as in order to only / even if to the end that
• Revise useful vocabulary for writing an opinion essay. • Learn useful techniques for planning your own essay. • Evaluate two examples of a Writing Part 1 essay. • Practise and evaluate your own answer to a Writing Part 1 task. Review: Writing Part 1 . The B2 First for Schools Writing paper has two parts. Part 1 has only one task ...